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edited  by 
F.  J.  Furnivall 

Extra  Series',  10 


Millwood,  New  York 

First  reprint  by  Kraus  Reprint  in  1975 
Second  reprint  1981 

Unaltered  Reprint  produced  with  the  permission  of  the 
Early  English  Text  Society 

A    Division  of  Kraus-Thomson  Organization  Limited 

Printed  in  The  Netherlands 



NEW  YORK  :    C.  SCRIBNER  &  CO. ;    LEYPOLDT  &  HOLT. 


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OP   GiJ£^r  FOSTERS,    NEAR   EGHAM,  '  '  '       * 


My  dear  Colonel, 

You  are  our  most  widely-travelled  friend 

here.     Your  steps  have  wandered  far  beyond  Boorde's  range.     Asia, 

North  and  South,  Africa,  North  and  South  too,  the  Indies,  and 

America,  have  seen  you ;  the  Crimea  has  been  stained  by  your  blood ; 

and  there  are  few  Courts  and  cities  in  Europe  where  you  have  not 

been.     I  may  therefore  well  dedicate  to  you  Boorde's  records  of  his 

travels,  more  than  300  years  ago,  in  his  Introduction  of  Knowledge. 

On  the  Elizabethan  porch  of  your  fine  old  Tudor  house  is  the  date 
of  1578,  while  Anne  Boleyn's  badge  is  the  centre  ornament  of  your 
dining-room  ceiling,  and  Tudor  badges  are  about  it.  I  may  therefore 
well  dedicate  to  you  Boorde's  Dijetary  of  1542,  which  starts  with 
directions  that  may  have  been  studied  by  the  builder  of  youx  own 
house,  or  the  early  dwellers  in  it.  As  it  was  once  my  Father's  too, 
and  has  been  the  scene  of  many  a  happy  visit  at  different  times  of  my 
life,  I  like  to  mix  the  thought  of  the  old  house  with  my  old  autho: . 
Andrew  Boorde,  and  to  fancy  that  he'd  have  enjoyed  ordering  where 
the  moat  was  to  be,  the  stables,  and  all  the  belongings,  and  lecturing 
the  owner  as  to  how  to  manage  house  and  servants,  wife  and  child, 
pocket  and  body. 

That  health  and  happiness  may  long  be  the  lot  of  you  and  the 
charming  sharer  of  your  name,  whose  taste  has  beautified  the  old 
house  that  you  have  together  so  admirably  restored,  is  the  hope  of 

Yours  very  sincerely, 


Walnut  Tree  Cottage,  Egham, 
August  3,  1870. 



Part  I.  Andrew  Boorde's  Works  and  the  Editions  of  them  1 1 

A.  Genuine  Works     ...         ...         ...  ...         ...  11 

K  Doubtful  Works 26 

0.  Works  probably  spurious  .. .  ...         ...         ...  27 

Part  11.  Andrew  Boorde's  Life  and  Opinions,  with  Extracts 

irom.  his  Breuycu-y  of  Health  {p.  7 i-\0(j)       ...         ...     36 

The  present  Edition    ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  106 


A  Handbook  of  JEiirope,  Barbary,  Egyjdy  and  Judoia,  in 

39  chapters,  with  *  Contents,*  p.  1 1 2-1 1 5)  Ill 


(The  Table  of  the  Chapytres,  p.  229-231.) 


Collyn  Clowte,  dedycatyd  to  Barnarde  Barber,  dwellyng  in 
Banbery;  A  Treatise  othencise  called,  barnes  in  the  de- 
fence OF  the  berde         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  30.5 

HiNDWORDS   (including  accounts  of  Boorde's  Introduction  and 

Dyetary ;  to  be  read  after  p.  104  of  the  Forewords)         ...   317 

NOTES        325 

index       352 

fuller's  account  of  .\ndrew  boorde  ...         ...         ...  384 

bUlTLEMCNT  385 


p.  18,  note  7,  after  day^  insert  [of  August] 

p.  44,  1.  4.  The  *  old  writer '  referred  to  was  Roy,  in  his  Rede  me  and  he 
not  mrotli,  p.  104-5  of  Pickering's  Reprint.  The  passage  is  quoted  in  my 
"  Ballads  from  MSS,"  illustrating  the  Condition  of  Tudor-England,  p.  82. 

p.  57,  note  3.  *  my  lord  of  Chester '  means  '  the  Abbot  of  St.  Werburgh's.' 
E.  A.  Freeman  in  the  Saturday  Review,  10  Feb.  1872,  p.  189,  col.  1 . 

p.  116-17.  On  English  changes  of  fashion,  see  the  Society's  Four  Suppli- 
cations, 1871,  p.  51. 

p.  156,  1.  18.  "Argentyne,  we  suppose,  is  Argentoratum  or  Strassburg." 
E.  A.  Freeman. 

p.  165,  note  1.  "Andrew  Borde  does  not  at  all  speak  as  a  Saxon  heretic, 
but  as  a  dutiful  subject  of  King  Henry  the  Eighth,  who  dedicates  his  book  to 
that  King's  daughter.  In  the  eyes  of  such  a  one  the  Saxons  were  praise- 
^vorthy  in  so  far  as  they  had  cast  off  the  usurped  authority  of  the  Bishop  of 
Rome,  blameworthy  in  so  far  as  they  had  fallen  into  the  heretical  innovations 
Of  Martin  Luther."  E.  A.  Freeman,  Saturday  Review,  10  Feb.  1872,  p.  189, 
col.  2. 

p.  194,  last  side-note ;  p.  362,  col.  1,  Emperor  ;  for  Austria  read  Germany 
(Charles  V.). 

p.  287, 1.  6-7.  The  Hebrecyon,  and-Cynomome.  This  saying  is  quoted  in 
Cbgan's  Haven  of  Health,  1596,  p.  109  (iV.  ^^  Q.),  and  is  not  in  the  Regimen 
Sanitatis  Salerni  (as  saith  Riley's  Diet,  of  Latin  Quotations),  in  which  how- 
ever is  a  similar  and  well-known  line,  "  Cur  moriatur  homo  cui  salvia  cressit 
in  horto? "     Villanova,  c.  60.     Crokes,  Sir  Alex.  1830.— C.  Innes  Pocock. 

p.  308,  note  1,  line  1,  for  Oviuvi  read  jEdium. 

The  short  review  of  Boordc  in  the  North  British  Review,  No.  106,  p.  559- 
61,  notes  that  "  his  letters  of  the  alphabet  representing  Hebrew  numerals  are 
given  instead  of  the  numerals  themselves.  .  .  .  His  Italian  geography  is  full 
of  confusion.  He  intimates  that  Jerusalem  is  out  of  Asia,  and  places  Salerno 
[in  Italy]  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Constantinople.  Writing  in  1542,  he 
describes  the  mosque  of  St.  Sophia  as  a  Christian  Church.  Then  again,  his 
statements,  pp.  77,  178,  respecting  St.  Peter's  at  Rome,  will  not  bear  com- 
parison with  the  graphic  account  left  by  his  contemporary,  Thomas,  of  the 
basilica,  as  it  stood  in  the  16th  century,  grand  and  magnificent,  though  un- 
completed. {Historie  of  Italie,  ed.  1549,  fol.  40.)  Every  detail  supplied  by 
Thomas,  from  the  *30  steppes  of  square  stone,  the  solemnest  that  I  have 
scene,'  to  '  the  newe  buildyng  [which]  if  it  were  finished,  wolde  be  the  goodliest 
thyng  of  this  worlde,'  stamps  his  description  as  authentic." 




§   1.  The  Dyetary  0/1542  (p.  11) 

§  2.  Zs  PoioelVs  edition  1547  or 
15671  Wyer's  undated  edition  ; 
ColweVs  of  15Q2  (p.  13) 

§  3.  The  Fyrst  Boke  of  the  In- 
troduction of  Knowledge,  writ- 
ten by  1542,  not  published  till 
1547  or  after;  meant  mainly 
to  be  a  book  of  Medicine,  though 
Book  I.  is  one  of  Travels.  Two 
editions  of  it  (p.  14),  Is  men- 
tioned in  the  Dyetary,  Pryn- 
cyples  of  Astronamye,  and  the 
Brevyary  (p.  15),  and  Barnes 
in  the  Defence  of  the  Berde. 
The  Lothbury  edition  is  of 
1562  or  -3  a.d.  (p.  18). 

§  4.  Barnes  in  the  Defence  of 
the  Berde  must  be  dated  1542 
or -3        (p.  19) 

§  6.  The  Breuyary  of  Health,. 
written  also  by  1542,  though 
no  edition  is  known  till  1547. 
Boorde's  account  of  its  name  (p. 
21).  His  motives  in  writing  it 
(p.  21).  Ifs  a  companion  to 
the  Dyetary     (P-  20) 

\  6.  The  Pryncyples  of  Astrona- 
mye. Its  contents,  p.  22  {an 
extract  from  it  at  p.  16) 

§  7.  The  Peregrination,  or  Itin- 
erary of  England,  with  its  no- 
tice of  "  Boord's  Hill,  the  au- 
thour's  birth  place  "        (p.  23) 

§  8.  The  lost  Itinerary  of  Eur- 
ope, which  Boorde  lent  to 
Thomas  Cromwell  (p.  24) 

§  9.  A  Boke  of  Sermons  lost  by 
old  noodle  Time      ...     (p.  24) 

§  10.  The  Pronostycacyon  for 
1545        (p.  25) 

§  11.  The  lost  Treatyse  vpon 
Berdes     (p.  26) 


§12.  Almanac  &  Prognostica- 
tion              (p.  26) 


§  13.  Merie  Tales  of  the  Mad 
Men  of  Gotam        ...     (p.  27) 

§  14.  Scogin's  Jests(p.  31).  The 
Prologue  and  First  Jest  use 
Boorde^ s  phrases  (p.  32). 

§  15.  The  Mylner  of  Abyngton 
(p.  32) 

§  16.  The  Promptuarium  Phy- 
sices  and  De  iudiciis  Urina- 
Tum,  of  Bale's  list  ...     (p.  33) 

§  17.  "Nos  Vagabunduli"  aiid 
the  Friar  "Hindrance''  (p.  34) 




18.  Table  of  the  knmon  events 
of  Boorde's  Life      ...     (p.  36) 

19.  His  Birth  at  Board's  Hill 

(p.  38; 

20.  His  Bnmjing-upj  prohahly 
at  Oxford        (p.  40) 

21.  Mr  Lower's  identification 
of  our  Andrew  with  Lord  Ber- 
gevennifs  nativus  or  bondman 
in  1510,  not  to  be  trusted  (p. 
41),  as  Boorde  was  a  Car- 
thusian Monk  before  this  date 

(p.  43) 

22.  Boorde  accused  of  being 
"  C07iversantwithwmne7i"  (p.  44) 

23.  Boorde  appointed  "  Suffry- 
gan  off  Chych ester  "        (p.  44) 

24.  Boorde' s  First  Letter,  to 
Prior  Hinton  (p.  45-7) ;  and, 
here  anent,  of  the  Carthusians 

(p.  46) 

25.  Boorde  has  "  lycence  to  de- 
parte  from  the  Belygyon,"  goes 
abroad,  and  studies  medicine 

(p.  47) 

26.  He  returns  to  England, 
and  attends  the  Duke  of  Nor- 
folk      (p.  48) 

27.  Boorde' s  second  visit  to  the 
Continent  to  study  Medicine, 
with  notice  of  his  later  Travels, 
especially  to  Comjoostella  (p.  49) 

28.  Boorde  again  in  the  Lon- 
don Charter-house.  He  takes 
the  oath  to  Henry  VIII's  Su- 
premacy       (p.  51) 

29.  Boorde  is  in  thraldom  in 
the  Charterhouse.  He  'writes  to 
Prior  Howghton  in  the  Totver 

(p.  52) 

30.  Boorde  is  freed  by  Crom- 
well, whom  he  visits        (p.  52) 

31.  Boorde' s  third  visit  to  the 
Continent,  and  Second  Letter, 

from    Bourdeaux,    20    June, 

1535,  to  Cromwell         (p.  53) 

32.  Boorde  in  Spain,  ^c,  sick. 
His  Third  Letter,  to  Crom- 
well       (p.  54) 

33.  Boorde  at  the  Grande 
Chartreux.  His  Fourth  Let 
ter,  to  his  Order  in  England 

(p.  56) 

34.  Booi'de  in  London  again. 
His  Fifth  Letter,  to  Cromicell 

(p.  58) 

35.  Boorde  studies  and  prac- 
tises medicine  in  Scotland.  His 
Sixth  Letter,  to  Cromwell  (p. 
59).  «  Trust  yow  no  Skott " 
(p.  59,  last  line  but  one). 

36.  Boorde  in  Cainf /ridge.  His 
Seventh  Letter,  to  Cromwell, 
17  Aug.,  1537  (?)  (p.  61) 

37.  Boorde' s  fourth  visit  to  the 
Continent.  The  range  of  his 
Travels.  He  settles  at  Mont- 
pelier,  and  by  1542  has  written 
the  Introduction,  Dyetary, 
Breuyary,  and  (?)  Treatyse 
vpon  Berdes    (p.  63) 

38.  Boorde  at  Winchester  be- 
fore or  by  1547,  and  probably 
in  London  in  1547/0  bring  out 
his  Dyetary  II,  Introduction, 
Breuyary,   and   Astronamye 

(p.  64) 

39.  Bp  Ponet's  charge  against 
Boorde  of  keeping  three  lohores 
for  hirmelf  and  other  Papist 
pjriests      (P-  65) 

40.  Guilty  or  not  guilty?  (p.  67) 

41.  Boorde  in  the  Fleet  Prison 
(Mr  J.  Payne  Collier,  p.  71-2). 
Boorde's  Will  (p.  73)  and  the 
Proving  of  it (p.  70) 

42.  Portraits  of  Andrew  Boorde 

(P-  74) 

43.  Characteristic  Extractsfrom 
Boorde's  Breuyary : 

j  1-] 



a  WJiere  he  speaka  of  liimsclf 
or  his  tastes,  ^c.  (p.  74) 

/3  His  remarlcs  on  England^ 
his  CoJitemporarieSy  and  the 
Poor    (p.  82) 

y  Some  of  Boorde's  opinions 
(on  Mirth,  p.  88)        (p.  87) 

I  Boorde^s  Treatment  of  c^- 
tain  Diseases  (p.  96),  and 
herein  of  Chaucer^s  Somon- 

our's  Saucefleem  Face  (p.  1 0 1 ) 

e  Boorde  serious      ...   (p.  102) 

[See  the  Hindwords,  p.  317.] 

§  44.  Boorde' s character  (p.  105) 

§   45.  Esteem  in  which  he   and 

his  books  were  held       (p.  105) 

§  46.  The  present  Beprints ;  some 

Cuts  used  indiscriminately 

(p.  106) 
§  47.  The  Editor's  task  (p.  109) 

§  1.  Among  the  many  quaint  books  from  which  I  quoted  in  my 
notes  to  Russell's  Book  of  Nurture  in  the  Bahees  Book  (E.  E.  T.  Soc. 
1868),  one  of  the  quaintest  was  Andrew  Boorde's  Dijetary,  as  readers, 
no  doubt,  convinced  themselves  by  the  long  extract  on  pages  244-8, 
and  the  shorter  ones  on  p.  205,  207,  &c.  Since  then  I  have  always 
wished  to  reprint  the  book,  and  the  securing,  for  32«.  at  Mr  Corser's 
sale  last  February,  of  a  copy  of  the  1562  edition  not  in  the  British 
Museum,^  made  me  resolve  to  bring  out  the  book  this  year.  Wish- 
ing, of  course,  to  print  from  the  first  known  edition,  I  turned  to  Mr 
W.  C.  Hazlitt's  Handbook  to  find  what  that  was,  and  where  a  copy 
of  it  could  be  got  at,  and  saw,  after  the  title  of  the  Zh/etary,  the  fol- 
lowing statement ; 

"  Wyer  printed  at  least  3  editions  without  date,  but  in  or  about 
1542.  Two  editions,  both  differing,  are  in  the  British  Museum  ;  a 
third  is  before  me ;  and  a  fourth  is  in  the  public  library  at  Cam- 
bridge. ^     All  these  vary  typographically  and  literally." 

'  It  is  in  the  Cambridge  University  Library,  perfect.  Mr  Bradshaw's 
description  of  it  is  as  follows : 

"  BooKDE  (Andr.) 

A  compendious  regiment  or  dietary  of  health. 

London,  Tho.  Colwel,  12.  Jan.  1562.  8". 

(b)  Title  (rvithifi  a  single  line)  :  Here  Folo-/weth  a  Compendyous  Re-/ 
gimente  or  Dyetary  of  health,  /  made  in  Mount  pyllor  :  Com-/pyled  by  Andrewe 
Boorde,  of  Phy-/sycke  Doctor  /  Anno  Domini.  M.  D.  LXII.  /  XII.  Die  Mensis  / 
Januarij./  [ivoodcut  of  an  astronomer.'}  Imprint:  Imprinted  by /me  Thomas 
Colwel.  Dwel-/lynge  in  the  house  of  Robert  Wyer,  /  at  the  Signe  of  S.  Johii 
EuanWgelyst  besyde  Charynge  /  Crosse./  ,^  / 

Collation:  ABCDEFGH*;  04  leaves  (1—64).  Leaf  1' title  (as  above); 
1"— 4'  Table  of  chapters  ;  4"— 64"  Text  ;  64"  Imprint  (as  above)." 

'  This  is  the  same  book  as  the  one  undated  Wyer  edition  in  the  Museum. 
Mr  Bradshaw's  description  of  it  is  : 

12  THE    1ST    EDITION    OF    THE   DYETARY   IN    1542.  [§    1. 

A  visit  to  the  British  Museum  soon  showed  that  one  of  these 
*  editions '  ^  in  the  British  Museum  was  only  a  title-page  stuck  before 
a  titleless  copy  of  Moulton's  Glasse  of  Health,  on  to  which  had  beeii 
stuck  a  colophon  from  some  other  book  of  Wyer's  printing.  The 
other  Museum  edition,  in  big  black-letter,  had  not,  on  the  front  and 
back  of  its  title,  the  dedication  to  the  Duke  of  Norfolk  that  the  other 
title-page  had,  and  I  therefore  wrote  to  Mr  Hazlitt  to  know  where 
was  the  "  third "  copy  that  was  "  before "  him  when  he  wrote  his 
Boorde  entries.  He  answered  that  he  had  sold  it  to  Mr  F.  S.  Ellis  of 
King  St.,  Covent  Garden,  in  one  of  whose  Catalogues  he  had  after- 
wards seen  it  on  sale  for  four  guineas.  I  then  applied  to  Mr  Ellis 
for  this  copy,  and  he  very  kindly  had  search  made  for  it  through  his 
daybooks  of  several  years,  and  found  that  it  had  been  sold  to  our 
friend  and  member,  Mr  Henry  Hucks  Gibbs.  Mr  Gibbs  at  once 
lent  me  his  copy,  and  it  proved  to  be  a  complete  one  of  the  edition 
of  which  the  Museum  had  only  a  title-page.  It  had  a  dedication  to 
the  Duke  of  Norfolk, — whom  Boorde  had  attended  in  1530, — dated 
5  May,  1542,  which  was  not  in  the  undated  edition  in  the  Museum, 
and  Mr  J.  Brenchley  Rye  of  the  Printed-Book  Department  was 
clearly  of  opinion  that  the  type  of  the  1542  copy  was  earlier  than 
that  of  the  bigger  black-letter  of  the  undated  one,  though  it  too  was 
printed  by  Robert  Wyer,  or  said  so  to  be. 

Further,  Mr  Gibbs's  copy  was  printed  by  Robert  Wyer  for  Johfl 
Gowghe ;  and  the  latest  date  in  Herbert's  Ames  for  Robert  Wyer  is 
1542,  while  the  latest  for  John  Gough  is  1543.  One  felt,  therefore, 
tolerably  safe  in  concluding  that  the  1542  copy  was  the  first  edition 

"  BOOKDE  (Andr.) 

A  compendious  regiment  or  dietary  of  health. 

London,  Robert  Wyer,  no  date.  8°. 

(a)  Title  {within  a  border  of  ornaments)  :  ^  Here  Folo-/weth  a  Com- 
pendyous  Re-/gymeut  or  a  Dyetary  of  /  helth,  made  in  Mouwt-/pyllor  :  Com- 
pyled  /  by  Andrewe  /  Boorde,  of  /  Physicke  /  Doctor,/  [rvoudcut  of  an 
astrononur.']  Imprint :  ^  Impiynted  by  me  Robert  /  Wyer  :  Dwellynge  at 
the  /  sygne  of  seynt  lohn  E-/uangelyst,  in  S.  Mar-/tyns  Parysshe,  besy-/de 
Charynge  /  Crosse./     ^  Cum  priuilegio  ad  imprimen-/dum  solum. 

Collation  :  ABCDEFGHIKLMNOPQ* ;  64  leaves  (1—64)  in  octavo.  Leaf 
1'  title  (as  above)  ;  T— 4*  Table  of  chapters  ;  4'— 64"  Text ;  64"  imprint  (as 

The  copy  in  the  Cambridge  University  Library  is  perfect." 

'  Some  bibliographers  (if  not  most)  arc  sadly  careless  dogs. 

§    2.]      FOREWORDS.     WYER's    UNDATED    EDITION    OF   THE   DYETARY.       13 

of  The  Dyetary,  and  that  it  was  publisht  in  1542,  the  year  in  which 
its  Dedication  hears  date. 

§  2.  But,  this  granted,  came  the  question,  When  was  the  undated 
edition,  printed  by  Robert  Wyer,  publisht  1  Before  trying  to  answer 
this  question,  I  must  say  that  the  Museum  possesses  a  copy  of 
another  edition  of  the  Dyetary,  with  a  Dedication  to  the  Duke  of 
Norfolk,  dated  5  May,  1547  (MDXLVII),  altered  from  the  Dedica- 
tion of  5  May,  1542,  while,  as  I  have  said  before,  the  undated  edition 
has  no  Dedication.  But  the  colophon  of  this  1547  edition  says  that 
it  was  printed  by  WyUyam  PoweU  in  1567  (MDLXVII),  the  X  and 
L  having  changed  places  in  the  two  dates.  Was  then  1547  or  1567 
the  real  date  of  this  edition  by  William  PoweU  1  1547, 1  think ;  for, 
1.  Boorde  died  in  1549,  and  the  Dedication  is  altered  in  a  way  that 
no  one  but  an  author  could  have  altered  it ;  2.  the  dates  we  have  for 
William  Powell's  books  are  1547-1566,^  so  that  he  could  have  printed 
the  Dyetary  in  1547  j  though  we  can't  say  he  couldn't  have  printed 
it  in  1567  too,  as  all  his  books  are  not  dated. 

If  then  we  settle  on  1547  for  the  date  of  Powell's  double-dated 
edition,  the  question  is.  What  is  the  date  of  Robert  Wyer's  undated 
one]  Are  we  to  put  Wyer's  date  down  from  1542  to  1549  or  later, 
and  explain  the  absence  of  the  Dedication  by  the  fact  of  Andrew 
Boorde's  death  in  1549  ?2  or  are  we  to  explain  it  by  the  Duke  of 
Norfolk's  arrest  on  Dec.  12,  1546,  and  suppose  Wyer  to  have  issued 
his  edition  before  Henry  VIII's  death  on  the  night  of  Jan.  27, 
1546-7,  saved  the  Duke  from  following  his  accomplished  son,  Surrey, 
to  the  scaffold,^  while  Powell,  who  issued  his  edition  in  the  summer 
of  the  same  year,  could  safely  restore  Boorde's  Dedication,  since  Nor- 
folk, though  excepted  from  the  general  pardon  proclaimed  on  Edward 
VI's  accession,  was  looked  on  as  safe^  The  latter  alternative  is 
countenanced  by  Wyer's  undated  edition  being  printed  from  his  first 
of  1542,  rather  than  Powell's  of  1547,  as  the  collation  shows ;  but  I 
cannot  decide  whether  the  second  Wyer,  or  Powell,  was  issued  first. 

'  The  last  license  to  him  in  Collier's  Extracts,  i.  137,  is  about  midway  be- 
tween July  1565  and  July  1566. 

^  The  Duke  of  Norfolk  did  not  die  till  1554. 
'  Surrey  was  beheaded  on  Jan.  19,  1546-7. 

14  DYETARY   OP    1562.      INTRODUCTION  OF  KNOWLEDGE.       [§    2,  3. 

The  possibility  that  the  undated  dedicationless  Wyer  was  issued  before 
1542,  and  that  the  1542  edition  was  the  second,  is  negatived  by  Mr 
Rye's  opinion  on  the  types  of  the  two  editions,  and  perhaps  by  the 
omission  of  two  of  the  woodcuts,  the  change  of  the  third,  and  the  re- 
sults of  the  coUation.  Of  later  editions  I  know  only  that  of  1562, 
*  imprinted  by  me  Thomas  Colwel  in  the  house  of  Robert  Wyer ' : 
see  page  11.  By  that  fatality  which  usually  attends  the  most  unsatis- 
factory plan  of  "  Extracts,"  Mr  Collier  has  in  his  "  Extracts  "  missed 
the  only  two  entries  in  the  Stationers'  Registers  relating  to  Boorde's 
books  that  I  wanted,  namely,  that  of  this  1562  edition  of  the  Di/etary, 
and  the  Lothbury  edition  of  the  Introduction.  The  entry  as  to 
Colwel's  print  of  the  Dyetary  is  : 

T.  colwell  l^ecevyd  of  Thomas  Colwell,^  for  his  fyne,  for  that  1 

he  prented  the  Deatory  of  heltlie  /  the  Assyce  of  >  xijd 
breade  And  Ale,  with  arra  pater,^  without  lycense.  ) 

Company  of  Stationers^  First  Register^  leaf  77,  in  the 
list  of  Fines,  22  July  1561,  to' 22  July  1562. 

Lowndes  enters  other  editions  of  "  1564  (White  Knights  507, 
mor.  9s.   1567  Perry  pt.  i,  468,  9s.     Bindley  pt.  i.  460,  lis.)  1576." 

As  the  date  of  the  Dedication  to  the  Dijetary  is  5  May,  1542, 
while  that  of  the  Introduction  is  3  May,  1542, 1  have  put  the  former 
after  the  latter,  though  it  (the  Dyetary)  was  published  five  years  be- 
fore the  Introduction.  Still,  the  Introduction,  the  Dyetary,  and  the 
Breuyary  (examined  1546,  published  1547)  were  all  written  by 
Boorde  by  the  year  1542. 

§  3.  The  fyrst  Boke  of  the  Introduction  of  Knowledge.  This 
book  was  dedicated  to  the  Princess  Mary,  afterwards  Queen,  daughter 
of  Henry  VIII,  on  May  3,  1542.  It  was  intended  to  have  a  second 
book,  in  which  the  vices  of  Rome  were  mentioned,^  and  which  second 
book  may  therefore  "*  have  been  the  Breuyary,  as  the  vices  of  Rome 
are  mentioned  in  its  2nd  part,  the  Extravagant es,  fol.  v,  back.     It 

'  Colwell  was  admitted  a  freeman  of  tlie  Stationers'  Company  on  the  30th 
of  August,  1560. 

'  An  Almanack.     See  entries  in  Stat.  Reg.,  and  Ha/Jitt's  ITaiulhook. 

'  In  the  Introdnction,  chap,  xxiii  (repr.  sign.  11),  Boorde  .says  "Who  so  wyl 
see  more  of  Rome  &  Italy,  let  him  loke  in  the  second  boke,  the  .Ixvii.  chap- 
ter "  (p.  178  below). 

*  I  don't  think  it  was  so. 

§  3.]    FOREWORDS.     THE   INTRODUCTION  WAS   PRINTING    IN    1542    A.D.     15 

was  also  intended  to  have  been  mainly  a  book  on  physic,  for,  besides 
the  four  quotations  given  under  (a)  below,  Boorde  says  in  his 
Breuyaryy  "  no  man  shulde  enterpryse  to  medle  with  Phisicke  but 
they  which  be  learned  and  admytted,  as  it  doth  appeare  more  large- 
Iyer  in  the  Introduction  of  hnoweledge  "  (Fol.  iii,  at  foot) ;  and  again, 
Fol.  V,  and  Ixxvi  back  : 

"  I  had  rather  not  to  meddle  with  Physicions  and  Chyerurgions 
then  to  haue  them,  yf  I  shulde  dysplease  them  :  for  yf  they  be  dys- 
pleased,  there  is  neither  Lorde  nor  Lady  nor  no  other  person  can  haue 
any  seruyce  or  pleasure  of  theym,  for  this  matter  loke  forther  in  the 
Introduction  of  knotoledge,  and  there  shall  you  see  what  is  good  both 
for  the  soule  and  body  in  god.     Amen." 

The  Introduction  was  also  intended  to  have  a  book  on  Anatomy 
in  it, — see  the  next  quotation ; — but  it  appeared  as  a  book  of  Travels, 
with  only  a  "fyrst  Boke"  in  or  after  1547,  after  both  the  Dyetary 
and  Breuyaryy  and  the  Astronamye  also,  had  been  published.  In 
each  of  these  books  the  Introduction  is  mentioned  as  in  the  press. 
Take  (a)  the  Breuyary : 

"Euery  man  the  which  hath  all  his  whole  lymmes,  hath  ii.c. 
xlviii.  bones,  as  it  doth  more  playnely  appeare  in  my  Anothomy  in  the 
Introduction  of  knowledge,  whiche  hath  bene  longe  a  j/i-yntynge,  for 
lacke  of  money  and  paper  ;  and  it  is  in  pryntynge,  with  pyctures,  at 
Roherte  Coplande,  prynter''     (Breuyary,  Pt  I.  fol.  Ixxxviii.) 

**  For  kynges,  and  kynges  sones,  and  other  noble  men,  hath  ben 
eximious  Phisicions,  as  it  appereth  more  largely  in  the  Introduction 
of  knowJege,  a  boke  of  my  makynge,  beynge  a  pryntyng  loith  Bo. 
Coplande  {lb.  Fol.  Ixx,  back).     See  p.  93  below. 

"  wherfore  this  science  of  medecines  is  a  science  for  whole  men, 
for  sick  men,  and  for  neuters,  which  be  neyther  whole  men  nor 
sycke  men ;  wherfore  I  do  aduertyse  euery  man  not  to  set  lytle  by 
this  excellent  science  of  medecines,  consyderynge  the  vtilitie  of  it, 
as  it  appereth  more  largelier  in  the  introdiiction  of  knowlege.^'  Fol. 
Ixxvi,  back. 

"  the  kynges  actes  and  lawes  .  .  wylleth  and  commaundeth,  with 
greate  penalytie,  that  no  man  shulde  enterpryse  to  medle  witli 
Phisicke,  but  they  which  be  learned  and  admytted,  as  it  doth 
appeare  more  largelyer  in  the  Introduction  of  knoweledge."  Breuyary, 
Fol.  iii,  at  foot. 

(/3)  The  Dyetai-y.    Boorde  says  in  his  Dedication  to  the  Duke  of 

Norfolk : 

**  But  yf  it  shall  please  your  grace  to  loke  on  a  boke  the  whicli  I 


dyd  make  in  Mountpyller,  named  the  Introductory  of  knowlege,  there 
shall  you  se  many  new  matters  /  the  whiche  I  have  no  doubte  but 
that  your  grace  wyl  accept  and  lyke  the  boke,  the  whiche  is  a  prynt- 
ynge  hesyde  saynt  Dunstons  churche  ivithin  Temple  barre,  ouer 
agaynst  th«  Temple"     (p.  227,  col.  1,  below.) 

(y)  The  Astronamye.  The  full  title  of  this  book,  the  only  known 
copy  of  which  is  in  the  Cambridge  University  Library,  is  : 

"  The  pryncyples  /  of  Astronamye  /  the  whiche  /  diligently  per- 
scrutyd  is  in  maner  a  /  pronosticacyon  to  the  worldes  /  end  compylyd 
by  ^drew  /  Boord  of  phisick  /  Doctor  /," 

and  the  last  words  of  the  Preface  are  : 

"  And  wher  I  haue  ometted  &  lefft  out  mani  matters  apertayn- 
[yn]g  to  this  boke,  latt  them  loke  in  a  book  namyd  the  Introduction 
of  knowleg,  a  hoke  of  my  makyng,  the  which  ys  aprintyng  at  old' 
Robert  Coplands,  the  eldist  printer  of  Ingland,  the  which  doth  print 
thes  yere  '  mi  pronosticacions." 

Accordingly,  the  colophon  is,  "  Enprynted  at  London  in  y^  Flete- 
strete  /  at  the  sygne  of  the  Rose  garland  by  /  Robert  Coplande." 

The  other  references  in  this  volume  to  Boorde's  other  works  are 
on  B  vii  (not  signed) :  "  for  this  matter,  looke  in  the  Breuyary  ofhelth 
and  in  the  Introduccyon  of  knowlegy 

C.  ii.  (not  signed)  "  And  he  that  wyll  haue  the  knowleg  of  all 

maner  of  sicknesses  &  dysesys,  let  them  looke  in  the  breuyary  of 
helth,  whiche  is  pryntyd  at  Wyllyam  Mydyltons  in  flet  stret." 

The  last  paragraph  of  the  Astronamye  is  : 

"  IT  Now  to  conclud,  I  desier  euere  ma?i  to  tak  this  lytil  wark  for 
a  pasttime.2  for  I  dyd  wrett  &  make  this  bok  in  .iiii.  dayes,  and 
wretten  with  one  old  pene  with  out  mendyng.  and  wher  I  do  wi-et 
y^  sygnes  in  Aries,  in  Taurous,  &  in  Leo,  is,  for  my  purpose  it  stond- 
yth  best  for  our  maternal  tonge." 

A  further  and  earlier^  notice  of  the  Introduction  is  found  in  the 
chaffy  answer  to  Boorde's  lost  attack  on  beards,'*  which  answer  is 

'  A  friend  reads  thes  yere  as  'these  here; '  but  the  words  no  doubt  mean 
*  this  )'ear,'  and  the  pronosticacions  may  be  one  of  those  of  which  a  title  of 
one,  and  a  fragment  of  another — or  a  supposed  other — are  in  the  British 
Museum.     See  below,  p.  25,  26-27, 

*  past  time,  orig.       '  I  take  Barnes's  book  to  be  of  the  year  1542  or  1543. 

*  As  a  substitute,  take  parson  Harrison's :  "  Neither  will  I  meddle  with  our 
varietie  of  beards,  of  which  some  are  shauen  from  the  chin  like  those  of  Turks, 


called  at  the  end  '  Barnes  in  the  defence  of  the  Berde,'  and  is,  on 
account  of  its  connection  with  Boorde,  reprinted  at  the  end  of  this 
volume.     The  hook  opens  thus  : 

"  It  was  so,  worshypful  syr,  that  at  my  last  beynge  in  Mount- 
pyllour,  I  chaunsed  to  he  assocyat  with  a  doctor  of  Physyke  /  which 
at  his  retorne  had  set  forth  .lij.  Bakes  to  be  prynted  in  Fleet  stretCj 
within  Temple  Barre,  the  whiche  hakes  were  campyled  tagyther  in  one 
volume  named  the  Introductorie  of  Knowledge  /  whervpon  there 
dyd  not  resort  only  vnto  hym,  marchauntes,  gentylmen,  and  wym- 
men  /  but  also  knyghtes,  and  other  great  men,  whiche  were  desyrouse 
to  knowe  the  effycacyte  and  the  etfecte  of  his  aforesayd  bokes." 

Now  this  looks  certainly  as  if  the  Introduction  was  at  first 
believed  by  Boorde's  acquaintances  to  have  been  intended  to  contain 
his  other  two  books  written  in  or  before  1542,  namely,  the  Dyetanj 
and  Breuyary ;  but  as  Boorde  himself  says  he  meant  to  have  an 
Anatomy  in  his  Introduction,  and  evidently  much  other  matter  on 
physic  (p.  14-15  above),  we  need  not  speculate  further  on  Barnes's 
words.  What  we  know  is,  that  the  Introduction  must  have  been 
published  after  the  Breuyary  of  1547,  and  the  Astronamye  doubtless 
of  the  same  year.  I  say  the  same  year,  for  the  Preface  of  the 
Breuyary  shows  that  a  treatise  on  Astronomy  was  wanted  to  ac- 

not  a  few  cut  short  like  to  the  beard  of  raarques  Otto,  some  made  round  like  a 
rubbing  brush,  other  with  a  pique  de  vant  (0  line  fashion  1)  or  now  and  then 
suffered  to  grow  long,  the  barbers  being  growen  to  be  so  cunning  in  this  be- 
halfe  as  the  tailors.  And  therfore  if  a  man  haue  a  leane  and  streight  face,  a 
marquesse  Ottons  cut  will  make  it  broad  and  large ;  if  it  be  platter  like,  a 
long  slender  beard  will  make  it  seeme  the  narrower ;  if  he  be  wesell-becked, 
then  much  heare  left  on  the  cheekes  will  make  the  owner  looke  big  like  a 
bowdled  hen,  and  so  giim  as  a  goose  ;  if  Comelis  of  Chelmeresford  saie  true, 
munie  old  men  doo  weare  no  beards  at  all." — Harrison^s  Description  of  Eng- 
land,  ed.  1586,  p.  172,  col.  2. 

See  on  this  Beard  question  the  curious  and  rare  poem, — by  Wey  ?  see  the 
Roxb.  Club  print  of  it — "  The  Pilgrymage  and  the  wayes  of  Jerusalem,"  in  .•»• 
paper  MS  of  Mr  Heniy  Huth's,  about  1500  A.D.,  quoted  below,  p.  182. 
Prestes  of  the  New  la  we : 

The  thyrd  Seyte  beyn  prestis  of  cure  lawe, 

That  synge  masse  at  )?e  Sepulcore  ; 

At  ]pe  same  graue  there  oure  lorde  laye, 

They  synge  j^e  leteny  euery  daye. 

In  oure  maner  is  her  songe, 

Saffe,  here  berdys  he  ryght  longe  ; 

That  is  \q  geyse  of  fjat  centre, 

The  lengev  \)C  herde,  the  hcttyr  is  he  ; 

The  ordere  of  hem  be  barfote  freeres  ... 

18       THE   TWO   EDITIONS   OP   THE   INTRODUCTION^   1547-8,    1562-3.       [§    3. 

company  it  * ;  Boorde  tells  us  that  he  wrote  his  Astronamye  in  four 
days  with  one  old  pen  without  mending  ^  j  and  this  Astronamye  was 
printed  by  Kobert  Coplandc,  who,  so  far  as  we  know,  printed  no 
book  after  1547.  The  cutting  of  the  *  pyctures'  must  have  taken  so 
much  time^,  and  the  '  lacke  of  money  and  paper '^  continued  so  long, 
that  old  Eobert  Coplande  did  not  finish  the  book,  but  left  his  suc- 
cessor, William  Ck)plande,  to  bring  it  out  in  Eobert's  old  house,^  in 
Flete  strete,  at  the  sygne  of  the  Rose  Garland,^  no  doubt  l^te  in 
1547,  or  in  1548.  This  delay  in  the  appearance  of  the  Introduction 
accounts  for  a  few  words  in  it  relating  to  Boulogne,  which  could  not 
have  been  wiitten  till  1544,  when  Henry  VIII  took  that  city  :  "Bo- 
leyn  is  now  ours  by  conquest  of  Eyall  kyng  HcTiry  the  eyght.*^ " 

Now,  besides  William  Coplande's  undated  "  Eose-Garland " 
edition  of  the  Introduction,  we  know  of  another  undated  edition  by 
him  printed  at  Lothbury.  In  this  "  Lothbury  "  edition  we  do  not 
find  the  above-quoted  words  of  the  "  Eose-Garland  "  edition  relating 
to  Boulogne ;  and  as  we  know  that  Edward  VI  restored  Boulogne  to 
the  French  in  1550,  the  Lothbury  edition  must  have  been  after  that 
date.  It  must  also  have  been  after  the  deaths  of  Henry  VIII  and 
Edward  VI,  when  there  was  no  king  in  England,  as  the  Lothbury 
edition  leaves  out  the  Eose-Garland's  "  But  euer  to  be  trew  to  God 
and  my  kynge"  (p.  117, 1.  24).     The  Lothbury  edition  must  also 

'  "  but  aboue  al  thinges  next  to  grammer  a  Physicion  muste  haue  surely 
his  Astronomye,  to  know  how,  whew,  &  at  what  time,  euery  medecine  ought  to 
be  ministred." — Brenyary,  The  preface,  A  Prologe  to  Phisicions,  Fol.  ii,  back. 
See  also  the  *  Proheme  to  Chierurgions,'  Fol.  iiii. 

^  See  p.  16,  above. 

'  That  is,  if  any  but  the  Englishman  and  Frenchman  were  cut  for  it,  which 
I  doubt.     But  Boorde  might  have  waited  for  money  for  more  original  cuts. 

*  See  p.  15,  above. 

'  Herbert  remarks  in  his  MS  memoranda,  *  though  the  book  was  printed 
by  R.  Copland,  it  was  licensed  to  W.  Copland.'— ^wf-s  (ed.  Dibdin,  1816). 
I  don't  believe  there  is  any  authority  for  this  "  licensed."  The  Charter  of  the 
Stationers'  Company  was  not  granted  till  1656. 

"  If  the  reader  will  turn  to  the  Eose-Garland  device  at  the  end  of  the  In- 
trodiiction,  he  will  see  how  William  Coplande  has  used  his  predecessor's 
block :  he  has  left  R.  C.  in  the  middle,  but  has  cut  out  the  black-letter 
*  Robert '  in  the  legend,  and  put  his  own  '  William,'  in  thinner  letters,  in  the 
stead  of  his  predecessor's  thicker  *  Robert,'  which  matcht  the  *  Coplande.' 

'  The  .xviii.  day,  the  kinges  highnes,  hauyng  the  sworde  borne  naked  be- 
fore him  by  the  Lorde  Marques  Dorset,  like  a  noble  and  valyaunt  conqueror 
rode  into  BuUeyn. — HalVs  Chronicle,  p.  862,  ed.  1809. 

§  3,  4.]    THE  INTRODUCTIONf  2ND  ED.  1562-3.    BARNES  ON  BOORDE,  1543.    19 

have  been  after  1558,  for  the  change  of  Boorde*s  description  of  the 
Icelander,  "  Lytle  I  do  care  for  matyns  or  masse  "  (chap.  vi.  line  9,  p. 
141)  into  "Lytle  do  I  care  for  anye  of  gods  serudsse^'  shows  that 
Mary's  reign  was  over ;  besides  being  a  specimen  of  William  Cop- 
lande's  notion  of  rimes.  As  we  know  further  that  William  Coplande 
printed  one  book  at  least  at  the  Three  Cranes  in  the  Vintry  in  1561 
— Tyndale's  Parable  of  the  Wicked  Mammon — we  may  at  once 
identify  the  Lothbury  edition  with  that  which  was  licensed  to 
William  Coplande  in  1562-3,^  as  appears  by  the  following  entry 
(omitted  by  Mr  CoUier^)  on  leaf  90  of  the  first  Register  of  the 
Stationers'  Company  : 

W.  Coplande  Recevyd  of  William  Coplande,  for  his  lycense  ) 

for  pryntinge  of  [a]  boke  intituled  "  the  intro-  [•  iiij^ 
duction  to  knowlege  "  ) 

Of  Coplande's  first,  or  Rose-Garland,  edition,  a  unique  copy  was 
known  in  Mr  Heber's  library ;  but  I  could  not  hear  of  it,  when  first 
preparing  the  present  volume,  and  was  obliged  to  apply  to  the  Com- 
mittee of  the  Chetham  Library  for  the  loan  of  their  copy  of  the  2nd, 
or  Lothbury,  edition.  This  they  most  kindly  granted  me ;  and  Mr 
W.  H.  Hooper  had  copied  and  cut  all  the  *  pyctures '  in  it,  and  the 
reprint  was  partly  set-up,  when  a  letter  to  that  great  possessor  of  old- 
book  treasures,  Mr  S.  Christie-Miller  of  Britwell  House,  brought  me 
a  courteous  answer  that  he  had  the  first  edition,  that  I  might  correct 
the  reprint  of  the  second  by  it,  and  that  Mr  Hooper  might  copy  the 
cuts — nine  in  number — that  differed  from  those  in  the  2nd  edition. 
I'hcse  things  have  accordingly  been  done,  and  the  varying  cuts  of  the 
2nd  edition  put  into,  or  referred  to  in,  the  notes.  The  differences  in 
the  texts  of  the  two  editions  are  very  slight,  barring  the  Boulogne, 
King,  and  Mass  passages  noticed  on  this  page  and  the  foregoing  one. 

§  4.  The  Dedications  to  the  Introduction  and  the  Dyetary,  and  the 
publication  of  the  latter  in  1542  (or  1543),  coupled  with  the  opening 
words  of  Barnes  in  Defence  of  the  Berde  which  we  quoted  above,  p. 
17,  leave  no  doubt  in  my  mind  that  this  last  tract  was  written  and 

'  This  enables  us  too  to  settle  that  the  other  Lothbury  books  were  printed 
after  the  Three-Cranes  books.     (One  Lothbury  book  is  dated  1566.) 
•  See  p.  14,  above. 

20  boorde's  breuyary  of  health.  [f   5. 

published   in   1543,  and   that  Boorde   returned  to   England   from 
!Montpelier  to  see  his  Dyetary  through  the  press. 

§  5.  The  Breuyary  of  Health.  Having  thus  discussed  the  dates  of 
the  three  little  books  in  the  present  volume,  we  have  next  to  notice 
shortly  Boorde's  other  books.  The  principal  of  these  is  the  Breuyary. 
There  is  no  copy  of  the  first  edition  of  it  (a.d.  1547 1)  in  the  British 
Museum,  Bodleian,  or  Cambridge  University  Library.  LoAvndes  says 
that  it  was  reprinted  in  1548,  1552,  &c.,  and  I  have  seen  a  statement 
that  the  edition  of  1552  is  an  exact  reprint  of  that  in  1547.  A  colo- 
phon at  the  end  of  the  first  book  of  the  1552  edition  says,  "Here 
cndeth  the  first  boke  examined  in  Oxford,  in  June,  the  yere  of  our 
lord  .M.  CCCCC.  xlvi.  And  in  the  reigne  of  our  souerayne  Lorde 
kynge  Henry  the  .viii.  kynge  of  Englande,  Fraunce,  and  Irelande  the 
.xxxviii.  yere .  • .  And  newly  Imprinted  and  corrected,  the  yere  of 
our  Lorde  God  .M.  CCCCC.  L.  II."  As  I  mean  to  give  several  ex- 
tracts from  the  Breuyary  further  on,  page  74  e^  seq.,  in  Boorde's  Life, 
I  shall  only  quote  here  his  "  Preface  to  the  Readers  of  this  Boke," 
of  which  the  end  will  commend  itself  to  my  fellow-workers  in  the 
Society,  who,  too,  "  wryte  for  a  common  welth^,"  and  "  neuer  loke  for 
no  reward,  neyther  of  Lorde,  nor  of  Prynter,  nor  of  no  man  lyuing." 

"  Gentyll  readers,  I  haue  taken  some  peyne  in  makyng  this  boke, 
to  do  sycke  men  pleasure,  and  whole  men  profyte,  that  sycke  men 
may  recuperate  theyr  health,  and  whole  men  may  preserue  theym 
selfe  frome  syckenes  (with  goddes  helpe)  as  well  in  Phisicke  as  in 
Chierurgy.  But  for  as  much  as  olde,  auncyent,  and  autentyke 
auctours  or  doctours  of  Physicke,  in  theyr  bokes  doth  wryte  many 
obscure  termes,  geuyng  also  to  many  and  dyuerse  infirmyties,  darke 
and  harde  names,  dyfi'ycyle  to  vnderstande, — some  and  moostc  of  all 
beynge  Greeke  wordes,  some  and  fewe  beynge  Araby  wordes,  some 
beynge  Latyn  wordes,  and  some  beynge  Barbarus  wordes, — Therefore 
I  haue  translated  all  suche  obscure  wordes  and  names  into  Englyshe, 
that  euery  man  openly e  and  apartly  maye  vnderstande  them.  Fur- 
thermore all  the  aforesayde  names  of  the  sayde  infirmites  be  set 
togyther  in  order,  accordynge  to  the  letters  of  the  Alphabete,  or  the 
.A.  B.  C.  So  that  as  many  names  as  doth  begyn  with  A.  be  set  to- 
gether, and  so  forth  aU  other  letters  as  they  be  in  order.  Also  there 
is  no  sickenes  in  man  or  woman,  the  whiche  maye  be  frome  the 
crowne  of  the  head  to  the  sole  of  the  fote,  but  you  shaU  fynde  it  in 
this  booke, — as  well  the  syckenesses  the  which  doth  parteyne  to 

'  profit,  good. 

§    6.]  FOREWORDS.       BOORDE's   BREUYARY   OF  HEALTH.  21 

Chierurgy  as  to  phisicke, — and  what  the  sickenes  is,  and  howe  it  doth 
come,  and  medecynes  for  the  selfe  same.  And  for  as  much  as  eiiery 
man  now  a  dayes  is  desyrous  to  rede  briefe  and  compendious  matters, 
I,  therefore,  in  this  matter  pretende  to  satisfye  mens  myndes  as  much 
as  I  can,  namynge  this  booke  accordyng  to  the  matter,  which  is, 
*  The  Breuiary  of  health  :  *  and  w'here  that  I  am  very  briefe  in  shew- 
ynge  briefe  medecines  for  one  sicknes,  I  do  it  for  two  causes :  The 
fyrst  cause  is,  that  the  Archane  science  of  physycke  shulde  not  be  to 
manifest  and  open,  for  then  the  Eximyous  science  shulde  fal  into 
greate  detrimente,  and  doctours  the  whiche  hath  studied  the  facultie 
shulde  not  be  regarded  so  well  as  they  are.  Secondaryly,  if  I  shulde 
wryte  all  my  mynde,  euery  bongler  wolde  practyse  phisycke  vpon 
my  booke ;  wherfore  I  do  omyt  and  leue  out  many  thynges,  re- 
lynquyshynge  that  I  haue  omytted,  to  doctours  of  hygh  iudgement, 
of  whom  I  shalbe  shent  for  parte  of  these  thynges  that  I  haue 
wrytten  in  this  booke  :  howe  be  it,  in  this  matter  I  do  sette  God  be- 
fore mine  eyes,  and  charitie,  consyderynge  that  I  do  ^vryte  this  boke 
for  a  common  welth,  as  god  knoweth  my  pretence,  not  onely  in 
making  this  boke,  but  al  other  bokes  that  I  haue  made,  that  I  dyd 
neuer  loke  for  no  reward  neyther  of  Lorde,  nor  of  Prynter,  nor  of  no 
man  lyuing,  nor  I  had  neuer  no  reward,  nor  I  wyl  neuer  haue  none 
as  longe  as  I  do  lyue,  God  helpynge  me,  whose  perpetuall  and 
fatherly  blessynge  lyght  on  vs  all.     Amen." 

In  his  Preface  to  "  The  Seeonde  Boke  of  ^he  Breuyary  of  Health, 
named  the  Extrauagantes,"  as  in  its  colophon,^  Boorde  re-states  his 
chief  motive  for  writing  the  book  : 

"  I  do  nat  wryte  these  bokes  for  lerned  men,  but  for  symple  and 
vnlemed  men,  that  they  may  have  some  knowledge  to  ease  them 
selfe  in  their  dyseyses  and  infirmities.  And  bycause  that  I  dyd  omyt 
and  leaue  out  many  thynges  in  the  fyrste  boke  named  the  Breuiary 
of  Health, — In  this  boke  named  '  the  Extrauagantes '  I  haue  supplied 
those  matters  the  whiche  shulde  be  rehersed  in  the  fyrst  boke." 

The  Breuyary  was  intended  by  Boorde  as  a  kind  of  companion  to 
his  Dyetary  ;  for  when  treating  *  of  the  inilacion  of  the  eyes  '  and  his 
remedies  for  it,  he  says  : 

"  Aboue  all  other  thynges,  lette  euery  man  beware  of  the  premisses 
rehersed,  in  the  tyme  Avhan  the  pestilence,  or  the  sweatyng  syckenes, 
or  feuers,  or  agues,  doth  reigne  in  a  cou/itre.  For  these  syckenesses 
be  infectiouse,  and  one  man  may  infecte  an  other,  as  it  dothe  appere 
in  the  Chapiters  named  Scabies,  morbus  Ballicus.  And  specially  in 
the  dyatary  of  health,  wherfore  I  wolde  that  euery  man  hauynge 

*  Thus  endeth  these  bokes,  to  the  honour  of  the  father,  and  the  sonne,  and 
the  holy  ghost,  to  the  profyte  of  all  poore  men  and  women,  ka.     Amen. 

22     boorde's  breuyary.     his  pryncyples  of  ASTRONAMYE.     [§  5,  6. 

this  boke,  sliulde  haiie  the  sayd  dyetarrj  of  health  with  this  boke, 
consideryng  that  the  one  booke  is  concurrant  with  the  other."  ' 

Again,  in  his  Dyetary,  Boorde  refers  also  frequently  to  the 
Breuyary,^  and  says,  in  his  Dedication  to  the  Duke  of  Norfolk  : 

"And  where  that  I  do  speake  in  this  boke  but  of  dietes,  and 
other  thynges  concernyng  the  same,  If  any  man  therfore  wolde  haue 
remedy  for  any  syckenes  or  diseases,  let  hym  loke  in  a  boke  of  my 
makynge  named  the  Breuyare  ofhelth" 

The  two  books  were,  as  Boorde  says,  concurrent  in  subject  (1.  2, 
above),  and  probably  also  in  date  of  writing,  if  not  publication. 

The  Breuyary  is  an  alphabetical  list  of  diseases,  by  their  Latin 
names,  with  their  remedies,  and  the  way  of  treating  them.  Other 
subjects  are  introduced,  as  MuUer,  a  woman — for  which,  see  the  ex- 
tract p.  68,  below, — Nares,  nosethrilles,  (fee.  Except  for  the  many 
interesting  passages  and  touches  showing  Boorde's  character  and 
opinions,  the  Breuyary  is  a  book  for  a  Medical  Antiquarian  Society, 
rather  than  ourselves,  to  reprint. 

6.  The  Pryncyples  of  Astronamye.  The  second  companion  to 
the  Breuyary — the  Dyetary  being  the  first — is  the  Astronamye,  of 
which  the  title  and  an  extract  are  printed  above,  p.  16.  It  is  too 
astrological  for  us  to  reprint,  though  one  or  two  chapters  are  generally 

The  following  is  its  Table  of  contents  : 

IT  The  Capytles  of  contentes^ 
of  thys  boock  folowth. 

rphe  fyrst  Capytle  doth  shew  the  names  of  the  .xii.  synes  and 

X  of  the  .vii.  planetes.  And  what  the  zodiack,  and  how  many 
minutes  a  degre  doth  coTztaine. 

IT  The  seconde  Capytle  doth  shew  what  sygnes  be  mouable,  and 
what  sygnes  be  not  mouable,  and  which  be  commone,  and  which  be 
masculyn  signes,  and  which  be  femynyne,  and  of  the  tryplycyte  of 

IT  The  .iii.  capytle  dothe  shewe  in  what  members  or  places  in 
maw  y*  sygnes  hath  theyr  domynion,  and  how  no  man  owt  to  be  let 

*  "The  Breviarie  of  health"  was  licensed  to  Tho.  Easte  on  March  12, 
1581-2.  {Collier's  Extracts  from  tlui  Registers  of  the  Stationers'  Company^ 
ii.  ICl.)  ^  orig.  contences. 

§  6,  7.]      FOREWORDS.     BOORDE's   ASTRONAMYE.     HIS   PEREGRINATION.      23 

blod  whan  the  moone  is  in  y'^  sygne  wher  the  sygne  hath  domynyon  ; 
and  also  what  operacion  the  sygnes  be  of  whan  y^  moone  is  in  ther 

H  The  .iii[i].  capytle  doth  shew  of  the  fortitudes  of  the  planetes, 
and  what  influens  they  doth  geue  to  vs. 

If  The  .V.  Capitle  doth  shew  the  natural  dyspocycyon  of  the 
mone  whan  she  is  in  any  of  the  .xii.  sygnes. 

IF  The  .vi.  capytle  doth  shew  of  y®  nature  of  al  y*  .xii.  sygnes, 
And  what  influence  thei  hath  in  ^la?^,  And  what  fortitudes  y^  planetes 
hath  in  y®  signes,  wM  the  names  of  the  Aspects. 

IT  The  .vii.  capytle  doth  shew  y^  natural  dyspo[s]ycions  of  the 
planetes,  And  what  operacyon  they  hath  in  mans  body. 

H  The  .viii.  Capitle  doth  shew  of  the  .v  Aspectus,  and  of  theyr 

IT  The  ix  capitle  doth  shew  of  y^  mutaciow  of  y®  Ayer  whan  any 
rayne,  wind,  wedder,  froste,  and  cold,  shold  be  by  the  course  of  y® 
sygnes  and  planetes. 

If  The  .X.  capytle  doth  shew  y^  pedyciall  of  the  aspectus  of  the 
mone  and  other  planets,  and  what  dayes^  be  good,  and  what  dayes 
be  not.  &c. 

IT  The  .xi  capytle  doth  shew  of  fleubothomy^  or  lettyng  of  blod^ 

IT  The  xii  capitle  doth  shew  how,  whan,  &  what  tyme,  a  phi- 
sicion  sholde  minister  medycynes 

II  The  .xiii.  Capitle  doth  shew  of  sowing  of  seedes,  &  plantynge 
of  trees,  and  setyng  of  herbe. 

Thus  endyth  the  table. 

As  I  have  said  before  (p.  15,  17),  I  believe  the  Astronamyc  to 
have  been  published  with  the  Breuyary  in  1547. 

§  7.  The  Peregrination.  Tlie  Itinerary  of  England,  or  '  The 
Peregrination  of  Doctor  Boarde,'  which  is  the  title  in  Hearne,  may 
perhaps  be  taken  as  part  of  his  lost  Itinerary  of  Euroj^e,  and  was 
printed  by  Hearne  in  1735,  in  his  Benedictus  Ahhas  Petrohurgensis, 
de  Vita  et  Gestis  Henrici  III  et  Ricardi  I,  &c.,  vol.  ii.  p.  764 — 804. 
It  is  a  list  of 

"Market  townes  in  England,  p.  764-771. 

Castelles  in  England  [&  Wales],  p.  771-775  (168  of  them;  where- 
of 7  were  new,  and  5  newly  repaired). 

In  England  be  24  suffragane  bishops,  p.  775. 

lies  adjacent  to  England,  p.  775-6. 

The  havens  of  England,  p.  776-7. 

Downes,  mountaynes,  hilles  (including  'Eoord's  Hill,  the  authours 
birthplace'),  dayles,  playnes,  &  valleycs  of  England,  p.  777-782. 

'  ong.  dayer.  '^  orig.  flenbotlioniy.  ^  ong.  bold. 

24  boorde's  itinerary  of  Europe,     his  sermons.        [§  8,  9. 

Fayre  stone  bridges  in  England,  p.  782-3. 

Rivers  and  pooles,  p,  783-9. 

Forestes  and  parkes  in  England,  p.  789-797. 

The  high  wayes  of  England,  from  London  to  Colchester,  &  Or- 
ford,  p.  797-9. 

The  compasse  of  England  round  about  by  the  townes  on  the  sea 
coste,  p.  800-4." 

§  8.  The  Itinerary  of  Europe.  This,  though  lost  to  us  now,  may 
yet,  I  hope,  turn  up  some  day  among  some  hidden  collection  of 
Secretary  Cromwell's  papei-s.  Boorde  gives  the  following  account 
of  it  in  the  Seventh  chapter  of  his  Introduction,  p.  145,  below  : 

"  for  my  trauellyng  in,  thorow,  and  round  about  Europ,  whiche 
is  all  chrystendom,  I  dyd  wryte  a  booke  of  euery  region,  countre, 
and  prouynce,  shewynge  the  myles,  the  leeges,  and  the  dystaunce 
from  citye  to  cytie,  and  from  towne  to  towne ;  And  the  cyties  & 
townes  names,  wyth  notable  thynges  within  the  precyncte  [of],  or 
about,  the  sayd  cytyes  or  townes,  wyth  many  other  thynges  longe  to 
reherse  at  this  tyme,  the  whiche  boke  at  Byshops-Waltam — .viii. 
myle  from  Wynchester  in  Hampshyre, — one  Thomas  Cromwell  had 
it  of  me.  And  bycause  he  had  many  matters  of  [state]  to  dyspache 
for  al  England,  my  boke  was  loste,  /7/e  which  myglit  at  this  presente 
tyme  liaue  holpen  me,  and  set  me  forward  in  this  matter."    (See  p.  33.) 

§  9.  ^  Boke  of  Sermons.  This  is  not  known  to  us,  except  by 
Boorde's  own  mention  of  it  in  The  Extrauag antes,  Fol.  vi.  (See  p.  78.) 

"  shortly  to  co72clude,  I  dyd  neuer  se  no  vertue  nor  goodnes  in 
Rome  but  in  Byshop  Adrians  days,  which  wold  haue  reformed 
dyuers  enormities,  &  for  his  good  wyl  &  prete?«ce  he  was  poysoned 
within  .iii.  quarters  of  a  yere  after  he  did  come  to  Rome,  as  this 
mater,  with  many  other  matters  mo,  be  expressed  in  a  holce  of  my 

This  book  one  would  at  first  assume  to  have  been  written  before 
1529-30,  when  Boorde  was  first  'dispensed  of  religion'  in  Prior  Bat- 
manson's  days — as  he  says  in  his  5  th  Letter,  p.  58  below, — especially 
as  Pope  Adrian  VI  died  Sept.  24,  1523  ;  but  as  we  have  no  evidence 
that  Boorde  went  abroad  before  1529-30,  and  then  to  school  to  study 
medicine,  we  shall  be  safer  in  putting  the  probable  date  of  the  Ser- 
mons at  between  1530  and  1534,  when  Boorde  finally  gave  up  his 
*  religion  *  or  monkery;  though  it  may  have  been  later,  as  he  was  both 
monk  and  priest,  and  signed  himself  *  prest '  in  1537.  The  loss  of 
the  book  is  assuredly  a  great  one  to  us — one  of  the  many  losses  for 

§    10.]      FOREWORDS.    BOORDE's   PBONOSTYCACYON  FOR    1545    A.D.  25 

which  that  blind  old  noodle  Time  is  to  blame, — as  we  may  be  sure 
that  the  Sermons  of  a  man  like  Boorde  would  have  pictured  his 
time  for  us  better  than  almost  any  book  we  have. 

§  10.  ^  Pronostycacyon  for  the  yere  1545.  Among  Bagford's 
collection  of  Almanack-titles  in  the  Harleian  MS  5937,  I  have 
been  lucky  enough  to  notice  the  title-page  of  a  hitherto  uncatalogued 
work  of  Andrew  Boorde's,  which  is,  I  suppose,  unique  : 

"A  Pronosty-/cacyon  or  an  Almanacke  for  /  the  yere  of  our 
lorde  .M.  CCCCC.  /  xlv.  made  by  Andrewe  Boorde  /  of  Physycke 
doctor  an  En-/glyshe  man  of  the  vni-/versite  of  Ox-/forde,"  Over 
a  rose-shaped  cut  with  a  castle  in  the  centre,  used  in  the  titleless 
edition  of  the  Shepherd's  Calendar  in  the  British  Museum,  formerly 
entered  as  (?)  Pynson's,  but  which,  I  am  persuaded,  is  W.  Coplande's. 

On  the  back  is  "  The  Prologe  to  the  reder. 

IWere  nat  wyse,  but  inscipient,  if  I  shulde  enterpryse  to  wryte 
or  to  make  any  boke  of  prophesye,  or  els  to  pronostycate  any 
mater  of  the  occulte  iugement  of  god,  or  to  defyne  or  determyne 
any  supernatural  mater  aboue  reson,  or  to  presume  to  medle 
•with  the  bountyfuU  goodnes  of  god,  who  doth  dispose  euery  thing 
graciously.  All  such  occulte  and  secrete  maters,  for  any  ma7i  to 
medle  with-all,  it  is  prohibited  both  by  goddes  lawe  &  the  lawe  of 
kynge  Henry  the  eyght^.  But  for  as  muche  as  the  excellent  scyence 
of  Astronomy  is  amytted  dayly  to  be  studyed  &  exercysed  in  al 
vniuersities,  &  so  approued  to  be  y®  chiefe  science  amonge  all  the 
other  lyberal  sciences,  lyke  to  the  son,  the  which  is  in  the  medle  of 
the  other  planetes  illumynatynge  as  wel  the  inferyal  planetes  as  y^ 
superyal  planetes,  So  in  lyke  maner  Astronomy  doth  illucydat  all 
the  other  lyberal  sciences,  indusing  them  to  celestyall  &  terrestyall 
knowlege.  D[o]the  nat  the  planetes,  sygnes,  and  other  st[ers  i]nduce 
vs  to  the  knowlege  of  a  c[reator  of]  the/n,  doth  nat  y®  Mone  gyue 
moyster  to  the  ^ " 

Coupling  this  with  the  fact  already  noticed,  p.  1 6, 1.  1 6,  above,  that 
Boorde  in  his  Astronamye  refers  to  Robert  Coplande  who  prints  *  thes 
yere  my  pronostycayons,'  we  must  either  conclude  (as  I  do  myself) 
that  Boorde,  like  the  Laets  of  Antwerp — grandfather,  father,  and 
son  3 — issued  Prognostications  yearly  for  some  time,  or  that,  if  he 

•  Stat.  33,  Hen.  VIII,  cap.  8,  A.D.  1541-2.  See  Queene  Elizahethes  AcTm- 
demy,  notes. 

'  *  to  the '  are  the  catchwords. 

'^  See  my  Captain  Cox,  or  Laiieham''s  Letter,  for  the  Ballad  Society,  1870. 

26        TREATYSE    VPON  BEBDES.      FRAGMENTS    OF   ALMANACS.        [§   11,  12. 

only  issued  one,  the  date  of  his  Astronamye  is  1545,  and  not  1547, 
as  I  before  supposed. 

§  11.  ^  Treaty se  vpon  Berdes.  All  that  we  know  of  this  book 
is  got  from  the  third  tract  in  the  present  volume,  called  on  its  title- 
page,  "  The  treatyse  answerynge  the  boke  of  Berdes,"  and  on  its  last 
page  "  Barnes  in  the  defence  of  the  Berde."  The  writer  first  speaks 
of  Boorde's  spoken  answer  to  those  who  "desyred  to  knowe  his 
fansye  concemjTige  the  werynge  of  Berdes  "  (p.  307),  then  says  that 
Boorde  "  was  anymatyd  to  toryte  Ms  boke  to  thende  that  great  men 
may  laugh  thereat,"  as  if  he  referred  to  the  end  of  Boorde's  Dedica- 
tion of  his  Dyetary  to  the  Duke  of  Norfolk  (p.  225  below),  and  lastly 
heads  his  answer  to  Boorde  "  Here  foloweth  a  treatyse,  made,  an- 
swerynge the  treatyse  of  doctor  Borde  vjoon  Berdes  "  (p.  308).  This 
makes  it  impossible  to  doubt  the  existence  of  such  a  book  by 
Boorde ;  and  the  different  charges  which  the  writer  (Barnes,  whoever 
he  may  be)  in  his  subsequent  verses  quotes  from  Boorde  against  the 
wearing  of  beards '  are  hardly  consistent  with  a  mere  report  of 
Boorde's  sayings.  Further,  Wilson's  allusion  in  1553  to  one  who 
should  '  dispraise  beardes  or  commende  shauen  hiddes '  (p.  307,  note), 
probably  points  to  this  lost  tract  of  Boorde's  on  Beards,  as  another 
passage  of  Wilson's  does  to  Boorde's  Dyetary,  and  Introduciio7i,  note 
on  pages  116,  117,  below.  The  reader  can  see  for  himself,  in 
Barnes's  lame  verses,  what  arguments  Boorde  used  against  beards. 
Of  Barnes's  answers  I  can't  always  see  the  point ;  but  that  Boorde 
was  a  noodle  for  condemning  beards,  and  advocating  shaving,  I  am 
sure.  Shaving  is  one  of  the  bits  of  foolery  that  this  age  is  now 
getting  out  of;  but  any  one  who,  as  a  young  man,  left  off  the  ab- 
surdity some  three  years  before  his  neighbours,  as  I  did,  will  recollect 
the  delightfully  cool  way  in  which  he  was  set  down  as  a  coxcomb 
and  a  fool,  for  following  his  own  sense  instead  of  other  persons' 
reasonless  customs. 

§  12.  Almanac  and  Prognostication.  In  the  British  Museum 
(Case  18.  e.  ,2,  leaves  51,  52)  are  two  bits  of  two  leaves,  belonging  to 

1  Yet  contrast  Boorde's  saying  in  his  Breuyary,  "The  face  may  hauo 
many  impedimentes.  The  fyrst  impedyment  is  to  se  a  man  liauyug  no 
berde,  and  a  woman  to  haue  a  bcrdc."     p.  95,  below. 

§  12,  13.]    FOREWORDS.    ARE   THE   GOTAM  MERIE   TALES   BY    BOORDEI    27 

two  separate  Almanacs  or  Prognostications.  The  first  bit  is  for  the 
months  of  September,  October,  November,  and  December  M.  LLLLL. 

and  xxxvii[.  .],^  signed  at  the  foot "  e :  Doctor  of  phisik." 

This  e  is  supposed  to  be  the  last  letter  of  Boorde.  The  second  bit  is 
of  a  Prognostication,  with  a  date  which  is  supposed  to  be  1540, 

"made  by  Maister"  [no  more  in  that  line 2] "cian  and 

Preste."  Put  "Andrew  Boorde  physi"  in  the  bit  torn  off  the 
left  edge,  and  you  have  one  of  the  Pronosticacions  which  Robert 
Coplande  in  his  day  may  have  printed  for  our  author  (p.  16, 

§  13.  Jest-hooks.  I.  Merie  Tales.  We  come  now  to  those  books 
that  tradition  only  assigns  to  Boorde  :  The  MeHe  Tales  of  the  Mad 
Men  of  Gotam.  and  Scogin's  Jests.  Though  the  earliest  authority 
known  to  us  for  the  former  is  above  80  years  after  Boorde's  death, 
namely,  the  earliest  edition  of  the  book  now  accessible,  that  of  1630 
in  the  Bodleian  :  "  gathered  together  by  A.B.,  of  Physick,  doctour  : " 
yet  Warton  says  :  "  There  is  an  edition  in  duodecimo  by  Henry 
"Wikes,  without  date,  but  about  1568,  entitled  Merie  Tales  of  the 
madmen  of  Gotam,  gathered  together  by  A.B.  of  physicke  doctour," 
Hist.  Engl.  Poetry ^  iii.  74,  note  /.  ed.  1840;  however,  Warton  had 
never  seen  it.  Mr  Halliwell,  in  his  Notices  of  Popular  English  His- 
tories^ 1848,  quotes  an  earlier  edition  still,  by  Colwell,  who  printed 
the  1562  edition  of  Boorde's  Dyetary^  "Merie  Tales  of  the  Mad 
Men  of  Gotam,  gathered  together  by  A.B.  of  Phisike  Doctour. 
[Colophon]  Imprinted  at  London  in  Flet-Stret,  beneath  the  Conduit, 
at  the  signe  of  S.  John  Evangelist,  by  Thomas  Colwell.  n.  d.  12° 
black  letter."  Mr  Hazlitt  puts  Colwell's  edition  before  Wikes's,  and 
quotes  another  edition  of  1613  from  the  Harleian  Catalogue.^ 

In  a  book  of  1572,  "the  fooles  of  Gotham"  is  mentioned  as  a 
book :   see  p.   30,  below.     Mr  Horsfield,  the  historian  of  Lewes, 

*  Boorde  was  in  Scotland  in  1536,  in  Cambridge  in  1537  ;  see  p.  59-62  below. 

'  The  blank  looks  to  me  like  an  intentional  one,  so  that  a  ditferent  name 
might  be  inserted  in  each  district  the  Prognostication  was  issued  in. 

^  The  chapbook  copy  in  Mr  Corser's  5th  sale,  of  The  Merry  Tales  of  the 
Wise  Men  of  Gotham  (over  a  cut  of  the  hedging-in  of  the  cuckoo — a  country- 
man crying  *  Coocou,'  and  a  cuckoo  crying  '  Gotam,'  both  in  a  circular 
paling — ),  Printed  and  Sold  in  Aldermary  Church  Yard,  Bow  Lane,  London, 
contains  20  Tales,  and  six  woodcuts. 

28  DID   BOORDE    WRITE   THE   GOTHAM    TALES?  [§    13. 

affects  to  find  the  cause  of  these  tales  in  a  meeting  of  certain  Com- 
missioners appointed  by  Henry  YIII. 

"At  a  last^  holden  at  Westham,  October  3rd,  24  Henry  VIII, 
for  the  purpose  of  preventing  unauthorized  persons  *from  setting 
nettes,  pottes,  or  innyances,'  or  any  wise  taking  fish  within  the 
privileges  of  the  marsh  of  Pevensey,  the  king's  commission  was 
directed  to  John,  prior  of  Lewes ;  Eichard.  abbot  of  Begeham ;  John, 
prior  of  Mychillym  ;  Thomas,  Lord  Dacre  ;  and  others. 

"  Dr  Borde  (the  original  Merry  Andrew)  founds  his  Tales  of  the 
Wise  Men  of  Gotham  upon  the  proceedings  of  this  meeting — Gotham  ^ 
being  the  property  of  Lord  Dacre,  and  near  his  residence  [at  Herst- 
monceux  Castle.] — Horsfield's  History  of  Leives^  vol.  i,  p.  239,  note ; 
no  authority  cited  :" — quoted  by  M.  A.  Lower,  in  Sussex  Arch.  Coll. 
vi.  207. 

Anthony  a  Wood  in  his  Athence  Oxonienses,  of  which  the  first 
edition  was  published  in  1691-2,  over  140  years  after  Boorde's 
death,  says  at  p.  172,  vol.  i.,  ed.  Bliss,  that  Boorde  wrote  the  Merie 
Tales : 

"  The  merry  Tales  of  the  mad  Men  of  Gotham.  Printed  at  Lon- 
don in  the  time  of  K.  Hen.  8 ;  in  whose  reign  and  after,  it  was 
accounted  a  book  full  of  wit  and  mirth  by  scholars  and  gentlemen. 
Afterwards,  being  often  printed,  is  now  sold  only  on  the  stalls  of 
ballad  singers.  (An  edition  printed  in  12mo.  Lond.  1630,  in  the 
Bodleian,  8vo.  L.  79.  Art.  '  Gathered  together  by  A.  B.  of  physicke 

Those  who  contend  for  Boorde's  authorship  of  this  book  are 
obliged  to  admit  that  the  greater  part  of  its  allusions  do  not  suit  the 
Gotham  in  Sussex,^  but  do  suit  the  Gotham  in  Nottinghamshire,  ex- 
cept in  three  cases,  where  a  Mayor,  nearness  to  the  sea,  and  putting 

•  "  Last,  in  the  marshes  of  Kent  [and  Sussex]  is  a  court  held  by  the 
twenty-four  jurats,  and  summoned  by  the  bailiff ;  wherein  orders  are  made  to 
lay  and  levy  taxes,  impose  penalties,  &c.,  for  the  preservation  of  the  said 
marshes."     Jacob's  Law  Did. — Lower,  ib. 

'  Gotham  still  possesses  manorial  rights.  Gotham  marsh  is  a  well-known 
spot  in  the  parish  of  Westham,  adjacent  to  Pevensey ;  but  the  Manor-house 
lies  near  Magham  Down  in  the  parish  of  Hailsham. — Lower,  ih. 

^  The  manor  of  Gotham  is  the  property  of  Lord  Dacre,  and  near  his 
residence,  Herstmonceux  Castle.  The  manor-house  lies  near  Magham  Down, 
in  the  parish  of  Hailsham. — Sussex  Arch.  Coll.  vi.  206-7. 

Lower.  Sussex  Arch.  Coll.  vi.  208.  "  In  the  edition  of  Mr  Halliwell 
(which  exhibits  satisfactory  evidence  of  some  interpolating  hand  having  intro- 
duced local  names  and  circumstances,  for  the  purpose  of  accommodating  the 
anecdotes  to  the  Nottinghamshire  village)  there  are  several  jests  which  are  still 
current  as  belonging  to  Sussex." 

§    13.]        FOREWORDS.      DID   BOORDE  WRITE   THE   GOTHAM   TALES?         29 

an  eel  in  a  pond  to  drown  him,  are  alluded  to  ^ ;  but  they  argue  that 
all  the  Nottinghamshire  allusions  have  been  introduced  into  the  book 
since  JBoorde  wrote  it,  and  John  Taylor  the  Water-Poet  alluded  to  it. 
One  may  start  with  the  intention  to  make  the  book  Boorde's,  and 
make  it  fit  Sussex,  by  hook  or  by  crook,  or,  from  reading  the  book, 
turn  cranky  oneself,  and  write  mad  nonsense  about  it.  There  is  no 
good  external  evidence  that  the  book  was  written  by  Boorde,  while 
the  internal  evidence  is  against  his  authorship. 

The  earliest  collection  known  to  us,  of  stories  ridiculing  the 
stupidity  of  the  natives  of  any  English  county,  is  in  Latin,  probably 
of  the  12th  century,  and  relates  to  Norfolk.  It  was  printed  by  Mr 
Thomas  Wright  in  his  Early  Mysteries  and  other  Latin  Poems  of 
the  Twelfth  and  Thirteenth  Centuries,  1838,  p.  93-8,  from  2  MSS  of 
the  13th  and  15th  centuries  in  Trinity  College  Cambridge.  In  his 
Preface,  Mr  T.  Wright  says  of  this  satire  : 

"  The  Descriptio  Norfolcieiisinm  is  said,  in  the  answer  by  John 
of  St  Omer  (p.  99-106),  to  have  been  -written  by  a  monk  of  Peter- 
borough, and  is,  in  all  probability,  a  composition  of  the  latter  part 
of  the  twelfth  century.  It  is  exceedingly  curious,  as  being  the 
earliest  known  specimen  of  a  collection  of  what  we  now  call  Men-of- 
Gotham  stories ;  in  Germany  attributed  to  the  inhabitants  of  Schild- 
burg,  but  here,  in  the  twelfth  century,  laid  to  the  account  of  the 
people  of  Norfolk.  The  date  of  the  German  Schildburger  stories  is 
the  sixteenth  century ^ ;  the  wise  men  of  Gotham  are  not,  I  think, 
alluded  to  before  the  same  century.  Why  the  people  of  Norfolk 
had  at  this  early  period  obtained  the  character  of  simpletons,  it  is 
impossible  to  say ;  but  the  stories  which  compose  the  poem  were 
popular  jests,  that  from  time  to  time  appearing  under  different  forms, 
lived  until  many  of  them  became  established  Joe  Millers  or  Irish 
Bulls.  The  horseman  (p.  95,  1.  122-4)  who  carries  his  sack  of  corn 
on  his  own  shoulders  to  save  the  back  of  his  horse,  is  but  another 
version  of  the  Irish  exciseman,  who,  when  carried  over  a  bog  on  his 
companion's  shoulders,  hoisted  his  cask  of  brandy  on  his  own 
shoulders,  that  his  jDorter's  burden  might  be  lessened.  The  story  of 
the  honey  which  was  carried  to  market  after  having  been  eaten  by 
the  dog  (p.  99-7,  1.  147-172)  re-appears  in  a  jest-book  of  the  seven- 
.teenth  century."^ 

'  Mr  Lower  thinks  this  clearly  refers  to  the  Pevensey  practice  of  drowning 
criminals. — Svss.  Arch.  Coll.  vi.  208  ;  iv.  210. 

^  "  For  further  information  on  this  subject  see  an  admirable  paper  on  the 
Early  German  Comic  Komances,  by  ray  friend  Mr  Thorns,  in  the  40th  number 
of  the  Foreign  Quarterly  Review."— T.  Wright. 

^  Coffee  House  Jests,  Fifth  Edition,  London,  1688.— T.  Wright. 

30  DID    BOORDE   WRITE   THE   GOTHAM   TALES?  [§    13. 

The  story  of  the  sack  of  corn  and  the  horse  which  Mr  T.  Wright 
instances  from  the  13th  century,  is,  in  fact,  the  Second  Tale  in  the 
Gotham  collection  attributed  to  Boorde  : 

There  was  a  man  of  Gottam  did  ride  to  the  market  with  two 
bushells  of  wheate  ;  and  because  his  horse  should  not  beare  heauy, 
he  carried  his  come  vpon  his  owne  necke,  &  did  ride  vpon  his  horse, 
because  his  horse  should  not  cary  to  heauy  a  burthen.  Judge  you 
which  was  the  wisest,  his  horse  or  himselfe. 

The  Gothamites  too  were  known  before  The  Merie  Tales,  and 
if  we  may  trust  Mr  Collier,  the  subject  was  open  to  any  one.  Mr  J. 
P.  Collier  says : 

"  '  The  foles  of  Gotham '  must  have  been  celebrated  long  before 
Borde  made  them  more  ridiculous,  for  we  find  them  laughed  at  in 
the  Widkirk  Miracle-plays,  the  only  existing  MS.  of  which  was 
written  about  the  reign  of  Henry  YI.  The  mention  of  *  the  wise 
men  of  Gotum '  in  the  MS.  play  of  *  Misogonus '  was  later  than  the 
time  of  the  collector,  or  author,  of  the  tales  as  they  have  come  down 
to  us,  because  that  comedy  must  have  been  written  about  1560  :  tlie 
MS.  copy  of  it,  however,  bears  the  date  of  1577.  In  'A  Briefe  and 
necessary  Instruction,'  &c.  by  E.  D.,  8vo.  1572,  we  find  the  'fools  of 
Gotham '  in  the  following  curious  and  amusing  company  : — '  Bevis  of 
Hampton,  Guy  of  Warwicke,  Arthur  of  the  round  table,  Huon  of 
Bourdeaux,  Oliver  of  the  castle,  the  foure  Sonnes  of  Amond,  the 
witles  devices  of  Gargantua,  Howleglas  Esop,  Eobyn  Hoode,  Adam 
Bell,  Frier  Eushe,  the  Fooles  of  Gotham,  and  a  thousand  such  other.' 
Among  the  '  such  other,'  are  mentioned  '  tales  of  Eobyn  Goodfellow,' 
'  Songes  and  Sonets,'  '  Pallaces  of  Pleasure,'  '  imchast  fables  and 
Tragedies,  and  such  like  Sorceries,'  '  The  Courte  of  Venus,'  '  The 
Castle  of  Love.' — This  is  nearly  as  singular  and  interesting  an 
enumeration  as  that  of  Capt.  Cox's  library  in  Laneham's  Letter  from 
Kenilworth,  printed  three  years  later,  although  the  former  has  never 
been  noticed  on  account  of  the  rarity  of  E.  D.'s  [possibly  Sir  Edward 
Dyer's]  strange  little  volume. — William  Kempe's  '  applaud^nl  merri- 
ments,' of  the  men  of  Gotham,  in  the  remarkable  old  comedy  'A 
Knack  to  know  a  Knave,'  1594,  consists  only  of  one  scene  of  vulgar 
blundering;  but  it  was  so  popular  as  to  be  pointed  out  on  the  title- 
page  in  large  type,  as  one  of  the  great  recommendations  of  the 
drama." — Collier's  Bibliographical  Account,  vol.  i.  p.  327. 

I  can  see  nothing  in  the  Merie  Tales  that  is  like  Boorde's  hand ; 
and  if  Colwell  printed  the  book  after  Boorde's  death,  why  shoiddn't 
he  have  put  Boorde's  name  on  its  title-page,  as  he  did  on  the  title- 
page  of  Boorde's  Dyetary  that  he  printed  ?     So  too  with  Wikos. 

§    14.]  FOREWORDS.     DID    BOORDE    WRITE   SCOGIN'S  JESTS  9  31 

§  14.  ^^  Scogin's  Jests,  an  idle  thing  unjustly  fathered  upon  Dr 
Boorde,  have  been  often  printed  in  Duck  Lane,"  says  Anthony  a 
Wood,  Ath.  Oxon.  i.  172,  «d.  Bliss.  A  copy  of  the  first  edition 
known  to  us  is  in  the  British  Museum  :  "  The  first  and  best  parts  of 
Scoggins  lests  :  full  of  witty  Mirth  and  pleasant  Shifts  done  by  him 
in  France  and  other  Places ;  being  a  Preseruatiue  against  Melancholy. 
Gathered  by  An.  Boord,  Dr  of  Physicke."  London,  F.  Williams, 
1626.  Lowndes  names  an  earlier  edition  in  1613,  and  an  earlier 
still  in  black  letter,  undated.  The  work  was  licensed  to  Colwell  in 

Colwell  Recevyd  of  Thomas  colwell,  for  his  lycense  for  pryntinge  of 
the  geystes  of  skoggan,  gathered  together  in  this  volume  iiij*. 
MS  Register  A,  leaf  134  ;  {Collier's  Stat.  Reg.  i.  120.) 

The  *  gathered  together  in  this  volume'  looks  as  if  this  were  the 
first  collected  edition  of  some  old  jests  known  in  print  or  talk  before.  , 
Anthony  a  Wood  did  not  believe  that  Andi-ew  Boorde  ever  had 
anything  to  do  with  this  book.  A  modern  follower  of  his  might 
argue :  "  The  way  in  which  these  attributions  are  got  up,  is  well 
illustrated  by  a  passage  in  Mr  W.  C.  Hazlitt's  Early  Popular  Poetry, 
vol.  iii^  p.  99  : 

*  It  is  not  unlikely  that,  besides  the  Merle  Tales  of  the  Mad 
Men  of  Gotam,  and  Scogin's  Jests,  Borde  was  the  real  compiler  of 
the  M&rie  Tales  of  Skelton,  of  which  there  was  surely  an  impression 
anterior  to  Colwell's  in  1567.' 

"  *  Boorde  recommends  mirth  in  his  books,  says  he  has  put  jokes 
into  one  to  amuse  hia  patron,  therefore  he  wrote  all  the  jest-books 
issued  during  liis  life,  and  a  fortiori  those  printed  twenty  years 
after  his  death.'  Surely  the  more  reasonable  line  to  take  is, 
*  In  all  his  authentic  books,  Andrew  Boorde  declares  himself,  and 
otherwise  enables  us  to  identify  him.  In  all,  he  writes  about  himself 
and  his  own  work.  If  in  any  other  books  nothing  of  this  kind  is 
present,  the  odds  are  that  Boorde  did  not  write  them.  Merie  Tales 
were  put  down  to  Skelton  that  he  never  wrote  ;  may  not  those  and 
the  Jests  put  down  to  Boorde  be  in  like  case  V"  A  supporter  of  the 
authenticity  of  Scogin's  Jests  might  answer,  "  I  grant  all  this,  and 
yet  contend,  1.  that  the  Jests  do  show  evidence  of  being  written  by 

32  PERHAPS   BOORDE   WROTE   SCOGIN's   JESTS.  [§    14,    16. 

a  Doctor,  and,  2.  that  that  Doctor  is  Boorde.  In  proof  of  1.  note 
how  many  of  the  Jests  turn  on  doctors  and  medicine ;  in  proof  of  2. 
note  how  many  are  concerned  with  Oxford  life,  which  we  assume 
Boorde  to  have  passed  through.  Also  read  \]ie  Prologue  to  the 
Jests  : 

*  There  is  nothing  beside  the  goodness  of  God,  that  preserves 
health  so  much  as  honest  mirth  used  at  dinner  and  supper,  and 
mirth  towards  bed,  as  it  doth  plainly  appear  in  the  Directions  for 
Health :  therefore  considering  this  matter,  that  mirth  is  so  necessary 
for  man,  I  published  this  Book,  named  TJie  Jests  of  Scogin,  to  make 
men  merry :  for  amongst  divers  other  Books  of  grave  matters  I  have 
made,  my  delight  had  been  to  recreate  my  mind  in  making  some- 
thing merry,  wherefore  I  do  advertise  every  man  in  avoiding  pensive- 
ness,  or  too  much  study  or  melancholy,  to  be  merry  with  honesty  in 
God,  and  for  God,  whom  I  humbly  beseech  to  send  us  the  mirth  of 
Heaven,  Amen.' 

and  then  compare  it  with  the  extracts  from  Boorde's  Breuyary  on 
Mirth  and  honest  Company,  p.  88-9,  below ;  lastly,  compare  the  first 
Jest  with  Boorde's  chapters  on  Urines  in  his  Extrauagantes,  and  re- 
mark the  striking  coincidence  between  the  JesVs  physician  saying, 
'  Ah  ...  a  water  or  urine  is  but  a  strumpet ;  a  man  may  be  deceived 
in  a  water,'  and  Boorde's  declaring  that  urine  *  is  a  strumpet  or  an 
harlot,  for  it  wyl  lye  \  and  the  best  doctour  of  Phisicke  of  them  all 
maye  be  deceyued  in  an  vryne '  {Extrav.  fol.  xxi.  back :  see  extract, 
page  34).  If  Boorde  did  not  write  the  book,  the  man  who  fathered 
it  on  him  made  at  least  one  designed  coincidence  look  like  an  unde- 
signed one."  Still,  I  doubt  the  book  being  Boorde's.  If  it  had 
been  attributed  to  him  in  Laneham's  time  (1575),  I  should  think 
that  merry  man  would  have  told  us  that  Captain  Cox's  "  Skogan  " 
was  by  **  doctor  Boord"  as  well  as  the  "  breuiary  of  health." 
{Captain  Cox,  or  Laneham^s  Letter,  p.  30,  ed.  F.  J.  F.,  1870.) 

§  15.  Tlie  Mylner  of  Ahyngton.  "Here  is  a  mery  lest  of  the 
Mylner  of  Abyngton  with  his  Wyfe  and  his  Doughter,  and  the  two 
poore  scholers  of  Cambridge  "  [London,  imprinted  by  Wynkyn  de 
Worde]  4to,  black  letter.*  Anthony  a  Wood  says  that  a  T.  Newton 
of  Chester  wrote  Boorde's  name  in  a  copy  of  this  book  as  the  author 
of  it: 

'  Hazlitt'8  Early  Popular  Poetry,  iii.  98. 

§  15,  16.]  FOREWORDS.  B00nT)E  rnDS^T -WRITE  THE  MYLNER  OF  ABYNGTON.  33 

"  A  right  pleasant  and  merry  History  of  the  Mylner  of  Ahington^ 
with  his  Wife,  arid  his  fair  Daughter,  and  of  two  poor  Scholars  of  Cam- 
bridge. Pr.  at  Lond.  by  Rich.  Jones  in  qu[arto].  And.  Borde's  name 
is  not  to  it,  but  the  copy  of  the  book  which  I  saw  did  belong  to  Tho. 
Newton  of  Cheshire,  [Bodl.  4to.  C.  39.  Art.  Seld.]  whom  I  shaU 
hereafter  mention,  and  by  him  'tis  written  in  the  title  that  Dr.  Borde 
was  the  author.  He  hath  also  written  a  Book  of  Prognosticks, 
another  Of  Urines,  and  a  third  Of  every  Region,  Country  and  Pro- 
vince, which  shews  the  Miles,  Leeges,  distance  from  City  to  City,  and 
from  Town  to  Toion,  with  the  noted  Things  in  the  said  Cities  and 
Towns."  ^—Wood's  Athen.  Oxon.  i.  172. 

This  tale  of  The  Mylner  of  Ahyngton  has  been  reprinted  lately  by 
Mr  Thomas  Wright  in  his  Anecdota  Literaria, -p.  105-116,  and  by 
Mr  Hazlitt  in  his  Early  Popular  Poetry,  iii.  100-118.  It  is  a  story 
like  Chaucer's  Reeves  Tale^,  about  the  swiving  of  the  Miller's  wife  and 
daughter  by  two  Cambridge  students,  in  revenge  for  his  stealing  their 
flour,  and  letting  their  horse  loose.  If  any  one  will  read  Andrew 
Boorde's  poetry,  that  is,  doggrel,  in  his  Introduction  of  Knowledge, 
and  then  turn  to  the  Mylner,  he  will  not  need  any  further  evidence  to 
convince  him  that  Boorde  did  not  write  the  latter  Tale. 

§  16.  Other  Work^.  The  authority  on  which  Wood  assigns  to 
Boorde  his  Books  of  Prognosticks  and  Urines,  is  doubtless  that  on 
which  Warton  (iii.  77,  ed.  1840)  also  assigns  to  him  the  Promptuame 
of  Medicine  and  the  Doctrine  of  Urines,  namely,  Bishop  Bale,  who 
in  the  2nd  edition  of  his  Scriptores  says  : 

"  Andreas  Boorde,  ex  Carthusianae  superstitionis  monacho,  malus 
medicus  factus,  in  monte  Pessulano  in  Gallijs  eius  artis  professionem 
ac  doctoratum,  spreto  diuini  uerbi  ministerio,  suscepit.  Congessit 
moechus  in  sacerdotalis  matrimonij  contemptum.  Prognostica  quce- 
dam,  Lib.  1.  Promptuarium  Phy sices,  Lib.  1.  De  iudicijs  urinarum, 
Lib.  1.     Et  alia." 

Neither  of  the  other  books  do  I  know  by  Bale's  titles,  though  I 
suppose  the  Promptu£Lrium  to  be  Boorde's  Breuyary.  Of  one  of  the 
Prognostica  a  leaf  is  printed  above,  §  10,  p.  25.  I  should  doubt 
Boorde's  having  written  a  separate  treatise  on  Urine,  as  he  has  given 
more  than  six  leaves  to  it  in  his  Extrauagantes,  Fol.  xx-xxvi  back, 
and  had  but  a  bad  opinion  of  it : 

'  See  above,  p.  23-24.  '  Not  Milleres  Tale,  Mr  Hazlitt. 




[k   17. 

"  I  do  say  that  an  vryne  is  a  strumpet,  or  an  harlot,  for  it  wyl 
lye  ;  and  the  best  doctour  of  Phisicke  of  them  all  maye  be  deceyued 
in  an  vryne,  and  his  cunnyng  and  learning  not  a  iote  the  worse.  I 
had  rather  to  se  the  egestyon  of  a  sycke  person,  then  the  vryne : 
bothe  be  good  to  loke  on,  as  it  doth  appere  in  the  Chapitre  named 
Egestio  in  the  fyrst  boke  named  the  Breuiary  of  health,  &c." 

§17.-4  Latin  Poem:  "Xos  Yagabunduli."  This  was  found  in 
a  book  by  Dr  E.  F.  Eimbault,  with  Boorde's  name  to  it,  was  printed 
by  the  Doctor  in  Notes  and  Queries,  vol.  v.  p.  482-3,  and  reprinted 
by  Mr  M.  A.  Lower  in  his  Worthies  of  Sussex,  p.  34-5,  with  an 
English  translation.  Both  Latin  and  English  follow  here,  though  it 
is  clear  to  me  that  the  poem  is  entirely  alien  to  Boorde's  knoAvn 
opinions  on  religion,  and  to  his  way  of  reproving  vices  in  men  pro- 
fessedly religious,  even  though  he,  as  a  monk  and  priest,  may  have 
hated  friars  as  much  as  the  rest  of  the  regular  clergy  and  monks  did. 
The  latter  found  the  friars  a  *  hindrance,'  like  Bp  Wilberforce's 
high- church  clergy  find  the  modern  Dissenters ;  but  I  doubt  Boorde's 
chaffing  his  *  hindrance '  in  this  style  : — 

Latin  Poem  attributed 
to  Andrew  Boorde. 

"  Nos  vagabunduli, 
Lseti,  jucunduli, 

Tara,  tantara  teino 
Edimus  libere, 
Canimus  lepide, 

Tara,  &c. 
Eisu  dissolvimur, 
Pannis  obvolvimur, 

Tara,  &c. 
Multum  in  joculis, 
Crebro  in  poculis, 

Tara,  &c. 
Dolo  consuimus, 
Nihil  metuimus, 

Tara,  &c. 
Pennus  non  deficit, 
Praeda  nos  reficit, 

Tara,  &c. 
Frater  Catholice, 
Vir  apostolice, 

Tara,  &c. 

Mr  M.  A.  Loicer's  English 

•  We're  of  wandering  friars  a  pair, 
And  jolly  ones  we  truly  are, 

Down,  derry  down  ! 
Freely  we  eat  anything, 
And  right  merrily  we  sing, 

Down,  &c. 
With  laughter  oft  our  sides  do  crack. 
And  we've  good  cloth  upon  our  back, 

Down,  &c. 
Much  we  deal  in  merry  quips. 
And  full  frequent  are  our  sips, 

Down,  &c. 
We  are  up  to  many  a  trick, 
And  at  nothing  do  we  stick, 

Down,  &c. 
Our  pouch  is  all  unfailing  still. 
We  pick  up  booty  when  we  will, 

Down,  &c. 
Now,  most  holy  catholic  brother, 
Man  apostolic  (I'm  another), 

Down,  &c. 




Die  quae  volueris, 
Fient  quae  jusseris, 

Tara,  &c. 
Omnes  metuite 
Partes  gramaticae, 

Tara,  &c. 
Quadruplex  nebulo 
Adest,  et  spolio, 

Tara,  &c. 
Data  licencia, 
Crescit  amentia, 

Tara,  &c. 
Papa  sic  praecipit, 
Frater  non  decipit. 

Tara,  &c. 
Chare  fratercule, 
Vale  et  tempore, 

Tara,  &c. 
Quando  revititur, 

Tara,  &c. 
Nosmet  respicimus, 
Et  vale  dicimus, 

Tara,  &c. 
Corporum  noxibus, 
Cordium  amplexibiis 

Tara  tantara  teino." 
■Notes  ^  Queries,  vol. 

V.  pp.  482,  483. 

Call  for  anything  that's  nice, 
It  shall  be  served  you  in  a  trice, 

Down,  &c. 
But  let  me  humbly  you  beseech, 
Be  careful  of  your  parts  of  speech, 

Down,  &c. 
A  fourfold  rascal  here  have  we, 
All  intent  on  booty  he, 

Down,  &c. 
When  there's  too  much  license  given, 
To  what  length  is  madness  driven  ! 

Down,  &c. 
Thus  commands  our  Holy  Pope, 
A  friar  won't  deceive  his  hope, 

Down,  &c. 
Now  farewell,  my  brother  dear  ! 
'Tis  time  that  we  were  gone,  I  fear, 

Down,  &c. 
When  we  meet  again,  my  boy. 
We  will  wish  each  other  joy, 

Down,  &c. 
Now  we  look  upon  each  other, 
And  farewell,  we  say,  dear  brother, 

Down,  &c. 
With  right  friendly  hug  we  part. 
And  embraces  of  the  heart, 

Down,  derry  down ! "   , 
-M.  A.  Lower's  Worthies  of  Sussex^  pp. 
34,  39. 

Having  thus  run  through  the  works  written  by  Boorde,  or  at- 
tributed to  him,  I  pass  on  to  Part  II,  Boorde's  Life,  noting  only,  that 
of  his  Works  I  have  here  reprinted  the  two  that  seem  to  me  the 
most  likely  to  interest  the  general  student  of  Tudor  days — the  Intro- 
duction and  Dyetary ;  that  I  have  added  Barnes  in  Defence  of  the 
Berde  on  account  of  its  connection  with  Boorde,  its  giving  the  sub- 
stance of  his  lost  Treatise  on  Beards,  and  its  being  unique,  though 
it  wants  a  leaf;  and  that  I  have  extracted  most  of  the  chapters 
and  bits  of  Boorde's  Breuyary  (and  its  second  Part,  the  Extraua- 
gantes)  that  contain  his  opinions  on  the  England  and  Rome  of  his 
day,  and  things  in  general,  besides  showing  his  medical  practice. 
That  they'll  amuse  and  interest  the  reader  with  a  turn  for  such 
things,  I  can  promise. 


36  PART  II.     boorde's  life.  [§   18. 

Of  Boorde's  Introduction^  Dibdin  rightly  says,  "  This  is  probahly 
the  most  curious  and  generally  interesting  volume  ever  put  forth 
from  the  press  of  the  Coplands."  Dibdin^ s  Ames,  1816,  iii.  160.  It  is 
the  original  of  Murray's  and  all  other  English  Handbooks  of  Europe. 


§  IS.  For  a  sketch  of  Andrew  Boorde's  life  and  opinions  we 
have  little  else  than  the  materials  he  himself  has  left  us  in  his  Letters 
and  Will,  and  in  the  pleasant  little  outbreaks  he  makes  in  unexpected 
places  in  his  books.  But  as  there  has  been  a  good  deal  of  talk  and 
gammon  mixt  up  with  the  facts  of  his  life,  it  may  be  as  well  at  the 
outset  to  give  a  dry  list  of  these  facts,  with  the  authority  for  each, 
and  the  page  in  which  such  authority  will  be  found  in  the  present 
volume.  I  must,  however,  warn  the  reader  that  I  don't  feel  sure  of 
my  arrangement  of  Boorde's  letters  being  the  right  one.  It  is  only 
the  best  that  I  can  make. 


Born  at  Boord's  Hill,  in  Holms  dayle  (Authority,  Peregrination, 

p.  23,  above). 
Brought  up  at  Oxford  (Auth.  p.  40,  or  Introduction,  p.  210; 

Pronosticacion  for  1545  a.d.,  p.  25). 
Under  age,  admitted  a  Carthusian  monk  (Letter  IV,  p.  57). 
1517  Accused  of  being  conversant  with  women  (Letter  VII,  p.  62). 
1521  Dispensed  from  Religion  by  the  Pope's  Bull,  that  he  might 
be  Suffragan  Bp.  of  Chichester,  though  he  never  acted  as 
such  (Letter  V,  p.  58). 
1528?  Letter  I,  to  Prior  of  Hinton  (p.  47). 

1529  Is  dispensed  of  Religion  in  Batmanson's  days,  by  the  Grande 
Chartreux  (Letter  V,  p.  58). 
Goes  over  sea  to  school  (p,  58),  that  is,  to  study  medicine 
{Dyetary,  p.  226). 

§  18.]  FOREWORDS.       THE    FACTS   OP   BOORDe's    LIFE.  37 

1530  Returns  to  England,  and  attends  the  Duke  of  Norfolk  (Dye- 

tari/,  p.  225). 
1532  ?  Goes  abroad  again  to  study  {Dyetary,  p.  226) ;  getting  a  fresh 
license  from  Prior  Howghton,  after  16  Nov.,  1531  (p.  47-8) 
Returns  to  the  London  Charter-House. 
%  Lost  book  of  Sermons  written  {Breuyary,  p.  24). 

1534  June  6.  Takes  the  oaths  to  Henry  VIII's  supremacy  (Rymer^ 

xiv.  492  ;  Smythe's  Hist  Charter-House,  p.  51-2). 

Is  in  prison,  in  thraldom,  ghostly  and  bodily,  in  the  Charter- 
House  (p.  52).  Writes  from  there  to  Prior  Howghton,  who 
is  confined  in  the  Tower  of  London  (Letter  VI,  p.  59). 

Is  set  free  by  Cromwell  (Letter  VI,  p.  59),  whom  he  probably 
now  visits  at  Bishop's  Waltham  in  Hampshire  (Letter  VI, 
p.  59),  and  goes  abroad  a  third  time. 

1535  In  Catalonia,  when  Charles  V  took  shipping  to  Barbary  (Let- 

ter III,  p.  56). 

June  20.  Letter  II,  from  Bordeaux  (p.  53). 

July  2.  In  Toulouse  (Letter  III,  p.  55). 

After  July  2.  Boorde  sick;  can't  get  home  (Letter  III, 
p.  55). 

Aug.  2.  Letter  IV,  from  the  Grande  Chartreux.  Boorde,  hav- 
ing renewed  his  License,  declares  himself  clearly  discharged 
from  Religion  or  Monkery  (p.  57). 

Writes  Cromwell  a  lost  letter  from  London  (p.  58). 

1536  Letter  V  to  Cromwell,  before  1  April  (p.  58). 

„      April  1,  Letter  VI,  at  Leith.     Is  practising  and  studying  at 
Glasgow  (p.  59). 
Returns  to  London  thro'  Yorkshire  (Breuymy,  p.  61).     Has 
2  horses  stolen.     Sees  Cromwell  (p.  62). 

1537  August  13,  Letter  VII,  from  Cambridge  (p.  62). 
Goes  abroad  the  4th  time. 

1542  In  Montpelier.     Gets  drunk  {Barnes,  p.  309).    Writes  Dye- 
tary, Breuyary,  and  Introduction  (p.  14). 
Returns  to  England,  lives  in  London,  denounces  beards,  and 
(1)  writes  a  Treatyse  vpon  Berdes  (Barnes,  p.  307-8).    Barnes 
answers  him  (p.  305-316). 

38  boorde's  birthplace,     a  visit  to  board  hill.         [§  19.. 

1647  Lives  in  Winchester,  1  acquires  property  there  and  elsewhere. 
„      "Was  late  a  tenant  of  a  house  in  St  Giles's,  London  (p.  64). 
„      Breuyaryy  Dyetary  II,  (?)  Astronamye  (written  in  4  days),  and 

Introductum,  published  (p.  13-24). 
„      Is  accused  of  keeping  3  whores  at  Winchester  {B]p.  Ponety  p. 
Is  imprisoned  in  the  Fleet  (p.  70). 
1549  April  25,  makes  his  Will  in  the  Fleet,  devising  houses,  &c.,  in 
Lynne,  Pevensey,  and  in  and  about  Winchester,  besides 
chattels  (p.  73). 
§  19.  Expanding  our  List,  we  note  first  that  Boorde,  in  his 
Peregrination, — printed  by  Hearne  in  the  2nd  vol.  of  Benedictus 
Abbas  Petroburgensis  de  Vita  et  Gestis  Hen.  Ill  et  Ric.  /,  &c.  (1735, 
8vo) — tells  us  in  an  entry  under  Sussex,  at  p.  777,  where  he  was 
born :  "  Boords  hill,  the  authours  birth  place,  in  Holms  dayle." 

Now  Board  Hill  in  Sussex  is,  and  has  long  been,  a  well-known 
place  as  the  residence  of  the  Boordes.  It  is  a  small  Elizabethan 
mansion,  lately  enlarged  by  its  present  owners.  Major  Macadam  and 
his  wife  (formerly  Miss  Preston)  and  her  mother,  Mrs  Preston.  It 
is  very  pleasantly  situated  on  one  of  those  charming  hills  in  the 
Wealden  formation,  with  the  ground  falling  away  on  three  sides  of 
it  into  a  basin-like  valley,  and  bounded  by  rising  land  in  the  dis- 
tance. On  my  way  back  to  town,  the  day  after  our  most  successful 
Volunteer  Eeview  last  Easter  Monday,  I  walked  two  miles  north  by 
west  of  Hayward's  Heath  Station,  through  lanes  whose  banks  were 
all  aglow  with  primroses,  wood  sorrel^,  and  mallows  (as  I  suppose), 
and  was  shown  quickly  over  the  house  by  Mrs  Macadam.  The 
earliest  date  in  the  wainscoted  rooms  of  the  house  itself  is  1601,  and 
that  is  twice  repeated,  with  the  initials  S.  B.,  which  must  stand  for 
Stephen  Boorde,  who  was  knighted,  the  son  of  the  Stephen  Boorde 
who  heads  Mr  Lower's  pedigree  of  the  family  in  vol.  vi  of  the  Sussex 
Archceological  Collections.^   An  earlier  date,  however, — namely,  1569, 

'  "  Kiss  me  quicks  "  we  call  'em,  once  said  a  man  to  me  in  Combe  Hurst 
near  Croydon. 

^  "  Stephen  Boord  or  Borde,  whose  name  stands  at  the  head  of  the  pedi- 
gree as  of  *  the  Hill '  in  Cuckfield,  is  described  in  his  will,  dated  10th  February, 
15C6,  as  'of  Lindfield.'     He  directs  his  body  to  be  buried  in  the  church  of 

§  19.]     FOREWORDS.     ANDREW   BOORDE   WAS   BORN   AT    BOARD    HILL.      39 

— is  shown  on  an  old  black  piece  of  oak  taken  off  a  barn  pulled 
doAvn  by  Major  Macadam ;  and  I  have  no  doubt  that  in  a  house  at 
this  place,  Andrew  Boorde  was  born.  For  though  the  valley  round 
it  is  not  now  called  Helmsdale — so  far  as  Mrs  Macadam  and  the 
vicar  of  Cuckfield  (pronounced  Cookfield)  know — yet  it  may  have 
been  so  in  former  days,  as  two  little  streams  run  eastward,  north  and 
south  of  Board  Hill,  and  the  A.  Sax.  holm  means  1.  water,  2.  a  river 
island,  a  green  plot  of  ground  environed  with  water  (Bosworth).  It 
is  clear  too  that  the  Hill,  and  not  the  Dale,  is  the  feature  on  which 
Andrew  Boorde  dwells.  He  might  have  found  some  hundreds  of 
hills  in  England  with  as  much  right  to  be  included  in  his  list  as  his 
*'  Boord's  hill ; "  but  he  was  bom  there,  and  so  he  brings  it  in.  I 
therefore  reject  Mr  Lower's  suggestion, 

"  As  Borde-Hill  is  certainly  not  in  a  dale,  the  probability  is  that 
the  place  indicated  is  a  house  not  far  distant,  still  called  Holmesdale, 

Lindfield,  and  gives  to  the  repairs  of  that  church  and  of  Cokefelde,  ten  shil- 
lings each.  He  was  interred  in  the  south  transept  at  Lindfield,  where,  on  a 
marble  slab,  were  formerly  to  be  seen  brasses  representing  himself,  his  wife, 
and  their  four  sons  and  three  daughters,  with  the  following  inscription  : — 

"  *  Stephen  Boorde  and  Pernell  his  wyfe  resteth  here after  the 

troubles  of  this  world,  in  assured  hope  of  the  resurrection  :  which  Stephen  de- 
cessed  xxij  day  of  August,  in  y^  year  of  our  Lord  MCCCCC  Ixvij,  and  the  said 
Pernell  decessed  xviij  day  of  June  in  the  yeare  above  engraven  :  wliose  souls 
we  commende  to  Gods  infinite  mercy.' 

"  Of  the  children  of  the  pair  thus  commemorated,  George  ....  and 
Thomas  became  the  progenitors  of  the  two  branches  settled  respectively  at 
Board  Hill  and  at  Paxfield  Park, 

"  At  the  time  when  the  threatened  Spanish  invasion  excited  the  patriotism 
and  the  liberality  of  our  gentry,  we  find  Thomas  Boord  of  Paxhill  and  Stejjhen 
Boord  of  Boord  Hill  (afterwards  knighted)  contributing  the  sum  of  thirty 
pounds  each  towards  the  defences  of  the  country." — M.  A.  Lower  in  Stass. 
Arch,  Collections^  vol,  vi,  p,  33,  87. 

"  From  that  period  the  two  branches  of  the  family  seem  to  have  pursued 
the  steady  and  comparatively  undiversified  career  of  country  gentlemen,  form- 
ing respectable  alliances,  and  continuing  the  name  by  a  rather  numerous 
progeny,  as  will  be  seen  by  the  following  pedigree.  The  Board  Hill  branch  I 
have  been  unable  to  deduce  below  the  year  1720 ;  but  the  Lindfield  branch  I 
have  traced  down  to  its  extinction  in  the  male  line  on  the  death  of  William 
Board,  Esq.,  in  1790.  From  that  gentleman,  through  his  youngest  daughter 
and  coheiress,  the  Lindfield  estate  passed  to  the  Crawfurds.  The  late  William - 
Board-  Edw.-  Gibbs  Crawfurd,  Esq.,  who  died  in  1840,  left  two  daughters  and 
coheiresses,  the  elder  of  whom  is  married  to  Arthur  W.  W.  Smith,  Escj.,  now 
of  Paxhill,  the  old  family  seat  of  this  branch.  Both  the  lines  produced 
several  younger  sons  ;  and  the  name  is  by  no  means  extinct  in  other  counties, 
though  it  seems  totally  so  in  this." — Sussex  Arckceoloqical  Collections^  pp. 
200,  201,  vol,  vi.     See  a  later  note  in  Lower's  M'orthies  of  Sussex. 

40  ANDREW  BOORDE  AT  OXFORD.  [§  19,  20. 

in  later  times  a  seat  of  the  Michelbornes  and  Wilsons,  and  at  present 
existing  as  a  farm  house." — Worthies  of  Sussex,  p.  27, 

and  hold  that,  as  Johnson  defined  Dale  to  be  '  a  low  place  between 
hills,  a  vale,  a  valley,'  Boorde  Hill  may  be  fairly  said  to  be  in  a  dale, 
that  is,  to  rise  out  of  the  low  ground  between  it  and  the  range  of 
hills  seen  at  a  distance  round  it.  It  is  on  the  south  of  Ashdown 
Forest,  the  remains  of  what  was  formerly  called  the  Forest  of  Peven- 
sel,  which  again  was  only  part  of  the  great  forest  of  Anderida,  that 
was  *  coextensive,  or  nearly  so,  with  the  wealds  in  Sussex,  Kent,  and 
Surrey,'  and  in  Bede's  days  120  miles  from  east  to  west,  and  30 
miles  from  north  to  south.  ^ 

Wlien  Andrew  Boorde  was  born  at  Boord's  Hill  (or  Board  Hill), 
we  do  not  know  ;  but  it  must  have  been  before  1490  a.d.,  as  by 
1521  he  was  old  enough  to  have  been  appointed  Suffragan  Bishop  of 
Chichester,  and  to  have  got  the  Pope's  Bull  dispensing  him  from 
filling  the  office  (p.  44,  below).     But  I  am  anticipating. 

§  20.  Where  Boorde  was  brought  up,  he  probably  tells  us  in 
The  fyrst  Bake  of  the  Introduction  of  Knowledge,  cap.  35, 

"  What  countrey  man  art  thou  ? "     Cuius  es. 

"  I  was  borne  in  England,  and  brought  up  at  Oxford." 
Natus  erum  in  Amjlia,  et  educatus  Oxoni[(e]  .  .  . 

"  What  is  thy  name  ? "     Cuius  nomlnis  es. 

"  My  name  is  Andrew  Borde." 
Andreas  Parforatus^  est  meum  nomen. 

Now  though  this  is  part  of  an  imaginary  conversation,  yet 
Boorde  describes  himself  in  his  Pronosticacion  for  1545  as  'of  the 
Vniversity  of  Oxford'  (p.  25,  above),  and  his  name  is  given  in 
Wood's  Athenoi,  vol.  i,  p.  169,  of  Bliss's  edition,  as  that  of  an 
Oxford  man.  Wood  also — though  he  gives  no  authority  for  his 
statement,  and   I   can  find  none   in   his   i^«sifi  3— states  positively 

'  'Ashdown  Forest  or  Lancaster  Great  Park,'  by  the  Eev.  E.  Turner, 
Sussex  Arch.  Collections,  xiv.  35. 

'  Borde  is  also  an  early  word  for  '  table,'  and  Boorde  one  for  joke,  play, 
joet. — See  Babees  Book,  Index,  &c. 

^  Alexander  Hay,  in  his  History  of  Chichester,  1804,  p.  506,  says  that 
Boorde  "  completed  his  education  at  New-College,  in  Oxford  ;  where  for 
several  years,  he  applied  very  closely  and  successfully  to  the  study  of  physic. 
[No  doubt,  gammon.]  Leaving  Oxford  he  is  said  to  have  travelled  into 
every  kingdom  in  Europe,  and  to  have  visited  several  places  in  Africa.     At 

§  21.]  FOREWORDS.       WAS    ANDREW   BOORDE   A   VILLEIN?  41 

that  Boorde  took  liis  M.D.  degree  at  Oxford.  We  may  therefore 
fairly  conclude,  that  he  was  brought  up  at  Oxford,  though  we  cannot 
be  certain  of  the  fact. 

§  21.  If  we  could  trust  Mr  Lower's  judgment,  which  I  do  not 
think  we  can,^  the  next  notice  of  Andrew  Boorde — or  perhaps  a 
prior  one- — shows  him  to  have  been  in  1510  a.d.  a  nativus,  or  villein 
regardant'-^ — attached  to  the  soil,  and  sellable  with  it, — of  Lord 
Abergavenny's  manor  of  Ditchling,  in  Suffolk,  holding  goods  and 
chattels,  therefore  of  age  (I  assume),  though  childless,  and  being  the 
son  of  John  Borde.  This  villein  Andrew  Borde,  Lord  Aber- 
gavenny manumits  or  frees,  and  quits  claim  of  his  goods,  by  the 
following  charter,  the  last  in  Madox  : 

O.A.     An  Enfranchisement  of  a  Villain  "Regardant. 

Omnibus  Christi  fidelibus  ad  quos  preesens  scriptum  pervenerit, 
Georgius  Nevile  Dominus  de  Bergevenny,^  salutem  in  Domino. 
Noveritis  me  praefatum  Georgium  manumisisse  Andream  Borde  filium 
Johannu  Borde,  nativum  meum,  Manerio  sive  Dominio  meo  de 
Dyclielyng^  in  Comitatu  Sussex  spectantem ;  &  eundem  Andream 
liberum  fecisse,  &  ab  omni  servitutis  jugo,  villinagio,  &  condicione 
servili  liberum  fecisse  ;  Ita  videlicet,  qu6d  nee  Ego  prsefatus  Dominus 
de  Bergevenny  nee  haeredes  mei,  nee  aliquis  alius  pro  nobis  seu 
nomine  nostro,  aliquid  Juris  vel  clamei  in  preedictum  Andream,  nee 
in  bonis  aut  catallis  suis,  ad  quascumque  mundi  partes  divertent, 
exigere,  clamare,  vendicare,  poterimus  nee  debemus  in  futuro ;  sed  ab 

Montpelier  in  France  he  took  his  degree  of  doctor  of  physic ;  and  returning 
to  England,  was  admitted  at  Oxford  to  the  same  honour  in  1521."  [No 
doubt,  gammon  too.] 

*  I  speak  with  all  respect  for  Mr  Lower's  great  services  to  his  county  and 
to  Literature  ;  but  in  many  points  I  cannot  follow  him. 

^  "  The  villein,"  says  Coke,  on  Littleton,  fol.  120  b,  "  is  called  regarda7it 
to  the  manour,  because  he  had  to  do  all  base  or  villenous  services  within  the 
same,  and  to  gard  and  keepe  the  same  from  all  filthie  or  loathsome  things 
that  might  annoy  it :  and  his  service  is  not  certaine,  but  he  must  have  regard 
to  that  which  is  commanded  unto  him.  And  therefore  he  is  called  regardant, 
a  quo  prcBstandum  servitivm  incertvm  et  indeterminatum,  iihi  scire  non 
potxiit  vesper e  quale  servitium  fieri  debet  mane,  viz.  ubi  quis  facer e  tenetur 
qvicquid  ei  prceceptum  fuerit  (Bract,  li.  2,  fo.  26,  Mir.  ca.  2,  sect-  12)  as  be- 
fore hath  beene  observed  (vid  sect.  84)."  See  my  essay  on  "  Bondman,  the 
Name  «fe  the  Class,"  in  the  Percy  Folio  Ballads  and  Eomances,  vol.  ii.  p.  xxxiii 
— Ixii. 

^  He  was  the  5th  Baron  by  writ  ;  succeeded  to  the  title  in  1492,  on  the 
death  of  his  father  ;  and  died  in  15.35. — JVicolas's  Peerage. 

*  The  manor  of  Ditchling  extends  over  a  considerable  portion  of  the  parish 
of  Cuckfield.     M.  A.  Lower,  in  Sussex  Arch.  Coll.  vi.  199. 

42  LORD   ABERGAVENNY    FREES    AN    ANDREW    BORDE.  [§  21. 

omni  actione  juris  &  clamei  inde  sinius  cxclusi  imperpetuuni,  per 
prajsentes.  In  cujus  rei  testimonmm  huic  praesenti  scripto  sigillum 
meum  apposui.  Datum  vicesimo  septimo  die  Mensis  Junii,  Anno 
regni  Regis  Henrici  octavi  secundo.^  G,  Bergevenny." — Madox's 
Formulare  Anylicaimm,  edit.  1702,  page  420. 

This,  being  englished,  is, 

"  To  all  the  faithful  of  Christ  to  whom  this  present  writing  shall 
come,  George  Nevile,  Lord  of  Bergevenny,  [wishes]  salvation  in  the 
Lord.  Know  ye  that  I,  the  aforesaid  George,  have  manumitted 
Andrew  Borde  (son  of  John  Borde)  my  villein  regardant  to  my 
Manor  or  Lordship  of  Dychelyng  in  the  county  of  Sussex  ;  and  have 
made  free  the  same  Andrew ;  and  have  made  him  free  from  all  yoke 
of  serfdom,  viUenage,  and  servile  condition;  in  such  wise,  to  wit, 
that  neither  I  the  foresaid  Lord  of  Bergevenny,  nor  my  heirs,  nor 
any  other  person  for  us,  or  in  our  name,  may  or  shall  hereafter  re- 
quire, claim,  [or]  challenge  any  right  or  claim  to  the  foresaid  Andrew 
nor  to  his  goods  or  chattels,  to  whatsoever  parts  of  the  world  they 
may  turn  ;  but  that  we  shall  be  by  these  presents  shut  out  for  ever 
from  all  action  of  right  and  claim.  In  witness  of  which  thing  I  have 
set  my  seal  to  this  present  writing.  Dated  on  the  27th  day  of  the 
month  of  June,  in  the  2nd  year  of  the  reign  of  King  Henry  the  8th. 
G.  Bergevenny." 

Now  there  is  not  an  atom  of  evidence  beyond  the  sameness  of 
name  and  the  nearness  of  place,  to  connect  this  manumitted  villein 
Andrew  Borde  with  our  Andrew;  and  the  reasons  why  I  at  first 
sight  held,  and  still  hold,  that  this  villein  is  not  our  Andrew  are,  that 
our  man  himself  tells  us  in  his  Letter  II,  p.  53  below,  'to  Master 
Prior  &  the  Couentt  off  the  Charter-howse  off  London,  &  to  all 
Priors  &  Couentes  off  the  sayd  Order  in  Ynglond  '  that  he  was  ^  re- 
ceuyd  amonges '  them, — as  a  Carthusian  monk, — under  age,  contrary 
to  their  Statutes.  Lord  Abergavenny's  charter  implies  that  his 
Andrew  Borde  was  of  age,  and  did  hold,  and  could  hold,  property. 
Our  Andrew,  if  an  infant,  couldn't  have  had  such  a  charter  made  to 
him, — an  infant  couldn't  (and  can't)  hold  property  ; — our  Andrew,  if 
of  age,  was  a  monk ;  and,  being  so,  couldn't  have  needed  manumis- 
sion, for  his  admission  as  a  monk  must  have  freed  his  person.  The 
only  supposition,  says  Professor  Stubbs, — who  has  kindly  helpt  me 
here, — on  which  the  Charter  could  apply  to  our  Andrew  is,  that  he 
waa  21,  that  he  was  going  to  profess  himself  a  monk,  and  that  ho 

'  The  2ud  year  of  Heury  VIH's  reign  was  from  1510  to  loll.— Nicolas. 

§  21.]         FOREWORDS.      OUR   ANDREW   BOORDE   NOT   A   VILLEIN.  43 

obtained  the  Charter  for  that  purpose,  as  the  Constitutions  of  Claren- 
don forbid  any  nativus  or  bondman  being  received  as  a  monk  *  with- 
out his  lord's  leave.  ^ 

But  our  Andrew  was  not  21  before  he  became  a  monk ;  and  he 
could  not  have  taken  in  his  lord  about  his  age  like  he  could  the  non- 
Sussex  monks  of  the  London  Charter-house, — if  indeed  they  wanted 
taking  in. — Moreover,  had  he  been  a  nativus  in  his  youth,  he  would 
certainly  have  told  the  Prior  and  Convents  this  additional  reason 
against  his  having  been  legally  admitted  into  their  order.  We  know 
that  there  were  other  Bordes  in  Sussex  in  our  Andrew's  time — as 
Dr  Eichard,  and  Stephen  of  the  Hill,  Cuckfield;^ — and  we  may 
safely  conclude  that  in  1510  there  was  another  Andrew  Borde  than 
ours,  namely,  he  whom  Lord  Bergevenny  freed.  Sir  T.  Duffus 
Hardy  and  Prof.  Brewer  both  agree  that  that  Lord's  charter  did  not 
relate  to  any  Carthusian  monk,  or  any  infant  in  law. 

We  may  notice  in  passing,  that  the  Monks'  habit  of  enticing  lads 
under  age  to  join  their  orders,  is  known  from  Richard  de  Bury's  re- 
proof to  them  in  1344  :  "You  draw  boys  into  your  religion  with 
hooks  of  apples,  as  the  people  commonly  report,  whom,  having  pro- 
fessed, you  do  not  instruct  in  doctrines  by  compulsion  and  fear  as 
their  age  requires,  but  maintain  them  to  go  upon  beggarly  excursions, 
and  suffer  them  to  consume  the  time  in  which  they  might  learn,  in 
catching  at  the  favours  of  their  friends,  to  the  offence  of  their 
parents,  the  danger  of  the  boys,  and  the  detriment  of  the  Order."* 
(Translation  of  1832,  p.  40.) 

'  Compare  the  Friars,  in  Prof.  Brewer's  Momimenta  Francigcana,  p.  574, 
quoting  the  Cotton  MS,  Faustina  D  iv.  *  No  man  shalbe  resceived  to  the 
Order  [of  St  Francis]  but  he  have  thes  thingis  .  .  that  he  be  not  a  honde  man 
home  .  .  yf  he  be  clerke,  at  the  leste  that  he  be  goynge  of  xvi  yere  of  age.' 

^      And  sith,  hondemenne  harnes  '  han  he  made  bisshopes, 
And  barnes  bastardes  •  han  ben  archidekenes. 
(ab.  1380.    Vision  of  Piers  Plowman.  Whitaker's  Text,  Passus  Sextus.) 

^  See  pages  38-9  and  65. 

*  The  Friars  were  as  bad.  In  or  about  1358  A.D.  the  Universitj''  of  Ox- 
ford also  passed  a  Statute,  reciting  that  the  common  voice  and  experience  of 
the  fact  proved  that  *  the  nobles  and  people  generally  were  afraid  to  send 
their  sons  to  Oxford  lest  they  should  be  induced  by  the  Mendicant  friars  to 
join  their  order,'  and  therefore  enacting  'that,  if  any  Mendicant  friar  shall 
induce  or  cause  to  be  induced,  any  member  of  the  University  under  18  years 
of  age  to  join  the  said  friars,  or  shall  in  any  way  assist  in  his  abduction,  no 

44  BOORDE   ACCUSED  ;   DISPENSED    FROM    HIS   VOWS.       [§  22,  23. 

§  22.  The  next  notice  that  Boorde  gives  us  of  himself  points  to 
one  of  the  evils  of  this  taking  lads  into  religious  orders  before  they 
have  passed  through  their  hot  youth,  and  known  what  sexual  desire 
is.  An  old  writer,  the  extract  from  whom  I  have  unluckily  mislaid, 
dwells  very  strongly  on  the  mischief  arising  from  this  practice ;  and 
we  must  not  therefore  wonder  to  hear  Boorde  telling  Lord  Privy- 
Seal  Cromwell,  in  a  Letter  to  him  (Letter  VII,  p.  62),  dated  13  Au- 
gust, 1537  (as  I  judge), 

"  ther  be  yn  London  certyn  persons  that  owth  me  in  mony  & 
stuff  liij"  ....  &  doth  slawnder  me  by-hynd  my  bak  off  thynges 
that  I  shold  do  ifa;"  yers  agone  ;  &  trewly  they  can  nott  prove  ytt, 
nor  I  neuer  dyd  ytt :  the  matter  ys,  that  I  shold  he  conversant  with 
women;  other  matteres  they  lay  nott  to  my  charge." 

Young  blood  was  even  younger  blood  in  those  days  than  now ;  but 
let  us  accept  Andrew's  denial  of  the  truth  of  the  slander. 

§  23.  Our  next  notice  is  from  Boorde's  Fifth  Letter,  to  Cromwell, 
— then  a  knight,  and  Master  of  the  Rolls, — which  must  bear  date 
before  the  1st  of  April,  1536  (p.  59,  below). 

"I  was  also,  xv  yeres  passyd,  dispensyd  with  the  relygyon  by 
the  Byshopp  of  Romes  bulles,  to  be  Suffrygan  off  Chychester,  the 
whych  I  never  dyd  execute  the  auctore." 

Mr  Durrant  Cooper  says  that  in  1521,  Sherborne,  Bishop  of 
Chichester,  was  80  years  old,  and  it  was  for  him  that  Boorde  was 
appointed  to  act,  but  did  not  do  so.  His  connection  with  Sussex 
no  doubt  led  to  his  nomination  for  the  office  '  ;  and  we  may  suppose 
that  his  family  was  of  some  influence  in  the  county.  Professor 
Brewer  tells  me  that  no  one  could  be  made  a  Bishop — regular  or 
suffragan — under  30  years  of  age ;  and  we  must  therefore  put  back 
the  year  of  Boorde's  birth  to  before  1 490.  The  phrase  '  dispensyd 
with  the  relygyon'  puzzles  me.  I  don't  know  whether  it  means 
absolved  wholly  from  the  vows  of  the  Carthusian  Order,  or  only 
absolved  for  a  time  and  a  special  purpose,  like  this  acting  as 
Suffragan,  going  abroad  to  study  medicine,  &c.  (p.  47-8),  the  dis- 

graduate  belonging  to  the  cloister  or  society  of  which  such  friar  is  a  mem- 
ber, shall  be  permitted  to  give  or  attend  lectures  in  Oxford  or  elsewhere,  for 
the  year  ensuing.' — Muiiimenta  Academica,  ed.  Anstey,  i.  204-5. 

'  Prof.  Stubbs  does  not  believe  that  Boorde  ever  received  episcopal  orders. 

§    24.]  FOREWORDS.      DATE   OP   BOORDe's   FIRST   LETTER.  45 

pensed  person  continuing  otherwise  liable  to  the  bidding  of  the  head 
of  his  House  and  Order.  The  latter  interpretation  is  favoured  by 
Boorde's  talk  of  renewing  his  license  (Letter  V,  p.  58),  and  his  re- 
turning to  the  Charter-house  by  1534 ;  the  former,  of  absolute  free- 
dom, by  his  argument  in  the  same  Letter  V,  p.  58,  that  by  the  Pope's 
act,  as  well  as  the  Carthusians',  he  was  free  of  Religion. 

§  24.  About  this  time — as  likely  before  as  after — I  suppose  that 
the  Letter  of  Boorde's  which  Mr  W.  D.  Cooper  and  I  put  first  (p. 
47,  below),  and  Sir  Hy.  Ellis  last,  was  written  :  that  to  Doctor  Horde, 
Prior  of  the  Charter-house  at  Hinton  or  Henton  in  Somersetshire. 
Why  I  put  this  Letter  first  (though  it  may  be  of  1535),  is  because  of 
Boorde's  saying  in  it,  ''  yfi"  I  wyst  the  master  Prior  off  London  wold 
be  good  to  me,  I  wold  see  yow  more  soner  than  yow  wold  be  ware  off'." 
I  take  this  to  mean  that  Boorde  was  then  in  the  London  Charter-house, 
not  yet  *  dispensed  of  religion,'  but  subject  to  its  strict  rules,  so  that 
he  could  not  go  out  of  the  gates  of  the  monastery  without  the  Prior's 
leave.  Were  this  letter  the  last  of  Boorde's,  as  Sir  Hy.  Ellis  makes 
it,  and  therefore  written  after  1537,  Boorde  wouldn't  have  cared 
twopence  for  the  *  Master  Prior  off"  London.'  Indeed,  there  wasn't 
one  then,  for  on  May  18,  1537,  Prior  Traff'ord  and  his  brethren  sur- 
rendered the  London  Charter-house  into  Henry's  hands.  (By  tho 
way,  in  connection  with  this  first  letter  of  Boorde's,  I  must  mention 
Mr  W.  Durrant  Cooper's  unwitting  practical  joke  with  five  of  the 
set.  Although  they  had  been  printed  by  no  less  a  person  than  Sir 
Hy.  Ellis,  and  in  no  less  known  a  book  than  his  Original  Lett&t's,  no 
less  than  15  years  before  1861,  yet  Mr  Cooper  printed  the  Letters  as 
"  unpublished  correspondence "  in  the  collections  of  the  Sussex 
Archaeological  Society  for  1861  (vol.  xiii,  p.  262)— and  I  suppose 
read  them  as  such  to  the  Meeting  at  Pevensey,  on  Aug.  8, 1860 — thus 
unconsciously  taking  in  the  *  young  men  from  the  country,'  to  say 
nothing  of  others  for  years,  and  for  three  weeks  myself,  who  had  read 
the  letters  in  Ellis,  made  a  note  of  their  "  trust  yow  no  Skott,"  ii. 
303,  and  then  forgotten  all  about  them.  Having  sinned  myself  in 
this  way,  I  can't  resist  the  temptation  of  giving  a  fellow-sinner  a 
good-natured  poke  in  the  ribs.) 

As  in  this  First  Letter,  Boorde  speaks  of  the  'rugorosite'  of 


the  Carthusian  '  relygyon,'  we  may  as  well  give  an  extract  about  that 
Order  and  its  Rule. 

The  Carthusian  Monks  were  a  branch  of  the  Benedictines,  whose 
rule,  with  the  addition  of  a  great  many  austerities,  they  followed.  .  . 
Bruno,  who  was  born  at  Cologne  in  Germany,  first  instituted  the 
Order  at  Chartreux,  in  the  diocese  of  Grenoble  in  France,  about  a.d. 
1080 ;  whence  the  Monasteries  of  the  Order,  instead  of  Chartreux 
houses,  were  in  England  corruptly  called  Charter-houses.  The  rule 
of  the  Carthusians,  which  is  said  to  have  been  confirmed  by  Pope 
Alexander  III  as  early  as  1174,  was  the  most  strict  of  any  of  the 
religious  orders  ;  the  monks  never  eating  flesh,  and  being  obliged  to 
fast  on  bread,  water,  and  salt  one  day  in  every  week :  nor  were  they 
^permitted  to  go  out  of  the  bounds  of  their  Monasteries,  except  their 
priors  and  procurators,  or  proctors,  and  they  only  upon  the  necessary 
affairs  of  the  respective  house. 

The  Carthusians  were  brought  into  England  in  1180,  or  1181,  by 
King  Henry  II.,  almost  as  early  as  their  establishment  at  Grenoble, 
and  had  their  first  house  at  Witham  in  Somersetshire.  Their  habit 
was  all  white,  except  an  outward  plaited  cloak,  which  was  black. 
Stevens,  in  his  continuation  of  Dugdale's  Monasticon,  says  there 
were  but  five  nunneries  of  this  austere  order  in  the  world,  and  but 
167  houses  of  these  monks.  In  England  there  was  no  nunnery,  and 
but  nine  houses  of  this  order.  These  nine  houses  were  at  "Witham 
and  Henton  in  Somersetshire,  the  Charter-house  in  London,  Beauvale 
in  Nottinghamshire,  St  Anne's  near  Coventry,  Kingston-upon-Hull, 
and  Mountgrace  in  Yorkshire,  Eppworth  in  the  Isle  of  Axholm,  and 
Shene  in  Surrey. — Penny  Cydopijedia,  from  Tanner,  &c. 

The  Latin  Statutes  of  the  Order  are  given  in  Dugdale's  Monas- 
ticon, ed.  1830,  p.  v-xii,  from  Cotton  MS.  Nero  A  iii,  fol.  139,  and 
are  of  such  extreme  strictness  and  minuteness  as  to  behaviour,  dress, 
meals,  furniture  of  cells,  &c. — telling  the  monks  how  to  walk,  eat, 
drink,  look,  and  hardly  to  talk — that  they  must  have  nearly  worried 
the  life  out  of  a  man  like  Boorde.  An  English  summary  of  the 
Carthusian  Rules  is  given  in  Fosbroke's  British  Monachism,  p.  71-2, 
ed.  1843,  where  also  is  the  following  extract : 

"  I  know  the  Carthusians,"  says  he  (Guyot  de  Provins  in  the 
13th  century),  "  and  their  life  does  not  tempt  me.  They  have  each 
[his  own]  habitation ;  every  one  is  his  own  cook ;  every  one  eats  and 
sleeps  alone.  I  do  not  know  whether  God  is  much  delighted  with 
all  this.  But  this  I  well  know,  that  if  I  was  myself  in  Paradise,  and 
alone  there,  I  should  not  wish  to  remain  in  it.  A  solitary  man  is 
always  subject  to  bad  temper.  Thus  I  call  those  fools  who  wislied 
me  to  immure  myself  in  this  way.     But  what  I  particularly  dislike 

§  24,  25.]    FOREWORDS.     BOORDE's  FIRST  LETTER,  AND  DISPENSATION.    47 

in  the  Carthusians  is,  that  they  are  murderers  of  their  sick.  If  these 
require  any  little  extraordinary  nourishment,  it  is  peremptorily  re- 
lused.  I  do  not  like  religious  persons  who  have  no  pity ;  the  very 
quality,  which,  I  think,  they  especially  ought  to  have." — Foshroke's 
British  Monachism,  p.  65,  ed.  1843. 

[*  Letter  I.     'i  Boorde  in  the  Charter-house,  London.] 

"Venerable  fajjer,  precordyally  I  commend  me  vnto  yow  vfiih 
thanks,  &c.  I  desyre  yow  to  pray  for  me,  &  to  pray  all  yowr  con- 
uentt  to  pray  for  me  /  for  much  confidence  I  haue  in  yowr  prayers ; 
&  yff  I  wyst^  Master  p7-ior  off  london  wold  be  good  to  me,  I  wold 
see  yow  more  soner  J^en  yow  be  M^are  off.  I  am  nott  able  to  byd  j?® 
rugorosyte  off  yowr  relygyon.  yff  I  myth  be  suffreyd  to  do  wAat  I 
myth,  w/tA  outt  interrupcyon,  I  can  tell  w/iat  I  had  to  do,  for  my 
hartt  ys  euer  to  yowr  relygyon,  &  I  loue  ytt,  &  all  y  persons  in 
them,  as  lesus  knowth  me,  and  kepp  yow.  ,,  ^0^15  for  euer, 
(on  hack)  *'  To  the  ryght  venerable  fajjer  A.  Bord. 

prior  off  Hynton,3  be  ])zs  byll  delyueryd." 

§  25.  Well,  the  'rugorosyte*  of  the  Carthusian  rules — the  no- 
meat,  no-fun,  and  all-stay-at-home  life — did  not  suit  Andrew  Boorde, 
the  confinement  injured  his  health,  he  wanted  to  be  quit  of  the 
place,  and  let  others  see  this.  Accordingly  Prior  Batmanson — who 
was  Prior,  says  Mr  W.  Durrant  Cooper,*  from  1529  to  16  Nov. 
1531, — got  Boorde  a  Dispensation  from  the  Grande  Chartreux,  the 
General  Chapter,  as  he  calls  it  in  another  place  (p.  48).  Boorde  says 
in  his  Fifth  Letter,  p.  58,  below,  written  to  Cromwell  when  Master 
of  the  Rolls,  late  in  1535  or  early  in  1536  : — 

"now  I  dyd  come  home  by  the  grawnte  Charterhouse,  wher®  y 
was  dyspensyd  of  the  relygyon  in  the  prior  Batmansons  days." 

In  his  Fourth  Letter  also  (p.  57) — evidently  written  from  the 
Grande  Chartreux  (Aug.  2,  1535  ?),  and  to  the  Prior  of  the  London 

'  In  the  Kecord  Office.  '  '  ^"  follows,  but  is  scratcht  out. 

'  "  Master  Doctor  Horde."     See  the  postscript  to  Lietter  III. 

*  Sussex  Arch.  Collections,  xiii.  But  the  last  edition  (1830)  of  Dugdale's 
Monasticon  says,  "William  Tynbygh  was  made  prior  in  1499.  He  died  in 
1529.  John  Houghton  succeeded  in  15.S0,"  vol.  vi,  Pt.  I,  p.  9,  col.  2.  Charter- 
house, London.  Yet  Bale  in  his  Scr'qHores,  ed.  1548,  gives  '  loannes  Batmaw- 
son,  prior  Carthusianoruw  Londini,  scripsit  Contra  Erasmum,  li.  I.'  Fol.  254, 

■^  This  7vher  probably  means  whence,  the  dispensation  having  been  sent, 
only,  from  the  Grande  Chartreux,  and  the  place  not  visited  by  Andrew  Boorde, 

48    BOORDE's  dispensation,  attends  the  duke  of  NORFOLK.  [§  25,  26. 

Charter-house  and  all  other  Priors  of  the  Order  in  England, — Boorde 
dwells  on  the  point  of  his  dispensation  from  Eeligion,  and  the  time 
of  it,  and  says  to  his  fellow-Carthusians  : 

"  yow  know  J)at  I  had  lycence  before  record e  to  dep«rtt  from 
yow  /  3ett  nott  withstondyng  my  co?2scyence  my3th  not  be  so  satysfyd, 
but  I  thowth  to  vysett  ]>e  sayd  reuerend  iaper  [the  Master  of  the 
Grande  Chartreux],  to  know  \)e  trewth  whett^r  fajje?-  lohan  batma?^- 
son  dyd  impetratt  for  me  of  J)e  gene?'all  chapytter  ])e  lycence  ))at 
dane  george  hath,  jje  trewth  ys,  ])at  when  dane  george  was  dyspensyd 
vrith  ]je  relygyon,  I  &  anojjer  was  dyspensyd  with  all  /  consydeiyng 
I  can  [not],  nor  neuer  cowld,  lyue  solytary  /  &  I  amonges  yow  in- 
trusyd  in  a  close  ayre  /  my3th  neuer  haue  my  helth." 

This  passage  confirms  the  former  one,  and  leaves  no  doubt  that 
Boorde  was  abroad  by  1529.  There  he  studied  medicine,  "  trauelled 
for  to  haue  the  notycyon  &  practes  of  Physycke  in  diners  regyons 
and  countres,"  ^  and 

§  26.  Having,  from  the  Continent,  "  returned  into  England,  and 
[being]  requyred  to  tary,  and  to  remayne,  and  to  contynue  with  syr 
Robert  Drewry,  knyght,  for  many  vrgent  causes,"  ^  the  Duke  of  Nor- 
folk sent  for  Boorde,  still  "  a  young  doctor  "  »  (though  full  40  years 
old),  to  attend  him,  a.d.  1530,  "  the  yeare  in  the  whiche  lorde  Thomas 
[Wolsey],  Cardynal  bishop  of  York,  was  commaunded  to  go  to  his 
see  of  York,"*  to  which  he  had  been  restored  by  Henry  VIII  after 
his  first  disgrace. 

The  head  of  all  the  Howards,  the  President  of  the  Council,  the 
uncle  of  Anne  Boleyn,  was  an  important  patient,  and  Boorde  hesi- 
tated at  first  to  prescribe  for  the  Duke  without  a  consultation  with 
his  old  physician,  Dr  Butte.^     But  as  the  old  Doctor  did  not  come, 

'  Preface  to  the  Dyetary,  ed.  1547  or  -67,  below,  p.  225,  col.  2. 

^  See  note  3,  p.  225,  below. 

^  See  the  Preface  to  the  Dyetary,  p.  225,  below.  Boorde  speaks  again  of 
when  he  was  *  young,'  in  the  Brevyary,  Fol.  Ixxx,  back  :  "  In  Englyshe,  Mor- 
bus  GaUicvs  is  named  the  Frenche  pockes  :  when  that  I  was  yonge,  they  were 
named  the  Spanyshe  pockes."  "  This  disease  .  .  dyd  come  but  lately  into 
Spayne  and  Fraunce,  and  so  to  vs  about  the  yere  of  our  lord  .1470."  ih.  Fol.  Ixxiv. 

*  A.D.  1530.  Wolsey  .  .  was  now  permitted  to  come  nearer  to  the  court ; 
and  he  removed  from  Esher  to  Richmond.  But  Anne  and  her  party  took  the 
alarm,  and  he  was  presently  ordered  to  reside  in  the  north  of  England,  within 
his  Archbishopric. — Macfarlane's  Hist.  vi.  182. 

*  This  is  our  old  acquaintance  of  the  Babccs  BooTt  Forewords,  p.  Ixxviii, 
whose  allowances  for  dinner  and  supper  on  every  day  of  the  week  are  given 

§  27.]         FOREWORDS.     BOORDE   GOES    ABROAD    A   SECOND   TIME.  49 

Boorde,  *  thankes  be  to  God,'  set  his  ducal  patient  straight,  and  was 
by  his  means  allowed  to  wait  on  ^  Henry  VIII. 

§  27.  After  this,  urged  by  righteous  zeal  "to  se  &  to  know  the 
trewth  of  many  thynges,"^  "to  haue  a  trewe  cognyscyon  of  the 
practis  of  Physycke,"^  Boorde  passed  "  ouer  the  sees  agayne,  and  dyd 
go  to  all  the  vnyuersyties  and  scoles  approbated,  and  beynge  within 
the  precinct  of  Chrystendome."^  But,  could  he  go  abroad  without  a 
fresh  license  from  the  Prior  of  his  House  1  Had  his  former  dispens- 
ations by  the  Pope  and  the  General  Chapter  of  the  Grande  Char- 
treux  rendered  him  free  of  his  Order  1  Seemingly  not ;  for,  in  his 
Fifth  Letter  to  Cromwell,  p.  58,  below,  written  late  in  1535,  or  early 
in  1536,  Boorde  says  : — 

"I  haue  suffycyentt  record  that  the  prior  off  Charterhouse  off 
London  last  beyng,  off  hys  own  meere  mocyon,  gaue  me  lycence  to 
departe  from  the  relygyon :  whereuppon  I  went!  ouer  see  to  skole, 
and  now  I  dyd  come  home  by  the  grawnte  Charterhouse,  wher  y 
was  dyspensyd  of  the  relygyon  in  the  prior  Batmansons  days. 

"  att  the  sayd  howse,  in  )je  renewyng  Jjat  lycence,  I  browth  a 
letter,  yow  [Cromwell]  to  do  with  me  and  ytt  what  you  wyll." 

This  Prior  "  last  beyng  "  must  have  been  Howghton,  who  had  been 
executed  for  denying  the  King's  supremacy  on  April  27,  1535 — 
according  to  Mr  W.  D.  Cooper ;  on  May  4,  according  to  Stowe — and 
the  first  lines  of  the  passage  must  refer  to  Boorde's  2nd  journey 
abroad,  and  not  his  first,  as  they  seem  at  first  to  do. 

As  to  '  the  vnyuersyties  and  scoles  approbated '  above,  the  only 
universities  that  Boorde  mentions  are,  I  think,  Orleans,  Poictiers, 

at  p.  Ixxix  there,  from  HonseJcold  Ordinances^  p.  178-9.  In  Nicolas's  Privy 
Purse  Expenses  of  Henry  VIII  we  find  a  payment  of  £10  to  Dr  Butts  for  Dr 
Thirlby  (afterwards  the  first  and  only  Bishop  of  Westminster),  on  Oct.  5, 
1 532.  In  his  Index  and  Notes,  p.  305,  Nicolas  notes  that  Heniy  *  sent  Doctor 
Buttes,  his  graces  physician,'  to  see  Wolsey  (Cavendish's  Life  of  Wolsey,  i.  p. 
220-2),  and  that  *  JDr  Butts  is  honourably  commemorated  by  Fox  as  the  friend 
of  Bp  Latimer.     See  also  Gilpin's  Life  of  Latimer,  p.  42-5.' 

'  These  words  *  wait  on  can  hardly  mean  *  attend  professionally,'  as  there 
is  no  payment  to  Boorde  in  ihe  Privy  Purae  Expenses  of  Henry  VIII  from 
Nov.  1529  to  Dec.  1532,  ed.  Nicolas,  1827.  Had  Boorde  attended  Henry,  we 
should  no  doubt  have  had  an  entry  like  that  for  Dr  Nicholas,  under  Febr.  3, 
p.  192  :  "  Item  the  same  day  paied  to  my  lorde  of  Wilshire  for  a  phisician 
called  Docto?^r  Nicholas,  xx  Angellw,  vij  li.  x  s." 

^  Fyrst  Boke,  chap,  xxxii,  Upcott's  reprint,  sign.  Y  2,  p.  204,  below. 

'  Pref.  p.  226,  col.  1,  below. 


50  boorde's  universities  and  travels.  [§  27 

Toulouse,  and  Montpelier^  in  France;  Wittenburg  in  Saxony.^ 
The  Italian  ones  he  omits.  At  Orleans  he  dwelt  for  some  time  ^ ; 
of  his  stay  at  Poictiers  and  Wittenburg  (if  any),  he  has  left  no 
record;  in  Toulouse  he  evidently  stopt  for  a  while,' — "in  Tolose 
regneth  treue  iustice  &  equite  of  al  the  places  that  euer  I  dyd  com 
in;"^ — and  "at  the  last  I  dyd  staye  my  selfe  at  Mountpyllyowre, 
which  is  the  hed  vniuersite  in  al  Europe  for  the  practes  of  physycke,"^ 
or,  as  he  says  elsewhere,  "  Muwtpilior  is  the  most  nobilist  vniuersite 
of  tho,  world  for  phisiciows  &  surgions.  I  can  not  geue  to  greate  a 
prayse  to  Aquitane  and  Langwadock,  to  Tolose  and  Mountpiliour." 
And  wherever  he  travelled,  "  in  dyuers  regyons  &  prouynces,"  he  did 
"  study  &  practyce  physyk  .  .  for  the  sustentacyon  off  [his]  lyuyng."^ 
Accordingly,  we  get,  in  such  of  his  works  as  are  left  to  us,  little 
touches  like  the  following :  "  For  this  matter  [Scrofula  .  .  in  Eng- 
lyshe  .  .  named  *  knottes  or  burres  which  be  in  chyldrews  neckes  '  7] 
in  Rome  and  Mountpyller  is  vsed  incisions  "  (instead  of  the  pills  and 
plaisters  he  has  mentioned).  "  I,  beinge  long  there  [in  Compostella 
in  Navarre]  .  .  was  shreuen  of  an  auncient  doctor  of  diuinite,  the 
which  was  blear  [e]yed ;  and  whether  it  was  to  haue  mi  counsel  in 
physicke  or  no^  I  passe  ouer,  but  I  was  shreuen  of  hym  .  ."^  We 
shall  see  soon  his  practice  in  Scotland  and  Yorkshire,  p.  61.  Thus 
learning  to  do  good,  and  doing  it,  the  helper  and  friend  of  all  he 
came  across,  Boorde,  either  in  1530-4,  1534-6,  or  1538-42,  went 
through  almost  the  whole  of  Europe,  and  perhaps  part  of  Africa,  and 
pilgrimed  it  to  Jerusalem,  which  he  did  not  consider  to  be  in  Asia, 
as  he  tells  us  "  as  for  Asia,  I  was  neuer  in  [it],"  Fyrst  Boke,  chap, 
vii.  sign.  I  2,  back,  p.  145,  below. 

The  kindly  nature  of  the  man, — his  willingness  to  help  others  at 
the  cost  of  much  hardship  and  danger  to  himself, — as  well  as  his 
readiness  to  be  off  anywhere  at  any  time,  are  well  shown  by  his 
account  of  his  sudden  start  from  Orleans,  and  his  journey  to  Com- 
postella with  9  English  and  Scotch  men  whom  he  met : 

'  Fyrst  Bolie,  chap,  xxvii,  sign.  T  .i.  back,  p.  191,  below. 
^  ih.  chap,  xvi,  p.  165.    His  disgust  at  the  vices  in  Kome  seems  to  have  kept 
him  from  the  Italian  Universities.      '  ih.  chap,  xxxii,  sign.  Y  2,  back,  p.  205. 
*  ib.  chap,  xxvii.  sign.  U  back,  p.  194. 

^  Dedication  to  ed.  1547,  Pref .  p.  226,  col.  2,  below,     *  Letter  VI,  p.  59,  below. 
''  Breuiary,  Fol.  C  .iii.         ^  Fyrst  Boke,  chap,  xxxii,  sign.  Y  2,  p.  204. 

§    27.]       FOREWORDS.     BOORDE's   PILGRIMAGE    TO    COMPOSTELLA.  51 

"  whan  I  dyd  dwell  in  the  vniuersite  of  Orlyawce,  casually  going 
ouer  the  bredge  into  the  towne,  I  dyd  mete  with  .ix.  Englyshe  and 
Skotyshe  parsons  goyng  to  saint  Compostell,  a  pylgrymage  to  saynt 
lames.  I,  knowyng  theyr  pretence,  aduertysed  them  to  returne  home 
to  England,  saying  that  '  I  had  rather  to  goe  .v.  tymes  out  of  Eng- 
land to  Rome, — and  so  I  had  in  dede, — thaw  ons  to  go  from 
Orlyance  to  Compostel ; '  saying  also  that  '  if  I  had  byn  worthy  to 
be  of  the  kyng  of  Englandes  counsel,  such  parsons  as  wolde  take  such 
iornes  on  them  wythout  his  lycences,  I  wold  set  them  by  the  fete. 
And  that  I  had  rather  they  should  dye  in  England  thorowe  my  in- 
dustry, than  they  to  kyll  them  selfe  by  the  way  : '  with  other  wordes 
I  had  to  them  of  exasperacyon.  They,  not  regardyng  my  wordes  nor 
sayinges,  sayd  that  they  wolde  go  forth  in  theyr  iourney,  and  wolde 
dye  by  the  way  rather  than  to  returne  home.  I,  hauynge  pitie  they 
should  be  cast  a  way,  poynted  them  to  my  hostage,  and  went  to  dis- 
pache  my  busines  in  the  vniuei'syte  of  Orliaunce.  And  after  that,  I 
went  wyth  them  in  theyr  iurney  thorow  fraunce,  and  so  to  burdious 
and  byon ;  &  than  we  entred  into  the  baryn  countrey  of  Byskay  and 
Castyle,  wher  we  coulde  get  no  meate  for  money;  yet  wyth  great 
honger  we  dyd  come  to  Compostell,  where  we  had  plentye  of  meate 
and  wyne ;  but  in  the  retornyng  thorow  spayn,  for  all  the  crafte  of 
Physycke  that  I  coulde  dOj  they  dyed,  all  by  eatynge  of  frutes  and 
drynkynge  of  water,  the  whycb  I  dyd  euer  refrayne  my  selfe.  And 
I  assure  all  the  world e,  that  I  had  rather  goe  .v.  times  to  Eome  oute 
of  Englonde,  than  ons  to  Compostel :  by  water  it  is  no  pain,  but  by 
land  it  is  the  greatest  iurney  that  an  Englyshma/i  may  go.  and 
whan  I  returnyd,  and  did  come  into  Aquitany,  I  dyd  kis  the  ground 
for  ioy,  surrendring  thankes  to  God  that  I  was  deliuered  out  of  greate 
daungers,  as  well  from  many  theues,  as  frome  honger  and  colde,  & 
thai  I  was  come  into  a  plentiful  country ;  for  Aquitany  hath  no  felow 
for  good  wyne  &  bred." — Fyrst  Bake,  chap,  xxxii.,  p.  205,  below. 

That  Boorde,  though  he  hated  water,  and  loved  good  ale  and 

wine  (p.  74),  could  live  on  little,  we  know  from  his  description  of 

Aquitaine  (p.  194,  below) : 

"  a  peny  worth  of  whyte  bread  in  Aquitany  may  serue  an  honest 
man  a  hoole  Weke ;  for  he  shall  haue,  whan  I  was  ther,  ix.  kakys 
for  a  peny ;  and  a  kake  serued  me  a  daye,  &  so  it  wyll  any  man,  ex- 
cepte  he  be  a  rauenner." 

§  28.  The  next  notice  that  we  have  of  Boorde  is  due  to  the  Re- 
formation. He  must  have  returned  to  the  Charter-house  in  London 
by  the  summer  of  1534,  for  in  Rymer's  Foedera,  xiv.  491-2,  we  find 
that,  on  29  May,  1534,  Roland  Lee,  Bp  of  Coventry  and  Lichfield ' 

'  See  a  good  Memoir  of  him  in  Sir  Henry  Ellis's  Original  Letters,  Third 
Series,  1846,  vol.  ii,  p.  363-5. 


BOORDE    CONFORMS,    AND    GETS    INTO    THRALDOM.        [§  28-30. 

(who  married  Henry  VIII  and  Anne  Boleyn),  and  Thos  Bedyll, 
clerk,  took  the  oaths  of  Johannes  Howg[h]ton,  the  Prior  of  the  Char- 
ter-house, and  13  other  dwellers  and  servants  there;  and  on  the  6th 
of  Juno  following,  at  the  Charter-house,  Bp  Lee  and  Thomas  Kytson, 
knight,  took  the  oaths  of  19  Priests, — 18th  in  the  list  of  whom  was 
Andreas  Boorde — and  16  other  persons.  The  names  of  all  are  given 
in  Rymer,  and  reprinted  in  Smythe's  History  of  the  Gharter-liouse, 
Appendix  XVIII,  p.  49,  and  the  regular  oath  to  Henry's  supremacy 
that  Boorde  and  all  other  conformers  swore,  is  given  in  Latin  in 
Smythe's  Appendix,  p.  49,  and  in  English  at  p.  50-1. 

§  29.  After  thus  conforming,  Boorde  seems  to  have  remained 
at  the  Charter-house,  and  to  have  got  into  some  trouble  there,  for 
which  he  was  *  kept  in  thraldom  bodyly  and  goostly,'  *  kept  in  person  * 
stray tly.'  His  Prior,  Howghton,  was  convicted  of  high  treason  in 
April  1535  for  speaking  against  the  king's  supremacy,  and  on  the 
27th  of  April 2  was  hanged,  drawn,  and  quartered.  While  Howghton 
was  in  the  Tower  ("?  in  1534),  before  his  execution,  Boorde  tells  Crom- 
well that  he  wrote  to  Howghton,  at  his  fellow-Carthusians'  request 
(p.  60).    Boorde's  letter  to  Cromwell  is  dated  Leith,  1  April  [1536]  : — 

"  when  I  was  keppt  in  thrawldom  in  J)e  charte?^howse,  &  knew 
no)?er  ))e  kynges  noble  actes,  nor  yow,  then,  stultycyusly  thorow 
synystrall  wordes,  I  dyd  as  many  of  jjat  order  doth ;  butt  after  J?at 
I  was  att  lyberte,  manyfestly  I  aperseuyde  ])e  yngnorance  &  blyndnes 
jjttt  they  &  I  wer  yn  :  for  I  could  neuer  know  no  thyng  of  no  maner 
off  matter,  butt  only  by  them,  &  they  wolde  cause  me  wrett  full  in- 
cypyently  to  Jje  prior  of  london,  when  he  was  in  ))e  tower  before  he 
was  putt  to  exicucyon  ;  for  ]?e  which  I  trust  yowr  mastershepp  hath 
pardonyd  me ;  for  god  knowth  I  was  keppt  in  person  ^  stray  tly,  & 
glad  I  was  to  wrett  att  theyr  request ;  but  I  wrott  nothyng  Jjat  I 
thowght  shold  be  agenst  my  prince,  nor  yow,  nor  no  o\er  man." 

§  30.  From  this  'thraldom'  of  body  and  soul,  Andrew  Boorde 
was  delivered  by  Cromwell,  as  the  Vicegerent  of  Pope  Henry  VIII, 
— if  I  read  aright  another  passage  in  this  same  Leith  letter  (p.  60), 
— and  he  then  (I  suppose)  visited  Cromwell  at  his  seat  at  Bishops- 
Waltham  in  Hampshire,  where  Cromwell  received  him  kindly  : 

"  Yow  haue  my  hartt,  &  shalbe  sure  of  me  to  fe  uttermust  off 
my  poer  power,  for  I  am  neuer  able  to  raak  yow  amende* ;  for  wher 

'  ?  prison.     ^  p.  54. — Stowe  says,  convicted  ou  April  29,  and  hanged  on  May  4. 

§   30,  31.]     FOREWORDS.     BOORDe's    SECOND    LETTER  :    TO    CROMWELL.     53 

I  was  in  greatt  thraldom,  both  bodyly  and  goostly,  yow  off  yowr  gen- 
tylnes  sett  me  att  liberte  &  clemes  off  conscyence.  Also  I  thank 
yowr  mastershepp  for  jout  grett  kyndnes,  pat  yow  shewde  me  att 
bysheppes  waltam,  &  \>at  yow  gaue  me  lycence  to  come  to  yow  ons 
in  a  qwartter." 

§  31.  After  this,  Boorde  must  have  at  once  gone  abroad  on  his 
third  long  tour,  seemingly  as  an  emissary  of  Cromwell's,  to  observe 
and  report  on  the  state  of  feeling  about  Henry  VIII's  doings,  but  no 
doubt  studying  and  practising  physic  on  his  road.  He  also  renewed 
his  license  at  the  Grande  Chartreux,  p.  58. 

[1  Letter  II,  from  Bordeaux,  20  June,  1535.] 

"  After  humly  salutacyon,  Acordyng  to  my  dewte  coactyd,  I  am 
(causeys  consideryd)  to  geue  to  yow  notycyon  of  certyn  synystraU 
matters  contrary  to  owr  realme  of  ynglond,  specyally  a-^enst  out  most 
armipotentt,  perpondentt,  circuwspecte,  dyscrete,  &  gracyose  soue- 
reyng  lord  the  Kynge  ;  for,  sens  my  departyng  from  yow,  I  haue  per- 
lustratyd  normandy,  frawnce,  gascony,  &  Byon  ^  ;  pe  regyons  also  of 
castyle,  byscay,  spayne,  paarte  of  portyngale,  &  returnyd  thorow 
Arogon,  Nauerne,  &  now  am  att  burdyose.  In  the  whych  partyes,  I 
hard  of  dyuerse  credyble  persons  of  pe  sayd  countryes,  &  also  of 
rome,  ytale,  &  almen,  pat  the  pope,  ])o  emprowre,  &  all  oper  crystyn 
kynges,  with  pev  peple  {pe  french  kyng  except)  be  sett  a3enst  owr 
souereyne  lord  pe  kynge :  apon  the  which,  in  all  the  nacyons  pat  I 
haue  trauellyd,  a  greatt  army  &  navey  ys  preparyd  :  and  few  frendys 
ynglond  hath  in  theys  partes  of  Europe,  as  lesus  youi  loner  knowth, 
who  euer  haue  jouv  master  &  yow,  with  pe  hole  realme,  vnder  hys 
yynges  of  tuyssyon  ^  !  from  burdyose,  the  xx  day  of  lune,  by  pe  bond 
of  yowr  sa[r]uantt  &  bedman  .,  Andrew  Boord. 

"  I  humyly  &  precordyally  desyre  yowr  mastershepp  to  be  good 
master  (as  yow  cue?-  haue  byn)  to  youi  faythfull  bedmen,  master 
p?7or  of  the  cherter  bowse  of  london,  &  to  Master  docter  Horde, 
pr^or  of  Hynton. 

[directed  on  back]  "  To  hys  venerable  master, 
Maste?'  Thomas  Cromwell,  secretory  to  owr 
souereyngne  lord  the  kyng,  be  j)is  byll 

*  The  originals  of  this  and  the  following  letters  (except  Letter  IV)  are 
preserved  in  the  Record  Office,  vol.  4,  2nd  Series,  of  Miscellaneous  Letters, 
temp.  Hen.  VIII. 

^  It  may  be  '  Lyon,'  but  is  '  Byon,'  I  feel  sure,  for  Bayonne.  Cp.  Boorde's 
Introduction,  eh.  xxxiii,  p.  20G. 

^  wings  of  defence. 

^  The  word  is  *  dyrectyd '  in  the  next  two  letters. 

54  PRIOR   HOWGHTON    AND   PRIOR   HORDE.  [§  31,  32. 

The  postscript  to  the  last  letter  raises  a  difficulty  as  to  its  date ; 
for,  says  Mr  Cooper, — using  Smythe's  History  of  the  Charter- 
House,  ^c. : — 

"In  April,  1535,  John  Howghton  the  prior,  with  2  other  Car- 
thusian priors,  a  monk  of  Sion,  and  the  Vicar  of  Isleworth,  were 
convicted  of  high  treason.^  On  27  April,  Howghton,  and  on  the  4th 
of  May  the  others,  were  drawn,  hanged,  and  quartered." 

Perhaps  Boorde  supposed  that  a  new  Prior  had  been  appointed, 
and  askt  Cromwell's  favour  for  him  on  spec. 

Prior  Horde  does  not  seem  to  have  needed  any  intercession  on 
his  behalf,  as  he  must  have  conformed  willingly,  and  was  used  to 
bring  other  hesitaters  round.  Archbp  Lee,  writing  to  Cromwell  on 
July  9,  1535  (III  Ellis,  ii.  344),  about  the  Prior  of  the  Charter-house 
of  Mountgrace  in  Yorkshire,  who  was  *  verie  conformable,'  reports 
of  him  : 

"  And  forbicause  ther  bee  in  everie  Howse,  as  he  supposethe, 
some  weake  simple  men,  of  small  lernynge  and  litle  discretion,  he 
thinkethe  it  sholde  doo  mutche  good  if  oure  Doctor  Hord,  a  Pryor  of 
theyre  religion,  whom  all  the  religion  in  this  realme  dothe  esteme 
for  lerning  and  vertue,  were  sent,  not  onlie  to  his  Howse,  but  to  all 
ordre  Houses  of  the  same  religion;  he  saide  (wiche  I  suppoase  is 
true)  they  will  give  more  credence,  and  woU  rathre  applie  theire  con- 
science to  hym  and  his  judgement,  than  to  anie  ordre,  althowgh  of 
greater  lernynge,  and  the  rathre  if  with  hym  be  joyned  also  some 
ordre  good  fadre.  This  he  desired  me  to  move  to  you ;  and  verelie 
I  thinke  it  sholde  doo  mutche  good.  For  manye  of  them  bee  verie 
simple  men.' 

And  again  in  another  letter  of  8  Aug.,  1535,  after  the  Prior  of 
Mountgrace  has  yielded  and  conformed,  Archbp  Lee  repeats  the 
Prior's  request,  '  that  for  the  alureing  of  some  his  simple  brodren, 
Doctor  Hord,  a  priour  of  their  religion,  in  whom  they  have  greate 
confidence,  maye  come  thidre.  .  .  His  co?7imeng  shall  more  worke  in 
them  than  anye  learneng  or  autoritie,  as  the  Priour  thinkethe,  and  I 
can  well  thinke  the  same.'     Ill  Ellis,  ii.  345. 

§  32.  During  this  tour  in  the  summer  of  1535,  Boorde  visited  the 
Universities  of  Paris,  Orleans,  Poitou,  Toulouse  (where  he  was  on 
July  2,  1535),  and  Montpelier,  as  well  as  Catalonia  (he  was  there  in 

'  His  crime  was  'delivering  too  free  an  opinion  of  the  King  and  his  pro- 
ceedings, in  regard  to  the  supremacy,  to  speak  against  which  was  now  made 
treason.' — Smythe's  Hist.  Charter- House,  p.  73. 

§  32.]        FOREWORDS.     BOORDE's   THIRD    LETTER,    AUTUMN    1535.  55 

1535),  noting  the  state  of  feeling  towards  Henry  VIII.  Then  after 
liis  labour  he  fell  sick,  and  wrote  the  next  letter  to  Cromwell,  late  in 
1535,  or  early  in  1536.  The  phrase  in  the  postscript  "  in  thes  partes  " 
— cp.  "  in  theys  partes  of  Europe,"  p.  53 — shows  that  the  letter  was 
written  from  abroad,  from  Spain,  I  suppose. 

We  get  the  approximate  date  for  this  letter  from  Boorde's  men- 
tion of  the  Emperor  Charles  Vs  expedition  against  Barbarossa. 
Though  Sir  Hy.  Ellis  says  that  this  was  in  1534,  it  was  in  1535  : 

"  In  1535,  Europe  being  at  peace,  Charles  [the  Fifth]  sailed 
with  a  large  armament  for  Tunis,  where  Khari  Eddin  Barbarossa,  the 
dread  of  the  Christians  in  the  Mediterranean,  had  fortified  himself. 
Charles,  supported  by  his  admiral,  Andrea  Doria,  stormed  La 
Goletta,  and  defeated  Barbarossa  :  the  Christian  slaves  in  Tunis 
meantime  having  revolted,  the  gates  of  the  city  were  opened,  and 
the  Imperial  soldiers  entering  in  disorder  began  to  plunder  and  kill 
the  inhabitants,  without  any  possibility  of  their  officers  restraining 
them.  About  30,000  Mussulmans  of  all  ages  and  both  sexes 
perished  on  that  occasion.  When  order  was  restored,  Charles 
entered  Tunis,  where  he  re-established  on  the  throne  Muley  Hassan, 
who  had  been  dispossessed  by  Barbarossa,  on  condition  of  acknow- 
ledging himself  his  vassal,  and  retaining  a  Spanish  garrison  at  La 
Goletta.  Charles  returned  to  Italy  in  triumph,  having  liberated 
20,000  Christian  slaves,  and  given,  for  a  time,  an  effectual  blow  to 
Barbarossa  and  his  piracy.  On  his  return  to  Europe,  1536,  he  found 
King  Francis  again  prepared  for  war." — Penny  Cydopoidla^  vi.  500, 
col.  2,  from  Robertson's  Hldory  of  Charles  V,  <fec. 

"  The  emperor  embarked  at  Barcelona  for  the  general  rendezvous 
of  the  rest  of  his  forces.  This  was  Cagliari,  in  Sardinia.  The  fleet 
sailed  from  this  place  on  the  16th  of  July,  1535." — Robertson's 
History  of  Charles  F,  edit.  1857,  vol.  i.  pp.  445,  446. 

Letter  IIL     [after  2  July,  1535.] 

"  Hone?*able  syr,  after  humily  salutacyon,  I  cc^rtyffy  yow  ])ai 
sens  1  wrott  to  yo7/r  mastershepp  from  burdyuse  by  )ie  se?iiantt  off 
sir  lolian  Arundell  in  cor[n]wall,  I  haue  byn  in  dyuerce  regyons  & 
vnyue/'sytes  for  lerny?ig,  and  I  assewre  yow  ])e  vnyuersytcs  off 
orlyance,  pyctauensis,^  Tolosa,  mowntpyller,  &  J)e  reue-rend  faj^er  off 
J)e  bed  charterhowse,  a  famuse  dark,  &  ^arii'^  off  )je  vnyue?'syte  off 
parys,  doth  hold  with  out  soveryne  lord  |)e  kyng,  in  his  actes,  pat  in 
so  much  att  pe  vysytacyon  off  our  lady^  last  past  in  tolosa,  in  pet 
cheff  skole,  callyd  petragoryscnsis,  pe  Kyng  of  Nauerre  &  his  qweno 

'  The  MS  mark  of  contraction  is  that  for  ir,  as  in  Sir. 
^  MS  ptt.     Prof.  Brewer  and  Mr  W.  D.  Cooper  read  it  '  Presidentt,'  Sir 
H.  Ellis  rightly  'partt.'  ^  The  VlsitatUm  \a  on  Jiilv  2. 

56  BOORDE's   third   letter,    autumn    1536.  [§  32,  33. 

beyng  p?*esentt,  po  gretyst  articles  pat  any  cowld  lay  a-genst  owr 
nobyll  kyng  wer  disputyd  &  dyff'ynyd  to  pe  hone?-  of  owr  noble  kyng, 
as  I  shall  shew  yow  att  my  comyng  to  yow.  1  was  in  cathalonya 
when  pG  emprowe  tok  sheppyng  in-to  barbary,  the  which  emprow, 
with  all  o])e?'  kynges  in  pG  courtes  of  whom  I  haue  byn,  be  our  re- 
doubtyd  kynges  frendes  &  loners ;  incypyentt  persons  doth  spek 
afte?*  per  lernywg  &  wytt.  ce?'tyffyng  yowr  mastershepp  after  my 
laboure,  I  am  syk,  or  els  I  wold  haue  come  to  yow  <fe  putt  my  seltf 
fully  in-to  your  ordynance ;  as  sone  as  I  am  any  thyng  recoue?yd,  I 
shall  be  att  yo^^r  commaundmeritt  in  all  causis,  god  succ?tryng,  who 
eue?"  kepp  yow  in  helth  &  hone?-, 

''  By  joui  bedmari  Andrew  bord,  prest. 
**  I  haue  sentt  to  3''owr  mastershepp  the  seeder  off  reuberbe,  the 
which  come  owtt  off  barbary.  in  thes  partes  ytt  ys  had  for  a  grett 
tresure.  The  seede*'  be  sowne  in  March,  thyn ;  Ss  when  they  be 
rootyd,  they  must  be  takyn  vpp,  &  sett  eue?'y  one  off  them  a  foote  or 
more  from  a  noper,  &  well  watred,  &c. 

[directed  on  har.Tc\  "  To  the  ryght  honerable  Esquyre  Master  TTiomas 
CromeU,  hygh  secretory  to  o?^r  souereyne  lord  Jje  kyng  &  master 
of  Rolls,  be  this  lettres  dyrectyd. 

[endorsed  in  a  later  hand.]  "  Androwe  bord,  prest. 
how  king  h.  8.  is  well  esteemed 
in  ffraunce  &  other  natyons." 

On  this  Letter  Sir  Henry  Ellis  observes  : 

"The  Postscript  is  perhaps  the  most  curious  part.  Boorde  not 
only  sends  to  Cromwell  the  Seeds  of  Rhubarb  from  Barbary,  where 
he  says  the  plant  was  treasured,  but  with  directions  for  transplanting 
the  roots  when  grown,  and  rearing  the  Plant,  two  hundred  years  at 
least  before  the  later  cultivation  of  the  Plant  was  known  in  England. 

"  Collinson,  among  the  Memoranda  in  his  *  Hortus  Collinsoni- 
anus,'  8vo.  Swansea,  1843,  p.  45,  says:  'True  Rhubarb  I  raised 
from  seed  sent  me  by  Professor  Segisbeck  of  Petersburgh,  in  1742  :' 
by  another  memorandum  it  appears  that  the  seeds  really  came  from 
Tartary,  and  that  four  plants  were  transplanted  next  year." — Original 
Letters  J  Third  Series,  vol.  ii,  p.  300. 

§  33.  Boorde  refers  in  his  last  letter  to  the  opinion  of  *  the 
reverend  father  of  the  head  Charter-house,  a  famous  clerk,*  on  Henry 
VIII's  acts.  I  suppose  that  he  ascertained  it  on  his  journey  out 
from  England.  At  any  rate  he  tells  us  that  he  came  home  by  the 
Grande  Chartreux,  "  now  I  dyd  come  home  by  the  grawnte  charter- 
howse,"  Letter  Y,  p.  58.  While  there,  he  wrote,  as  I  judge,  the 
following  letter,  dated  August  2  [1535],  to  the  Priors  and  Convents 
of  his  Order  in  England,  telling  them  that  the  Father  of  the  Head 

§  33.]        FOREWORDS.     BOORDE's    FOURTH    LETTER,    2    AUG.,  1535.  57 

Charter-house  exhorted  them  to  obey  the  King,  and  showing  that 
he  (Boorde)  was  free  (as  I  suppose)  of  the  Carthusian  Order.  He 
was  evidently  afraid  that  on  his  return  to  England,  the  London 
Charter-house  would  claim  him  again. 

[Letter  IV.     2  August,  1535.] 

'  MS  Cott.  Cleop.  E.  iv.  leaf  54,  re-numhering  70. 

"  After  p?'ecordyall  reco?nmendacyon.  dere  belouyd  father  in  god, 
)}e  reuerend  fajjer  off  ))e  hed  cha[r]te?*howse,  doth  salute  yow  in  |?e 
blessyng  off  lesu  chrj'^st  /  adue?*tysyng  yow  \)ai  yow  loue  god,  &  jjat 
in  any  vyse  yow  obay  ouv  souereyng  lord  ^e  kyng,  he  beyng  very 
sory  to  here  tell  any  wylfull  or  sturdy  opynyons  to  be  amonge*'  yow 
in  tymes  past  to  Jje  contrary/,  he  desye[r]yth  nothyng  off  yow  but 
only  as  I  haue  rehersyd,  that  yow  be  obedyent  to  ouv  kyng,  &  jjat 
yow  maak  labore  to  yowr  frendes  ]jat  yff  any  off  yowr  frendes  deye,  or 
\iai  any  off  tlier  frendes  dey,  jjat  J)e  obytt  off  ))em  may  bytwyxt  yow 
be  sent  /  ]jat  Jje  order  off  charyte  be  not  lost,  pro  defuTictis  exorare. 
}je  sayd  reuer[en]d  fajjer  hath  sentt  to  yow  |)e  obytt  off  hys  p?'e- 
dycessor  /  o\er  letters  he  wyll  nott  wrytt,  nor  he  wold  nott  ]jat  yow 
to  hym  shold  Avrett  /  lest  Jje  kynges  hyhnes  shold  be  dysplesyd,  as 
for  me,  yow  know  }pat  I  had  lycence  byfore  recorde  to  depa7*tt  from 
yow  /  ^ett  nott  w/'t/istondy/ig  my  cowscyence  my^th  not  be  so  satysfyd, 
but  i  thowth  to  vysett  ^e  sayd  reue?-end  fajjer,  to  know  Jje  trewth 
whette?'  fajjer  lohan  batmawson  dyd  impetratt  for  me  of  ])e  generall 
chapytter  jje  lycence  \ai  dane^  george  hath.  Jje  trewth  ys,  ]jat  when 
dane  george  was  dyspensyd  vfiili  Jje  relygyon,  I  &  anojjer  was  dys- 
pensyd  w?t/i  all  /  consyderyng  I  can  [not],  nor  neuer  cowld,  lyue  soly- 
tary  /  &  I  amonges  yow  intrusyd  in  a  close  ayre  /  my3th  neue?-  haue 
my  helth.  also  I  was  receuyd  amonges  yow  vnder  age,  contrary  to 
yowr  statute6*  /  wherfor  now  I  am  clerly  dischargyd ;  not  hauywg  ))e 
byshopp  of  liomes  dispensacyon ;  but  yow  pat  receuyd  me  to  fo 
relygyon,  for  lefuU  &  lawfull  causes  cowsyderyd  /  haue  dyspensyd 
vfiih  me.  In  wytnes  pat  I  do  not  fable  w^t7^  yow,  specyally  pat 
yow  be  in  all  causis  obedyentt  to  yow?*  kyng.  pe  afforesayd  reuerend 
father  hath  maad  pe  ry3th  honerable  esquyre  maste?*  CromeH,  &  my 
lord^  of  Chester,  broper  off  all  pe  hole  relygyon  /  p?*aying  yow  pat 
yow  do  no  thyng  with  outt  theyr  counsell,  as  lesus  yo?/r  louer 
knowth,  who  euer  keppe  yow  !  wretyn  in  hast  in  pe  cell  of  pe 
reuerend  faper  callyd  Johan,  &  wzt/i  hys  counsyll,  pe  ij  day  of 
August,  by  fe  hand  off  youT  bedman  „  ^^^^^^^  ^^^^,^  ^^^^_ 

'  Papers  relating  to  the  Reformation  and  Dissolution  of  the  Monasteries. 
*  Dominus. 

'  ?  A  Prior.   Henry  VIII,  when  Prince  of  Wales,  was  Earl  of  Chester.   The 
Bishopric  of  Chester  was  erected  4  Aug.,  1542. 
■•  Printed  '  Bond  '  in  the  Cotton  Catalogue. 

58  boorde's  fifth  letter,  1535-6.  [§  34,  35. 

[on  hack]  "To  master  prior  &  the  couentt  ofif  pe  charte?'howse  off 
london,  &  to  all  p/iors  &  couentes  olf  j)e  sayd  order  in  ynglond." 

On  one  corner  of  the  back  is  written,  "Androw  Bord.  to  ])e 
prio^^r  and  Convent  of  Charterhouse  in  london  &c'  /  " 

§  34.  Boorde  then  returned  to  England,  wrote  from  London  to 
Cromwell  a  letter  that  is  not  now  extant  (so  far  as  we  yet  know), 
and  then  the  following  excusatory  missive,  which  shows  that  he  did 
not  feel  satisfied  himself  that  he  was  free  from  his  Carthusian  vows, 
but  feared  that  Cromwell,  notwithstanding  his  former  release  (p.  52), 
might  hold  him  bound  to  them  still. 

[Letter  V.  1  before  1  April,  1536.] 

"After  humyle  salutacyon  \yith  dew  reuerence.  Accordyng  to 
my  promyse,  by  my  letters  maade  at  burdyose,  and  also  att  london, 
J)is  presentt  month  dyrectyd  to  jota:  mastershepp,  I,  Andrew  Boorde, 
somtyme  monk  of  the  charterhowse  of  london,  am  come  to  yoz^r 
mastershepp,  commynttyng  me  fully  in  to  goddis  handes  &  jours,  to 
do  with  me  w/iatt  yow  wyll.  As  I  wrott  to  joui  mastershepp,  I 
browth  letters  from  by-3end  see,  but  I  haue  nott,  nor  wyll  nott, 
delyuer  them,  vnto  the  tyme  yow  haue  seen  them,  &  knowywg  ]}e 
ouerplus  of  my  mynd.  I  haue  suffycyentt  record  pat  J)e  prior  off 
chartterhowse  off  london  last  beyng,  of  hys  owne  meere  mocyon, 
gaue  me  lycence  to  departe  frome  ]je  relygyon  :  wheruppon  I  wentt 
ouer  see  to  skole ;  &  now  I  dyd  come  home  by  the  grawiite  charter- 
howse, wher  y  was  dyspensyd  of  J)e  relygyon  in  the  prior  batman- 
sons  days,^  att  the  sayd  howse,  in  J)e  renewyng  pat  lycence,  I  browth 
a  letter,  yow  to  do  with  me  and  ytt  what  yow  wyll,  for  I  wyll  hyd 
no  thyng  from  yow,  be  ytt  with  me  or  agenst  me.  I  was  also  xv. 
^eres  passyd  dyspensyd  with  pe  relygyon  by  the  byshopp  of  Komes 
buUes,  to  be  suffrygan  off  chycester,  the  wliych  I  neuer  dyd  execute 
Jje  auctore^;  ^ett  all  J}is  nott-w?'t7istondyng,  I  submytt  my-selft'to  yow  ; 
&  yff  yow  wyll  haue  me  to  pat  relygyon,  I  shall  do  as  well  as  [I] 
can,  god  succz^ryng,  who  euer  keppe  joui  mastershepp  in  prospcruse 
helth  and  honer ! 

"  By  jouT  be[d]ma?2,  pe  sayd  andrew  prenomynatyd. 

[directed  on  back]  "  Suo  Honorifico  Magistro  ThomsG  CromeH,  Armi- 
gero,  su?7imo  Secreta?io  serenissimo  nostio  regi  henrico  octauo, 
Magistro  que  rotularMW  dignissimo,  hje  litterulte  sint  tradende." 

[endorsed  Andrew  Boorde.] 

§  35.  Cromwell's  decision  must  have  been  in  favour  of  Boorde's 
freedom  from  his  monkish  vows,  for  soon  after  his  letter  to  Crom- 
'  BatmansoD  was  Prior  from  1529  to  IG  Nov.,  1531. —  Cooper,     ^  authority. 

§  35.]       FOREWORDS.       BOORDE's   SIXTH   LETTER,    1    APRIL,    1536.  59 

well,  Boorde  went  to  practise  and  study  medicine  in  Scotland,  where 
we  find  him  on  April  1,  1536.  The  authority  for  the  year  1536  is 
Mr  W.  Durrant  Cooper,  who  says  {Sussex  Archceologiccd  Society's 
Collections f  vol.  xiii,  p.  266)  of  this  next  letter,  that  it  "  is  not  dated, 
but  the  allusion  to  the  vacancy  in  the  office  of  prior  of  the  Charter- 
house enables  me  to  fix  1st  April,  1536,  as  the  date  of  the  letter."  ^ 

[Letter  VI.     Leith,  1  April,  1536.] 

"After  humly  salutacyon,  vrith  dew  reuerence,  I  cMyffy  yowr 
mastershepp  jjat  I  am  now  in  skotlond,  in  a  lytle  vnyuersyte  or  study 
namyd  Glasco,  wher  I  study  &  practyce  physyk,  as  I  haue  done  in 
dyuerce  regyons  &  prouynces,  for  ]je  sustentacyon  off  my  lyuyng ; 
assewryng  yow  ])at  in  the  partes  ])at  I  am  yn,  ^e  kynges  grace  hath 
many,  3e,  (&  in  maner)  all  maner  of  persons  (exceppt  some  skolasty- 
call  mew)  Jjat  be  hys  aduersarys,  &  spekyth  pa?-lyus  wordes.  I 
resortt  to  ^e  skotysh  kynge^  howse,  &  to  ]?e  erle  of  Aryn,  namyd 
Hamylton,2  &  to  j^e  lord  evyndale,  namyd  stuerd,  &  to  many  lordes 
&  lardes,  as  well  spyrytuall  as  temporall,  &  truly  I  know  ])er  mynde^, 
for  Jjei  takyth  me  for  a  skotysh  ma/ies  sone.  for  I  name  my  selif 
Karre,  &  so  |)e  Karres  kallyth  me  cosyn,  thorow  ))e  which  I  am  in 
the  more  fauer.  shortly  to  conclude,  trust  yow  no  skott,  for  they 
wyll  yowse  flatteryng  wordes,  &  all  ys  Jfal[s]holde.^    I  suppose,  veryly, 

'  I  can't  find  the  date  of  Prior  Trafford's  appointment.  .  Howghton  was 
executed  April  27,  1535  (or  May  4,  Stone).  Shortly  after  "And  order  for  the 
charterhous  of  London  "  was  made, — of  which  the  first  provision  is 

"  that  there  be  v  or  vj  goueniers  of  temp<>rtt  men,  lernyd,  w}'sse,  &  trusty, 
appoyntyd,  wherof  iij  or  ij  of  them  shalbe  contynually  there  to  geder  enery 
meale,  and  loge  there  eu<?ry  nyght." — (Cott.  MS  Cleop.  E.  iv.  leaf  27.  Strype's 
Memorials,  vol.  i.  pt.  i.  p.  303,  &c.)  See  also  Smythe's  Charter -house.  This 
Scheme  does  not  seem  to  have  been  carried  out. 

^  "  James,  son  of  the  second  Lord  Hamilton,  and  of  Mary,  daughter  of 
James  II  of  Scotland,  was  created  Earl  of  Arran  in  August,  1503,  and  died 
without  issue." — Cooper. 

^  See  a  virtuous  Scotchman's  opinion  to  the  contrary  in  chapter  13  of 
The  Covi2)laynt  of  Scotland,  ab.  1548  A.D.,  p.  165,  ed.  1801  :  "there  is  nocht 
tua  nations  vndir  the  firmament  that  ar  mair  contrar  and  dijfferent  fra  vthirs, 
nor  is  inglis  men  and  scottis  men,  quhoubeit  that  thai  be  vitht-in  ane  ile,  and 
n5'^thbours,  and  of  ane  lawgage.  for  inglis  men  ar  subtil,  and  scottis  men  ar 
facile,  inglis  men  ar  ambitius  in  prosperite,  and  scottis  men  ar  humain  in 
prosperite.  inglis  men  ar  humil  quhen  thai  ar  subiecldt  be  forse  and  violence, 
and  scottis  men  ar  furious  quhen  thai  ar  violently  subiekit.  inglis  men  ar 
cruel  quhene  thai  get  victorie,  and  scottis  men  ar  merciful  quhen  thai  get 
victorie.  and,  to  conclude,  it  is  onpossibil  that  scottis  men  and  inglis  men  can 
remane  in  concord  vndir  ane  monarche  or  ane  prince,  be-cause  there  naturis 
and  conditions  ar  as  indifferent  as  is  the  nature  of  scheip  and  voluis  .  .  ."  "  i 
trou  it  is  as  onpossibil  to  gar  inglis  men  and  scottis  men  remane  in  gude 
accord  vnder  ane  prince,  as  it  is  onpossibil  that  tua  sonnis  and  tua  sunnis  can 

60  BOORDE's    6TH    LETTER,    PROM    LEITH.      1    APRIL,    1536.       [§    35. 

pat  yow  haue  in  ynglond,  by-3end  x  thowsand  skottes,  &  innumerable 
oper  alyons,  which  doth  (specyally  J)e  skottes)  much  harme  to  po 
kynges  leege  me7i  thorowh  per  ewyll  wordes^.  for  as  I  wentt  thorow 
ynglond,  I  mett,  &  was  in  company  off,  many  rurall  felows,  englich 
men,  pat  loue  nott  owr  gracyose  kyng.  wold  to  lesn,  pat  some  wer 
ponyshyd,  to  geue  oper  example !  wolde  to  lesu,  also,  pat  yow  hade 
neuer  an  alyon  in  yowr  realme,  specyally  skottes,  for  I  neuer  knew 
alyon  goode  to  ynglonde,  exceppt  ])ei  knew  profytt  &  lucre  shold 
00771  to  them,  &c.  In  all  pe  pa7-tes  off  crystyndom  pat  I  haue 
trawyllyd  in,  I  know  nott  v.  englysh  men  inhabytow7's,  exceppt  only 
skolers  for  lernyTig.^  I  p7'ay  to  lesu  pat  alyons  in  ynglond  do  no 
more  harme  to  ynglonde  !  yff  I  myght  do  ynglond  any  se7-uyce,  specy- 
ally to  my  soueryn  lorde  Jje  kyng,  &  to  yow,  I  wold  do  ytt,  to  spend 
&  putt  my  lyff  in  danger  &  luberdy  as  far  as  any  man,  god  be  my 
luge.  Yow  haue  my  hartt,  &  shalbe  sure  of  me  to  pe  vttermust  off 
my  poer  power,  for  I  am  neue?'  able  to  mak  yow  amendes ;  for  wher 
I  was  in  greatt  thraldom,  both  bodyly  and  goostly,  yow  of  yowr  gen- 
tylnes  sett  me  att  liberte  &  clernes  off  conscyence.  Also  I  thank 
yoi^r  maste7'shepp  for  youT  grett  kyndnes,  pat  yow  sheude  me  att 
bysheppes  waltam,^  &  pat  yow  gaue  me  lycence  to  come  to  yow  ons 
in  a  qwartter.  as  sone  as  I  come  home,  I  p7-etende  to  come  to  yow, 
to  submytt  my  seltf  to  yow,  to  do  with  me  what  yow  wyll.  for,  for 
lak  of  wytt,  pa7-aduewtter  I  may  in  ])is  wrettyng  say  pat  shall  nott 
contentt  yow ;  but,  gode  be  my  Judge,  I  mene  trewly,  both  to  my 
souerrynge  lord  pe  kyng  &  to  yow.  when  I  was  keppt  in  thrawldom 
in  pe  charterhowse,  &  knew  *  noper  pe  kynges  noble  actes,  nor  yow ; 
then,  stultycyusly  thorow  synystrall  wordes,  I  dyd  as  many  of  pat 
order  doth ;  butt  after  pat  I  was  att  lyberte,  manyfestly  I  aperseuyde 
Jje  yngnorance  &  blyndnes  pat  they  &  I  war  yn :  for  I  could  neue?" 
know  no  thyng  of  no  maner  off  matter,  butt  only  by  them,  &  they 
wolde  cause  me  wrett  full  incypyently  to  pe  -prior  of  london,  when 
he  was  in  pe  tower,  before  he  was  putt  to  exicucyon  ^  ;  for  pe  which 
I  trust  jour  mastershepp  hath  pa7-donyd  me  ;  for  god  knowth  I  was 

be  at  one  tyme  to-giddir  in  the  lyft,  be  raison  of  the  grit  differens  that  is  be- 
tuix  there  naturis  &  conditions." 

'  The  dislike  of  Englishmen  to  aliens  in  Henry  VIII's  reign  is  testified  by 
'evil  Mayday'  in  1517,  and  numerous  petitions  and  enactments.  See  my 
Ballads  from  Manuscripts,  vol.  i.  p.  56-9,  104-7. 

^  In  the  7th  chapter  of  his  Boke  of  the  Introduction  of  Knowledge  he  says, 
"  I  have  travelled  round  about  Christendom,  and  out  of  Christendom,  and  I 
did  never  see  nor  know  7  Englishmen  dwelling  in  any  town  or  city  in  any 
region  beyond  the  see,  except  merchants,  students,  and  brokers,  not  there  being 
permanent  nor  abiding,  but  resorting  thither  for  a  space.' ' —  Cooper.  See  also 
the  extract  from  Torkington's  Pilgrimage  in  the  Notes. 

^  *  when  I  came  to  yow  }per '  follows,  and  is  struck  out. 

*  ori;j.  know. 

*  Prioi  John  Howghton  was  convicted  of  high  treason  on  April  29,  15.35, 
and  executed  on  May  4  {Stoive). 

§  35,  36.]  FOREWORDS.      BOORDE   IN   SCOTLAND,    1536-7.  61 

keppt  in  person  ^  straytly,  &  glad  I  was  to  wrett  att  theyr  request ; 
but  I  wrott  nothyng  ]>ai  I  thowght  shold  be  a-genst  my  prince,  nor 
yow,  nor  no  o\>er  man.  I  pray  god  pat  yow  may  prouyde  a  goode 
prior  for  pat  place  of  london ;  for  truly  per  be  many  wylfull  & 
obstynatt  yowng  men  pat  stondyth  to  much  in  per  owne  co72saytt, 
&  wyll  not  be  reformyd,  butt  playth  Jje  cbyldryn ;  &  a  good  prior 
wold  so  serue  them  lyk  chyldryn.  News  I  haue  to  wrett  to  yow, 
butt  I  p?'etende  to  be  w*t^  yow  shortly ;  for  I  am  halfF  very  ^  off  pe 
baryn  contry,  as  lesu  cryst  knowth,  who  euer  keppe  yow  in  helth  & 
honer.  tfrom  leth,  a  myle  from  Edynborowh,  the  fyrst  day  off  Apryll, 
by  the  hand  off  yowr  Poer  skoler  &  seruantt 

[directed  on  back]  "  Andrew  Boorde,  Freest. 

"To  the  right  honerable  esq?a're,  Mastev 

Thomas  Cromwell,  hygh  secretory  to 

jje  Kjnges  grace." 

In  his  Breuiary  of  Helth,  Boorde  also  tells  us  that  he  first  prac 
tised  Physic  in  Scotland,  and  stayed  there  a  year  : 

"  I  dyd  practyse  phisicke  fyrst  in  Scotlande ;  and  after  that  I  had 
taried  there  one  yere,  I  returned  then  into  England,  and  dyd  come 
to  a  towne  in  Yorkeshire  named  Cuckold,  where  a  bocher  had  a 
Sonne  that.fel  out  of  a  hyghe  haye  licke"  [see  below  for  the  rest]. — 
The  Seconde  Boke  of  the  Breuiary  of  Health,  named  the  Extraua- 
gantes,  Fol.  xxiiii.; 

that  among  his  patients  were  two  lords, 

"  "Whan  I  dyd  dwell  in  Scotlande,  and  dyd  practice  there  Phisicke, 
I  had  two  lordes  in  cure  that  had  distyllacion  like  to  nature ;  and  so 
hath  many  men  in  al  regyons." — ih.  Fol.  xxii.,  back  ; 

and  that  though  he  was  hated  as  an  Englishman,  yet  his  knowledge 

got  him  favour : 

"  Also,  it  is  naturally  geuen,  or  els  it  is  of  a  deuellyshe  dysposi- 
cion  of  a  scottysh  ma?i,  not  to  loue  nor  fauour  an  englishe  maw.  And 
I,  beyng  there,  and  dwellyng  among  them,  was  hated ;  but  my 
sciences  &  other  polices  did  kepe  me  in  favour  that  I  did  know 
theyr  secretes." — Fyrst  Boke  of  the  Introduction  of  Knowledge; 
Taylor's  reprint,  sign.  H. 

§  36.  From  Yorkshire,  Boorde  returned  to  London,  and  saw 
Cromwell,  to  whom  he  afterwards  wrote  the  following  letter  from 
Cambridge,  on  Aug.  17,  and  in  the  year  1537,  as  I  think  certain,  for 

'  Was  *  prison  '  meant  ?    Or  only  that  he  was  watcht,  and  kept  in  his  cell  ? 
'  weary.    The  Scotch  w  and  v  of  this  time  are  used  for  one  anotlier. 

62  BOORDe's    7TH    LETTER,    FROM    CAMBRIDGE,    1537.  [§  36. 

he  could  hardly  expect  Cromwell  to  recollect  such  a  trifle  as  meet- 
ing him,  after  the  interval  of  more  than  a  montii  or  two ;  and  Boorde 
would  hardly  allow  more  than  that  time  to  pass  over  before  apply- 
ing for  help  to  recover  his  stolen  horses. 

[Letter  VII.     Cambridge,  13  August  [1537].] 

"Reuerently  salutyd  viiih  loue  and  fere.  I  desyre  jour  lord- 
shepp  to  co?itynew  my  good  lorde,  as  euer  yow  haue  byn  :  for,  god  be 
my  iudge,  yff  I  know  wAat  I  myght  do  )?at  myght  be  acceptable  to 
yow,  I  wold  do  ytt ;  for  ^per  ys  no  creature  lyuywg  ))at  y  do  loue 
and  fere  so  much  as  yow,  and  I  haue  nott  in  ))is  world  no  refuge 
butt  only  to  yow.  when  I  cam  to  london  owtt  of  skotlond,  and.  )jat 
yt  plesyd  yow  to  call  me  to  yow,  as  yow  cam  rydyng  from  west- 
mestre,  I  had  ij  horsys  stolyn  frome  me,  &  I  can  tell  the  pe?'Sons 
])at  hath  bowght  them,  butt  I  can  nott  recouer  my  horse[s]  althowh 
they  Jjat  bowght  ))em  dyd  neuer  toll  for  them,  nor  neuer  bowth 
])eni  in  no  markett,  butt  prmetly.  Also  \)er  be  yn  london  certyn 
persons  thatt  owth  me  in  mony  and  stuff  .liij".,  ))e  which  my  frendes 
gaue  me.  I  do  aske  my  dewty  off  Jjem ;  &  they  callyth  me  'appostata, 
&  all  to  nowght,'  &  sayth  they  wyll  troble  me,  &  doth  slawnder  me 
by-hynd  my  bak  off  thynges  Jjat  I  shold  do  xx"  3ers  a-gone ;  & 
trewly  they  can  nott  proue  ytt,  nor  I  neuer  dyd  ytt ;  J)e  matter  ys, 
fat  I  shold  be  cowuersantt  w?'t^  wome?i :  o])er  matteres  they  lay 
nott  to  my  charge.  I  desyer  yow  to  be  good  lord  to  me,  for  1  wyll 
neuer  complayne  forther  then  to  yow.  I  thank  lesu  cryst,  I  can 
lyue,  althowh  I  neuer  haue  peny  off  ytt ;  but  I  wold  be  sory  J)at  they 
))at  hath  my  good,  shold  haue  ytt :  yff  any  off  joux  seruanttes  cowld 
gett  ytt,  I  wold  geue  ytt  to  them,  yo^^r  fayghtfuU  seruantt,  master 
watter  thomas,  dwellyng  in  wrettyll,'  knowth  all  )je  hoole  matte?*, 
and  so  doth  hys  son,  dwelly^zg  in  jje  temple.  I  commytt  all  to  yow, 
to  do  y^ith  me  &  ytt  what  ytt  shall  plese  yow ;  desyeryng  yow  to 
spare  my  rude  wrettyng,  for  I  do  presume  to  wrett  to  yow  upon  jouv 
gentylnes,  as  god  knowth,  who  euer  kepp  yov/  in  helth  and  hone?' ! 
tfrome  cambrydg,  jje  xiij  day  off  August,  by  the  bond  off  yowr  bed- 
maTi,  &  se^-uantt  to  ])e  vttermust  off  my  poor  power. 

"  Andrew  Boorde,  prest. 
[dWected  on  the  hack]  "  To  the  ryght         r^„^„,.,,^  Andrew  Boordo 
honerable  lorde   the   lord  of  the         ^        t    ( -  \^ 
pryueseale^bethysbylldyrectyd."  ^         ^    ^^ 

Who  were  Walter  Thomas  of  Writtle,  and  his  son  dwelling  in  the 
Temple  1 

*  ?  Writtle,  Essex.  - 

'^  Cromwell  was  created  Keeper  of  the  Privy  Seal  on  July  2,  1536  ;  Earl  of 
Essex  in  1539,  and  beheaded,  28  Jul)',  1540. 

§  37.]  forewords:  boorde's  life,     travels.  63 

§  37.  How  soon  after  1537  Boorde  left  England  a  fourth  time  for 
the  Continent,  and  no  doubt  travelled  about  it,  we  cannot  tell.  The 
Dissolution  of  the  Eeligious  Houses  in  England  in  1538  must  have 
assured  him  of  his  freedom,  and  he  probably  used  it  to  journey 
about,  to  see  and  know.  The  range  of  his  travels  at  different  times 
astonishes  one.  For  though  at  first  sight  we  maybe  inclined  to 
think  that  there's  a  bit  of  brag  in  his  talk  about  his  travels  '  round 
about  Christendom,  and  out  of  Christendom'  {Fyrst  BoJm^  chap, 
vii.),  yet  I  am  convinced  that  he  is  quite  honest  in  what  he  says, 
and  that  the  words  he  sets  down  with  his  hand,  tell  the  facts  that  he 
saw  with  his  eyes.  The  very  differences  between  his  full  treatment 
of  certain  places,  &c.,  in  a  country,  and  his  slurring  over  others  of 
equal  importance,  prove  it.  Had  we  his  full  Itinerary  left,  instead  of 
only  the  English  part  of  it  that  Hearne  printed  in  his  Abbot  of 
Peterborough's  lives  of  Henry  III  and  Richard  I  (ii.  777,  &c.  a.d. 
1735),  I  feel  sure  that  Boorde's  entries  would  contain  all  the  coun- 
tries he  describes  in  his  Fyrst  Bake,,  except  perhaps  Turkey  and 
Egypt.  At  any  rate,  there  are  touches  in  his  descriptions  of  the 
following  places  which  render  it  impossible  to  doubt  that  he  had  been 
thfere : — 

England,  p.  116.  Spain,  p.  198.  Saxony,  p.  164. 

Wales,  p.  125.                      Castile,  p.  199.  Denmark,  p.  162. 

Scotland,  p.  135.                  Biscay,  p.  199.  Italy,  p.  177. 

Ireland,  p.  131.                    Compostella,  p.  205.  Lombardy,  p.  186. 

France  p   190                          Catalonia,  p.  194.  Venice,  p.  181. 

Calais,  p.  191.  Flanders,  p.  146.  ^^"'^f  ^^^'^  *^^°^'* 

Boulogne,  p.  209.                 Antwerp,  p.  151.  Nanlel  n  176 

Orleans,  p.  191.  ^                    ,  ^„  ^  JNapies,  p.  I7b. 

Montne  ier  n   194  Germany,  p.  159.  Greece,  p.  171. 

Montpelier,  p.  194.              ^^^^^^^  ^^  ^^^^^  p^  ^^^  Jerusalem,  p.  218. 

All  these  places,  besides  (as  I  believe)  aU  the  other  countries 
mentioned  in  his  Fyrst  Bake,  Boorde  must  have  visited  before  he 
settled  down  in  Montpelier,'^  and  there  by  1542  wrote  his  Introduc- 
tion, Dyetary,  Breuyary^  and  Treatise  upon  Beards  (assuming  that 
it  existed).  What  he  tells  us  about  himself  and  these  books  has 
been  already  quoted  on  pages  15 — 26  above ;  and  what  Barnes  says 

*  Brev.  II.  fol.  iv.  back,  p.  76,  below. 

*  I  do  saye  as  I  do  knowe,  not  onelye  by  my  selfe,  but  by  manye  other 
whan  I  did  vse  the  seas. — (^Brev.  ch.  381.    Fol.  C.  xxii.) 

64:  BOORDE    AT    WINCHESTER  ;    IN    LONDON    IN    1547.  [§  38. 

about  the  books,  and  about  Boorde's  getting  drunk  at  Montpelier,^ 
earning  a  reputation  by  his  books,  and  denouncing  beards,  will  be 
found  at  p.  307,  309,  below.  The  reader  may  as  well  turn  on,  and 
run  his  eye  over  the  passages. 

§  38.  I  suppose  that  Boorde  came  back  to  England  in  1542, 
when  the  first  edition  of  his  Dyetary  was  publisht  (p.  12),  and  that 
he  was  also  in  England  when  he  wrote  his  Pronosticaeion  for  1545 
(p.  25).  During  this  time  he  probably  settled  at  Winchester ;  and 
if  we  suppose  that  then  were  left  to  him  by  his  brother  the  houses 
and  property  in  that  town  which  he  devises  by  his  will,  or  the  houses 
in  Lynn  (in  Norfolk)  which  he  also  devises,  or  that  he  made  money 
by  practice  as  a  physician,  so  that  the  *  lacke  of  money'  which  stopt 
the  printing  of  his  Introduction  (p.  15)  ceast,  we  can  account  for  the 
publishing  of  that  book  in  1547  (or  1548),  as  well  as  of  the  second 
edition  of  the  Dyetary,  the  Breuyary,  and  the  Astronamye,  which 
was  evidently  intended  as  a  companion  to  the  Breuyary,  and  was 
written  in  four  days  with  one  old  pen  without  mending  (p.  16, 
above).  To  superintend  the  passing  of  these  books  through  the 
press — though  I  doubt  whether  he  read  his  proofs — he  ought  to  have 
been  in  London ;  and,  most  luckily,  it  is  in  1547,  or  just  before,  that 
we  find  a  "  Doctor  Borde  "  there,  as  the  last  tenant  of  the  house  ap- 
propriated to  the  Master  of  the  Hospital  of  St  Giles's,  by  Lord  Lisle, 
to  whom  Henry  VIII  had  in  1545  granted  nearly  all  the  possessions 
of  the  Hospital,  part  of  the  Eeformation  spoil.  In  1547  Lord  Lisle, 
by  Henry's  license,  conveyed  the  Hospital  property  to  Sir  Wymonde 
Carew,  and  in  the  description  of  it,  Dr  Borde's  name  occurs.^     The 

'  Compare  the  result  as  stated  by  Barnes  with  William  Langley's  Glutton 
in  the  Vision  of  Piers  Plowman,  Text  B,  Passus  V,  p.  76,  1.  361-3,  who 
.  .  coughed  up  a  caudel  *  in  Clementis  lappe  ; 
Is  non  so  hungri  hounde  •  in  Hertford  schire 
Durst  lape  of  )je  leuynges  •  so  vnlouely  Jjei  smau^te. 
*  Necnon  unuw  alium  messuagium,  parcell?*?/*  situs  nup<??"  dic^i  Hospitalis, 
una  cum  pomeriis  &  gardinis  eidem  messuagio  p<?rtinentiJw«  sive  adjacen^i- 
hus,  existen^?.&?/«  in  prfdic^a  parochia  Sa»c#i  Egidii.  nupcr  in  tenura  sive 
occupacio7te  Doctoris  Borde, 

The  Licence  to  Lord  Lisle  is  dated  July  6,  1547.  The  original  is,  says 
Parton,  "  Among  the  records  in  the  Lord  Treasurer's  Kemembrancer's  office,  in 
the  Exchequer,  to  wit,  in  the  fifth  part  of  the  originals  of  the  38th  year  of  the 
reign  of  King  Henry  the  Eighth,  Roll  CV,  and  is  printed  in  p.  35,  note  32,  of 
*  Some  Account  of  the  Hospital  and  Parish  of  St.  Giles  in  the  Fields,  Middle- 
sex, by  the  late  Mr  John  Parton,  Vestry-Clerk.'  1822." 

§  39.]  forewords:    BOORDe's    LIFE.       BP    PONET's   CHARGE.  65 

unpleasant  alternative  that  this  Dr  Borde  may  have  been  Dr  Richard 
Borde  of  Pevensey,  I  am  unable  to  negative.^ 

§  39.  Just  at  this  time,  at  the  culminating  point  of  Boorde's  life, 
the  most  serious  charge  of  that  life  is  brought  against  him,  and  this 
by  no  less  a  person  than  John  Ponet,  Bishop  of  Winchester, ^ — the 

By  this  grant  [of  Henry  VIII  in  1545]  all  the  possessions  of  the  hospital 
of  St  Giles  (not  expressly  mentioned  in  the  exchange  with  the  king)  were 
vested  in  Lord  Lisle,  They  consisted  of  the  hospital,  its  site  and  gardens,  the 
church  and  manor  of  St  Giles. 

After  this  grant  Lord  Lisle  fitted  up  the  principal  part  of  the  hospital  for 
his  own  residence,  leasing  out  other  subordinate  parts  of  the  structure,  and  por- 
tions of  the  adjoining  grounds,  gardens,  &c.,  and  at  the  end  of  two  years  he 
conveyed  the  whole  of  the  premises  to  John  Wymonde  Carewe,  Esq.,  by  licence 
from  the  king,  in  the  last  year  of  his  reign. 

The  capital  mansion  or  residence  which  Lord  Lisle  fitted  up  for  his  own 
accommodation,  was  situate  where  the  soap  manufactory  of  Messre  Dix  and 

Co.  now  is,  in  a  parallel  direction  with  the  church,  but  more  westward 

The  house  appropriated  to  the  master  of  the  hospital  was  situate  where 
Dudley  Cavet  has  been  since  built,  and  is  mentioned  as  occupied  by  Dr  Borde 
in  the  transfer  from  Lord  Lisle  to  Sir  "Wymonde  Carewe,  which  is  said  to 
have  been  afterwards  the  rectory  house,  being  given  by  the  Duchess  for  that 
purpose.  1834. — B.  Dohic,  History  of  the  United  Parishes  of  St  Giles-in-t?ie- 
Meld,  and  St  George,  Bloom sbvry,  2nd  ed.,  p.  23-5. 

"  The  grant  of  the  hospital  by  Henry  VIII.  to  Lord  Lisle  simply  describes 
it  as  '  All  that  the  late  dissolved  hospital  of  St.  Giles  in  the  Fields,  without 
the  bars  of  London,  with  its  appurtenances,  &c.,  lately  dissolved.'  But  his 
licence  to  that  nobleman  to  convey  the  same  to  Wymond  Carew,  contains  a 
description  of  part  of  these  premises,  sufficiently  detailed  to  afford  almost 
every  information  that  can  be  desired.     They  are  thus  particularized  : — 

*  All  that  mansion,  place,  or  capital  house,  late  the  house  of  the  dissolved 
hospital  of  St.  Giles  in  the  Fields ;— and  all  those  houses,  gardens,  stables,  and 
orchards  to  the  same  belonging ;  and  one  other  messuage  (parcel  of  the  site 
of  the  said  late  hospital),  and  the  orchard  and  garden  to  the  same  belonging 
and  adjoining,  late  in  the  tenure  of  Dr.  Borde.' " — Barton's  Account  of  tJie 
Hospital  and  Parish  of  St  Giles-in-the- Fields,  pp.  51,  52  (^printed  in  1822). 

'  "  That  Andrew  was  connected  with  Bevensey  by  residence  [?]  and  pro- 
perty is  well  established.  Contemporary  with  him,  and  probably  a  near  kins- 
man, was  another  Doctor  Borde,  who  held  the  vicarage  of  Pevensey,  the 
vicarage  of  Westham,  and  the  chantry  of  the  chapel  of  Northye  in  the  adja- 
cent marsh.  In  the  'Valor  Ecclesiasticus '  of  Henry  VIII.  [a.d.  1535]  his 
valuable  preferments  are  thus  stated : 

BXaardn's,  Bord,  doctor,  vicarius  ihidem,  valet  clare  per  annum  &c.  18£  G.f.  M. 

Rica?*^us  Bord,  doctor,  vicarius  ihidevtx,  valet  &c.  21.  10.  10. 

CantaHa  de  Northyde  (sic). 
Ricfl7'dus  Bord,  doctor,  capellanus  ibidem,  valet  &c.  2.  13.     4." 

M.  A.  Lower,  in  Sussex  Arch.  Coll.  vi.  200. 

^  He  was  appointed  Bishop  in  May,  165l.—Stryjje''s  Memorials,  vol.  ii. 
rt  I.  p.  483,  ed.  1822. 


00  BP   PONET    CHARGES   BOORDE   WITH    KEEPING   3    WHORES.     [§  39. 

very  town  that  Boorde  had  lived  in, — and  who,  therefore,  must  liave 
known  what  Boorde's  fellow-citizens  said  of  the  facts  of  the  case.  In 
his  controversy  with  Stephen  Gardiner,  Ponet  published  a  second 
book  in  1555  (says  Wood),  whose  title  in  the  'correctid  and 
amendid '  edition  in  the  British  Museum  is — 

"An  Apologie  fully  avnsweringe  by  Scriptures  and  aunceant 
Doctors  /  a  blasphemose  Book  gatherid  by  D.  Steph.  Gardiner  /  of 
late  Lord  Chauncelari,  D.  Smyth  of  Oxford  /  Pighius  /  and  other 
Papists  /  as  by  ther  books  appeareth,  and  of  late  set  furth  vnder  the 
name  of  Thomas  Martin,  Doctor  of  the  Ciuile  lawes  (as  of  himself  he 
saieth)  against  the  godly  mariadge  of  priests.  Wherin  dyuers  other 
matters  which  the  Papists  defend  be  so  confutid  /  that  in  Martyns 
ouerthrow  they  may  see  there  own  impudency  and  confusion. 

By  John  Ponet  Doctor  of  diuinitie,  and  Busshop  of  Winchester. 
Newly  correctid  and  amendid. 

The  author  desireth  that  the  reader  will  content  himself  with 
this  first  book  vntill  he  may  haue  leasure  to  set  furth  the  next  / 
wiche  shalbe  by  Gods  grace  shortly.  Yt  is  a  hard  tiling  for  the  to 
spurn  against  the  prick.  Act.  9." 

At  page  48  of  this  work  Bp  Ponet  says : — 

And  Avithin  this  eight  yere  [that  is,  in  or  after  1547]  /  was 
there  not  a  holy  ma?2,  named  maister  Doctour  boord,  a  Phisicion, 
that  thryse  in  the  week  would  drink  nothinge  but  water  /  such  a 
proctour  for  the  Papists  the?i  /  as  Martyn  the  lawier  is  now  1  Who 
vnder  the  color  of  uirginitie  /  and  of  wearinge  a  shirte  of  heare  /  and 
hanginge  his  shroud  and  socking  /  or  buriall  sheete  at  his  beds  feet  / 
and  mortifyeng  his  body  /  and  straytnes  of  lyfe  /  kept  thre  whores  at 
07ice  in  his  chambre  at  Winchester  /  to  serue  /  not  OTiely  him  self  / 
but  also  to  help  the  virgin  preests  about  in  the  contry,  as  it  was 
prouid  /  That  they  might  with  more  ease  &  lesse  payn  keepe  tlieire 
blessed  uirginitie.  This  thinge  is  so  trew  /  and  was  so  notoriously 
knowen  /  that  the  matter  cam  to  examination  of  the  iustices  of 
peace  /  of  whom  dyuerse  be  yet  lyuinge  /  as  Sir  Ihon  Kingsmill  /  Sir 
Hewry  Semar  /  etc.  And  was  before  them  confessed  /  and  his 
shrowd  &  sheart  of  hear  openly  shewed  /  and  the  harlots  openly  in 
the  stretes  /  &  great  churche  of  Whinchester  punished.  These  be 
knowen  story es,  wbiche  Martin  ^  and  the  Papists  can  not  denye  /  "  ^ — 

'  Sir  Thomas  More.  ^  Stephen  Gardiner. 

^  I  add  the  continuation  of  tlie  passage,  which  is  somewhat  violent  and 
exaggerated,  so  that  it  may  lessen,  perchance,  the  effect  of  the  charge  against 
Boorde.  '*  And  they  know  well  enoughe  themselues  /  that  there  be  of  the 
lyke  thousands  /  whiche  I  omitt  for  brefenes  /  that  destroy  this  affection  of 
Martin's  prouinge  him  a  false  Iyer  in  this  point. — When  the  deuell  by  losenea 

j  40.]   forewords:  boorde's  life,    guilty  or  not  guilty •?        67 

Ponet's  Apologie,  &c.,  pp.  48,  49  ;  printed  1556.^ 

§  40.  Now  we  know,  on  the  one  hand,  that  "  the  way  of  a  man 
with  a  maid  "  is  one  of  the  four  things  that  Agur  the  son  of  Jakeh 
knew  not  (Proverbs  xxx.  1,  18-19),  and  we  all  are  in  like  case:  we 
know  that  lechery  is  an  old-man's  sin,^  and  that  Boorde  had  been 
charged  with  the  same  sin  in  early  life,  though  he  denied  it ;  and  we 
see  that  the  bishop  of  Boorde's  diocese  and  town  brought  the  charge 
as  one  of  public  notoriety  against  Boorde's  memory,  appealed  to 
witnesses  then  living,  in  confirmation  of  it,  and  (as  I  suppose, 
though  I  have  not  seen  Ponet's  first  edition  of  1555)  re-affirmed  the 
charge  in  the  second  edition  of  his  book  published  in  the  year  of  his 
death  (he  died  April  11,  1556).     We  know  too  that  Boorde  under- 

of  liuinge  /  appeareth  in  his  owne  forme  /  he  can  not  so  eas)'^ly  deceaue  the 
world  as  otherwise  /  wherfore  who  seeth  not  that  he  vseth  to  put  on  a  vysor  of 
holines  /  of  the  punishement  of  the  body  /  and  austeritie  of  lyfe  as  oftew  as  he 
myndeth  thorowly  to  deceaue?  Which  thiwge  he  hath  most  perfectly  brought 
to  passe  in  all  the  orders  of  Antichrist.  Of  Popes  /  Cardinals  /  Buschoppes  / 
preests  /  monks  /  Chanons  /  fryers  /  etc.  To  the  perfect  establishment  of 
buggery  of  whoredom,  a/id  of  all  vngodlynes  /  and  to  the  vniuersall  ruine  of 
the  true  faith  of  Christs  trew  religion  /  &  of  all  vertrew  and  godly  lyfe.  And 
for  cumpassinge  of  this  enterpryse  /  Doctor  Martin  the  lawyer  is  become  the 
deuils  Secretary  /  who  being  taught  by  his  master  /  taketh  diligent  heed 
throughout  his  book  /  that  in  no  wyse  he  geue  any  kynde  of  praise  or  com- 
mendacioM  to  matrimony  in  any  kinde  of  peple.  But  termeth  somtyme  (car- 
nail  libertie)  somtyme  (the  basest  state  of  lyfe  in  the  churche  of  God)  so??*- 
tyme  (a  color  of  bawdry)  somtyme  (that  it  is  a  let  for  a  man  to  geue  himself 
whollye  to  God).  Somtyme  that  (it  is  a  doubling  /  rather  then  a  takinge  away 
the  desyer  of  flesh)  making  himself  therin  wyser  then  God,  who  gaue  it  for  a 
remedye  against  the  lasciuiousnes  of  the  flesh,  as  God  him  selfe  witnessed  when 
he  sayd  faciamus  ei  adlutorium  lette  vs  make  Adam  a  helper.  And  in  the 
leaues  .121.  &  122.  he  goethe  aboute  to  proue  by  Saynte  Paule  that  all  menne 
should  auoide  mariadge.  Wher-by  he  confirmeth  the  opinions  of  Montanus, 
Tatianus  /  and  suche  other  abhominable  beritlques." — Ponet's  Apology,  pp.  49, 
60,  51. 

*  Strype's  Memorials,  vol.  iii.  Pt  I.  p.  529,  reprints  Ponet's  attack  on  Boorde ; 
"  Ponet  also  expected  these  sanctimonious  pretenders  to  a  single  life,  by  the 
horrible  uncleannesses  they  were  guilty  of."  Bp  Ponet  had  previously  written 
A  Defence  for  Marriage  of  Priestes,  1549,  but  this  (says  our  copier,  Mr  Wood) 
contains  nothing  about  Andrew  Boorde.  Strype  says  that  Ponet  wrote  this 
book  in  1544,  when  an  exile  {Memorials,  vol.  iii.  Pt  I.  p.  235).  But  see  his 
Cranvier,  i.  75,  475,  1058,  and  especially  his  Life  of  Parker,  ii.  445,  and  foil. 
He  or  his  editors  confuse  the  layman's  tract  on  which  Parker's  Defence  of 
Priests'  Marriages  was  founded,  with  Ponet's  two  tracts,  though  it  has  nothing 
to  do  with  either  of  them,  except  being  on  the  same  subject. 

^  Boorde  must  have  been  at  least  57  in  1547. 

68  WAS   BOORDE    GUILTY    OF    FORNICATION'?  [§  40/ 

stood  women,^   witness  his  article  on  them  in  his  Breuyary,  Fol. 
Ixxxii.  back  : — 

"  IT  The  .242.  Chapitre  dothe  sheAve  of  a  woman. 

MVlier  is  the  latin  worde.  In  greke  it  is  named  Gyuy.  In  Eng- 
lyshe  it  is  named  a  woman ;  first,  when  a  woman  was  made  of 
God,  she  was  named  Virago  because  she  dyd  come  of  a  man,  as  it 
doth  appere  in  the  seconde  Chapitre  of  the  Genesis.  Furthermore 
now  why  a  woman  is  named  a  woman,  I  wyll  sliewe  my  mynde. 
Homo  is  the  latin  worde,  and  in  Englyshe  it  is  as  wel  for  a  woman 
as  for  a  man ;  for  a  woman,  the  silables  co?2uerted,  is  no  more  to  say 
as  a  man  in  wo ;  and  set  wo  before  man,  and  then  it  is  woman ;  and 
wel  she  may  be  named  a  woman,  for  as  muche  as  she  doth  bere 
chyldren  with  wo  and  peyne,  and  also  she  is  subiect  to  man,  ex- 
cept it  be  there  where  the  white  mare  is  the  better  horse ;  therfore 
Vt  homo  non  cantet  cum  cuculo,  let  euery  man  please  his  wyfe  in  all 
matters,  and  displease  her  not,  but  let  her  haue  her  owne  wyl,  for 
that  she  wyll  haue,  wdio  so  euer  say  nay. 

|^p°  The  cause  of  this  matter. 

This  matter  doth  sprynge  of  an  euyl  educacion  or  bringynge  vp, 
and  of  a  sensuall  and  a  peruerse  mynde,  not  fearyng  god  nor  worldely 

^p°  A  remedy. 

I^°  Phisike  can  nat  helpe  this  matter,  but  onely  God  and  greate 
sycknes  maye  subdue  this  matter,  and  no  man  els. 

Vt  mulier  non  coeat  cum  alio  viro  nisi  cum  proprio,  ^c. 
|^p°  Beleue  this  matter  if  you  wyll. 
TAKE  the  gal  of  a  Gote  and  the  gal  of  a  Wolfe,  myxe  them 
togyther,  and  put  to  it  the  oyle  of  Olyue,  ET  VNG.  mrga.  Or  els 
take  of  the  fatnes  of  a  Gote  that  is  but  of  a  yere  of  age.  ET  VNG. 
virga.  Or  els  take  the  braynes  of  a  Choffe,  and  myxe  it  with  Hony. 
ET  VNG.  virga.  But  the  best  remedy  that  I  do  knowe  for  this 
matter,  let  euery  man  please  his  wyfe,  and  beate  her  nat,  but  let  her 
haue  her  owne  wyll,  as  I  haue  sayde." 

We  know,  too,  that  medical  students  are  apt  to  gain  their  know- 
ledge of  women's  secrets — and  Boorde  knew  plenty — by  practical  ex- 
periences inconsistent  with  a  vow  of  chastity ;  and  that  in  the  1 6th 
century,  both  at  home  and  abroad,  opportunities  for  indulgence  must 
have  been  many,  to  a  roving  doctor.  Still,  the  knowledge  of  women's 
external  and  internal  arrangements  shown  by  Boorde  in  his  Bre- 

*  Compare  the  answer  to  the  question  what  women  most  desire  in  The 
Marriage  of  Sir  Gawaine,  Percy  Folio  Ballads  and  Romances,  i.  112.  'Item, 
I  geue  to  all  women,  souereygntee,  which  they  most  desyre  ;  &;  that  they  neuer 
lacke  excuse.' —  Wyll  of  the  Deuyll, 

§  40.]       FOREWORDS  :    BOORDE's    LIFE.       WOOD's   ACCOUNT    OF   HIM.       69 

uyary  may  have  been  only  professional,  and  got  purely.  He  also 
knew  all  the  Doctors'  remedies  for  lechery,"  and  the  penalty  of  indulg- 
ence by  old  men ;  though,  as  he  says,  "it  is  hard  to  get  out  of  the 
flesh  what  is  bred  in  the  bone  ".^  We  know  too  that  the  Protestant 
parson,  William  Harrison,  in  his  Description  of  England ,  printed  in 
1577,  within  30  years  of  Boorde's  death,  called  him  "a  lewd  and  vn- 
gratious  priest,"  and  in  the  2nd  edition  of  1 586-7  "  a  lewd  popish 
hypocrite,  and  vngratious  priest,"^  using  lewd  in  its  modern  sense. 
On  the  other  hand,  we  know  that  Bp  Ponet's  charge  was  made  at 
second  hand,  in  a  controversial  book,  and  we  have  Anthony  a 
Wood's  suggested  plea,  above  140  years  afterwards,  in  mitigation  of 
the  charge : 

'*  He  always  professed  celibacy,  and  did  zealously  write  against 
such  monks,  priests,  and  friers,  that  violated  their  vow  by  marriage, 
as  many  did  when  their  respective  houses  were  dissolv'd  by  king 
Hen.  8.  But  that  matter  being  irksome  to  many  in  those  days,  was 
the  reason,  I  think,  why  a  Calvinistical  bishop  (Joh.  Ponet,  B.  of 
Winchester,  who  was  then,  as  it  seems,  married),  fell  foul  upon  him, 
by  reporting  (In  his  Apology  fully  answeHng,  &c.  Tho.  Martin's 
Book,  &c.,  printed  1555,  p.  32.  See  more  in  Tho.  Martin)  openly, 
that  under  colour  of  virginity  and  strictness  of  life,  he  kept  three 
whores  at  once  in  his  chamber  at  Winchester,  to  serve  not  only  him- 
self, but  also  to  help  the  virgin  priests,  &c.  about  1547.  How  true 
this  is,  I  cannot  say  (though  the  matter,  as  the  bishop  reports,  was 
examined  before  several  justices  of  peace)  because  the  book  here 
quoted  contains  a  great  deal  of  passion,  and  but  little  better  lan- 
guage, than  that  of  foul-mouth'd  Bale,  not  only  against  him  (And. 
Borde),  but  also  against  Dr.  Joh.  Storie,  Dr.  Th.  Martin,  &c.  The 
first  of  whom,  he  saith,  kept  a  wench  called  Magd.  Bowyer,  living  in 
Grandpoole  in  the  suburbs  of  Oxon ;  and  the  other,  another  call'd 
Alice  Lambe,  living  at  the  Christopher  inn  in  the  said  city.  But 
letting  these  matters  pass  (notwithstanding  I  have  read  elsewhere  * 
that  the  said  three  whores,  as    the    bishop  calls    them,  were  only 

'  See  his  chapter  on  Priajjisnws,  p.  100,  below. 

^  "  And  an  olde  man  to  fall  to  carnall  copulacion  to  get  a  chj'lde,  he  doth 
kyll  a  man,  for  he  doth  kyl  hym  selfe,  except  reason  with  grace  do  rule  hym. 
But  of tymes  in  this  matter  old  men  doth  dote,  for  it  is  harde  to  get  out  of  the 
lleshe,  that  is  bred  in  the  bone.  And  furthermore  I  do  saye  Qui  multuDi 
coniunt  dill  t'mere  nonjjossimt,  for  it  doth  ingender  dyuers  infirmyties,  specially 
if  venerious  persons  vse  carnall  copulacion  vpon  a  full  stomake." — Breuiary^ 
Fol.  xxxi.  back.     See  too  p.  84,  1.  4,  below. 

^  See  p.  106,  below. 

'  Wood  gives  no  reference,  and  I  don't  know  what  book  or  MS  he  alludes  to. 

70  WHY   WAS    BOORDE   PUT    IN    THE    FLEET?  [§  40,  41. 

patients  that  occasionally  recurred  to  his  hous),  I  cannot  otherwise 
but  say,  that  our  author  Borde  was  esteemed  a  noted  poet,  a  witty 
and  ingenious  person,  and  an  excellent  physician  of  his  time ;  and 
that  he  is  reported  by  some  to  have  been,  not  only  physician  to  king 
lien.  8,  but  also  a  member  of  the  colledge  of  physicians  at  London, 
to  whom  he  dedicated  his  Breviary  of  Health" — Athen.  Oxon.  I. 
170,  171.1 

but  on  the  evidence  before  us  I  must  confess  myself  unable,  as 
judge,  to  ask,  or  hint  to,  the  jury,  to  acquit  the  prisoner.  Perhaps 
the  publication  or  investigation  of  the  Winchester  records  will  throw 
further  light  on  the  matter.  It  is  a  painful  business  to  wind  up  the 
record  of  a  useful  life  with ;  but  men  are  men.  (See  p.  85,  JN'o.  VII.) 
§  41.  We  come  now  to  the  closing  scene.  Our  lettered  and 
widely-travelled  healer  of  others'  bodies,  our  preacher  to  others'  souls, 
and  reprover  of  others*  vices,  our  hero  sinned  against  and  sinning, 
lies  in  the  Fleet  prison,  sick  in  body,  yet  whole  in  mind.  He  is 
there,  says  Bp  Bale  in  1557-9,  for  his  sin  at  Winchester,  and  has 
poisoned  himself  to  save  public  shame  : 

"  Quum  sanctus  hie  pater,  Vuintoniae  in  sua  domo,  pro  suis  con- 
ccelibibus  Papse  sacrificulis  prostibulum  nutriret,  in  eo  charitatis 
officio  deprehensus,  uenenato  pharmaco  anno  Domini  1548 '^  sibijpsi 

'  The  prior  part  of  Wood's  Memoir,  with  many  mistakes,  is  as  follows  : 
"  Andrew  Borde,  who  writes  himself  Andreas  Perforatus,  was  born,  as  it 
seems,  at  Pevensey,  commonly  called  Pensey,  in  Sussex,  and  not  unlikelj 
educated  in  Wykeham's  school,  near  to  Winchester,  brought  up  at  Oxford,  (a- 
he  saith,  in  his  Introduction  to  Knowledge,  cap,  35),  but  in  what  house,  unless i 
in  Hart-hall,  I  know  not.  Before  he  had  taken  a  degree,  he  entred  himself  i 
brother  of  the  Carthusian  order,  at  or  near  to  London?  where  continuing  tiil 
he  was  wearied  out  with  the  severity  of  that  order,  he  left  it,  and  for  a  time 
applied  his  muse  to  the  study  of  physic  in  this  university,  Soon  after,  having 
a  rambling  head,  and  an  unconstant  mind,  he  travelled  through  most  parts  of 
Europe  (through  and  round  about  Christendom,  and  out  of  Christendom,  as 
he  saith,  Introdiiction  to  Knowledge,  cap.  7),  and  into  some  parts  of  Africa. 
At  length  upon  his  return,  he  settled  at  Winchester,  where  he  practised  his 
faculty,  and  was  much  celebrated  for  his  good  success  therein.  In  1641  and 
1542,  I  find  him  living  at  Montpelier  in  France,  at  which  time  he  took  the 
degree  of  doctor  of  physic,  and  soon  after  being  incorporated  in  the  same 
degree  at  Oxon,  he  lived  for  a  time  at  Pevensey,  in  Sussex,  and  afterwards  at 
his  beloved  city  of  Winchester ;  where,  as  at  other  places  [?  invention  or 
gammon,  this  'other  places'],  it  was  his  custom  to  drink  water  three  days  in  a 
week,  to  wear  constantly  a  shirt  of  hair,  and  every  night  to  hang  his  shroud 
and  socking  or  burial-sheet  at  his  bed's-feet,  according  as  he  had  done,  as  I 
conceive,  while  he  was  a  Carthusian."  [Why  accept  the  hair-shirt,  (fee,  and 
reject  the  whores,  Mr  Anthony  ?] 
•"'  Read  1549. 

§  41.]    forewords:  boorde's  life.   MR  J.  p.  collier's  daring.     71 

mortem  accelerauit,  ne  in  publicum  spectandus  ueniret." — Bale's 
Scriptorum  illustrium  maioris  Brytannice^  Catalogus ;  Scriptorcs 
nostrl  Temporis  (after  Gent,  xii.)  p.  105,  edit.  1569. 

Or,  as  Wood  says  : 

"  Joh.  Bale,  in  the  very  ill  language  that  he  gives  of  Dr  Borde, 
saith  ^  that  the  brothelhouse  which  he  kept  for  his  brother- virgins 
being  discovered,  took  physical  poison  to  hasten  his  death,  which  was, 
as  he  saith,  (but  false  2)  in  1548.  This  is  the  language  of  one  who 
had  been  a  bishop  in  Ireland." — ^A\^ood's  Athen.  Oxon.  I.  173,  ed. 
Bliss,  1813. 

He  is  there  for  his  poverty,^  says  Mr  Payne  Collier,  with  that  no- 
torious daringness  of  invention  that  has  made  him  read  imaginary  lines 
into  MSS,  and  spelling  into  words,  and  has  rendered  him  a  wonder  and 
warning  to  the  editors  of  this  age.* 

'  In  lib.  De  Script,  maj.  Britan,  p.  105,  post  cent.  12. 

'  Bale  is  wrong  by  less  tban  a  month  ;  he  wrote  in  old-style  times. 

'  "  poverty  brought  him  to  the  Fleet  prison,  where,  according  to  Wood 
{Ath.  Oxon.  I.  172,  edit.  Bliss)  he  died  in  1549."  (Bibliographical  Cata- 
loffve,  i.  327.)  And  yet  Bliss  gives  Boorde's  Will,  showing  all  the  houses 
and  property  that  he  left  by  it ! 

"*  To  the  Council  of  the  Camden  Society,  who  have  lately  put  him  among 
them,  an  object  of  honour,  and  (I  suppose)  a  model  for  imitation. 

As  minor  instances  of  this  *  daring '  of  Mv  Collier's,  take  the  last  four  that 
I  have  hit  on  in  following  him  over  the  first  61  pages  of  his  print  of  the 
Stationers'  Registers,  and  one  song  in  a  Royal  MS.  1.  The  clerk  has  left  out 
the  subject  of  one  ballad,  and  entered  on  leaf  22,  back,  '  a  ballytt  of  made  by 
nycholas  baltroppe  ; '  the  a  of  7nade  is  not  very  decided,  so  that  a  hasty  reader 
might  take  the  word  to  be  mode.  Ritson  (or  the  man  he  followed)  so  read  it. 
Mr  Collier  prints  the  entry,  leaves  out  the  word  of,  and  says,  "  We  cannot 
suppose  that  Ritson  saw  the  entry  himself,  and  misread  the  words,  '  A  ballytt 
made,'  *  A  ballytt  of  mode.'  "  2.  On  leaf  75  of  the  Register,  the  clerk  has 
made  a  first  entry  of  the  printing  a  picture  of  a  monstrous  child  born  at 
Chichester,  for  which  id.  was  paid ;  a  second  entry  of  one  born  in  Suffolk, 
the  sum  paid  for  which  is  not  put  to  it ;  and  a  third  entry  of  the  print  of  a 
monstrous  pig,  for  which  the  usual  id.  was  also  paid.  Mr  Collier  has  run 
parts  of  the  1st  and  2nd  entries  together,  making  one  of  the  two,  and  put 

*  [no  s?/w]  '  at  the  end  :  he  has  then  added  the  following  note  *  [Perhaps  the 
clerk  of  the  Company  did  not  know  what  ought  to  be  the  charge  for  a  license 
for  a  publication  of  this  kind  '  [though  he  had  entered  the  iiij^/  just  before]  ; 

*  but,  when  he  made  the  subsequent  entry,  he  had  ascertained  that  it  should  be 
the  same  as  for  a  ballad,  play,  or  tract].'  3.  On  the  back  of  leaf  84  of  the 
MS,  in  an  entrj--  is  '  o?/r  salvation  cosesth  [=  consest[et]h]  only  in  christe.' 
Mr  Collier  prints  this  '  cosesth '  as  *  coseth,'  and  says  we  ought  to  read  for 

*  coseth,'  comisteth.  i.  In  MS  No.  58  of  the  Appendix  to  the  Royals  in  the 
British  Museum  is  the  song  or  ballad,  '  By  a  bancke  as  I  lay,'  set  to  music. 
Mr  Collier  prints  the  words  in  his  Stat.  Beg.  i.  193-4,  makes  two  lines, 

So  fayre  be  seld  on  few 
Hath  floryshe  ylke  adew, 

72  boorde's  illness  perhaps  the  ''syckenes  of  the  prisons."  [§  4i. 

As  we  know  the  sad  state  of  London  prisoners  in  Elizabeth's 

time  from  Stubbes/ — and  it  was  doubtless  worse  earlier — we  may,  if 

we  like,  conjecture  that  Boorde's  illness  may  have  been  the  "Sickenes 

of  the  prison  "  for  which  he  prescribes  in  his  Breuyary,  Fol.  xxvi. 


"  IT  The  .59.  Chapitre  doth  shewe  of  the 
syckenes  of  the  prisons. 

CArcinoma  is  the  greke  worde.  In  englyshe  it  is  named  the  sickenes 
of  the  prison.  And  some  auctours  doth  say  that  it  is  a  Canker, 
the  whiche  doth  corode  and  eate  the  superial  partes  of  the  body,  but 
I  do  take  it  for  the  sickenes  of  the  prison. 

1^°  The  cause  of  this  infirmitie. 
IF  This  infirmitie  doth  come  of  corruption  of  the  ayer,  and  the 
breth  and  fylth  the  which  doth  come  from  men,  as  many  men  to  be 
together  in  a  lytle  rome,  hauyng  but  lytle  open  ayer. 

IT  A  remedy. 

|^°  The  chefe  remedy  is  for  man,  so  to  lyue,  and  so  to  do,  that  he 

deserue  nat  to  be  brought  into  no  prison.     And  if  he  be  in  prison, 

eyther  to  get  frendes  to  helpe  hym  out,  or  els  to  vse  some  perfumes, 

or  to  smel  to  some  odiferous  sauours,  and  to  kepe  the  prison  cleane." 

and  observes  on  these  "  there  is  some  corruption,  for  it  seems  quite  clear  that 
'  few '  and  '  adew '  must  be  wrong,  although  we  know  not  what  words  to  sub- 
stitute for  those  of  the  MS."     Why  not  keep  to  the  manuscript's  own, — not 
misreading  it,  and  foisting  your  own  rubbish  on  to  it  ? — 
So  fayre  be  feld  on  fen^ 
hath  floryshe  ylke  a  den). 
These  rashnesses  arose,  no  doubt,  from  Mr  Collier  taking  his  careless  copy- 
ing as  very  careful  work,  not  reading  his  proofs  or  revises  with  his  MS,  and 
yet  finding  fault  with  other  people  as  if  he  had  so  read  them. 

A  neat  instance  of  Mr  Collier's  May  of  correcting  a  mistake  of  this  kind 
occurs  in  his  Stat.  Reg.  ii.  xiv.  Mr  Halliwell,  having  in  a  note  duly  attributed 
the  Ballad  *  Faire  wordes  make  fooles  faine '  to  its  writer,  Richard  Edwards, 
Mr  Collier  misses  the  note,  and  says  {Stat.  Reg.  i.  87)  that  Mr  Halliwell  ocas 
not  aware  of  Edwards's  authorship.  Having  found  afterwards  that  that  gen- 
tleman's print  showed  his  awareness  of  the  fact,  Mr  Collier  corrects  his  own 
mistake  by  saying  {Stat.  Reg.  ii.  14)  that  Mr  Halliwell  did  pi-operly  assign  the 
ballad  to  Edwards,  "  a  circumstance  to  which  we  did  not  advert  when  we 
penned  our  note." 

Lastly,  we  have  the  beginning  of  the  process  that  resulted  in  the  imaginary 
words  in  the  Dulwich  MSS,  in  Mr  Collier's  printing  the  Stationers'  clerk's 
"kynge  of  "  as  "kynge  of  skottes"  {Stat.  Reg.  i.  140,  at  foot).     Here 

Mr  Collier's  insertion  is  the  right  one  ;  but  this  importing  his  knowledge  with- 
out notice  into  one  MS,  led  to  his  importing  his  fancies  into  others,  also  with- 
out notice. 

'  Anatomic  of  Abuses,  p.  141-2,  ed.  1836,  quoted  in  my  Ballads  from  MSS 
(Hallad  Soc,  1868),  p.  33. 

§  41.]       FOREWORDS:    BOORDE's   LIFE.       HIS    WILL,    11    APRIL,    1549.       73 

But  whether  Bale  be  right  or  wrong  in  the  causes  he  assigns  to 
Andrew  Boorde's  imprisonment  and  death,  here  is  all  that  Boorde 
himself  tells  us  : — 

"  In  the  Name  of  God,  Amen.  The  yere  of  our  lorde  God,  a 
Thousande  five  hundreth  ffortie  and  nyne,  the  xj***  daye  of  Aprill,  I, 
Andrewe  Bord  of  Wynchester,  in  Hamshire,  Doctoi^r  of  Phisike,^ 
being  in  the  closse  warden  of  the  Flete,  prisoner  in  london,  hole  in 
mynde  and  sicke  in  body,  make  this  my  last  will  in  maner  and  forme 
[following].  First,  I  bequeth  my  soule  to  Almyghtie  God,  and  my 
bodie  to  be  buried  in  erthe,  where  yt  shall  please  my  Executo?zr. 
Also  I  bequeth  vnto  the  poore  prisoners  now  lying  in  the  close  warden 
of  the  Flete,  x  s.  Also  I  bequeth  to  Edwarde  Hudson  a  fetherbed,  a 
bolster,  a  paire  of  shettes,  and  my  best  coverlet.  Also  I  bequeth  and 
giue  to  Richard  Mathew,  to  his  heires  and  to  his  assignes,  two  tene- 
jRentes  or  howses  lying  in  the  soocke  in  the  towne  of  Lynne.^  Also 
I  giue  and  bequeth  vnto  the  same  Richard  Mathew,  to  his  heires  and 
to  his  assignes,  all  those  tenemente^j  with  thappurtenawnces  whiche  I 
had  by  the  deathe  of  my  brother  lying  in  Pemsey  in  Sussex.  All 
whiche  two  tenementes  in  Lynne,  whiche  I  hadd  by  the  gifte  of  one 
Mr  Conysby,^  and  those  other  tenementes  in  Pemsey  whiche  I  had  by 
my  brother,  with  all  and  singuler  ther  appurtenawnces,  I  will  and  giue, 
by  this  my  last  Wyll,  vnto  Richard  Mathew,  and  to  his  heires  and 
his  assignes  for  ever  (the  deutye  of  the  Lordes  of  the  Fee  always  ex- 
cepted). The  residue  of  all  my  goodes  vnbequethed,  moveable  and 
vnmoveable,  I  will  and  bequeth  vnto  Richarde  Mathew,  whom  I 
make  my  Executour,  and  he  to  dispose  as  he  shall  thynke  best  for  my 
soule  and  all  Christen  soules.  Also  I  giue  and  bequeth  all  my 
chattelles  and  houses  lying  abowte  Wynchester  or  in  Wynchester 
vnto  Richard  Mathew  and  his  assignes.     Witnesses  vnto  this  wyll, 

'  He  has  dropt  the  "  prest "  of  his  letters. 

^  "  The  '  Soken '  was  used  to  distinguish  the  inhabited  part  of  the  parish 
of  All  Saints,  South  Lynn,  which,  though  within  the  fortifications,  was  subject 
to  the  Leet  of  the  Hundred  of  Freebridge-Lynn,  from  the  Bishop's  Borough  of 
Lynn.  Ux  inf. :  Alan  H.  Swatman,  Esq.,  of  Lynn.  It  was  incorporated  with 
the  Borough,  tonp.  Phil.  &  Mary." — Cooper. 

3  "  Dr  Borde's  friend  and  benefactor  at  Lynn  was  William  Conyngsby,  Esq., 
some-  time  Recorder  of,  and  Burgess  in  Parliament  for,  that  Borough,*  who,  in 
July,  1540,  was  made  a  justice  of  the  King's  Bench,  and  died  in  a  few  months. 
In  addition  to  his  house  at  Eston  Hall,  Wallington,-]-  he  resided  in  a  mansion- 
house,  in  a  street  called  the  Wool-Market  in  Lynn.  He  was  much  trusted  by 
the  Crown  and  by  Cromwell,  to  whom  he  addressed  several  letters  preserved 
in  the  State-paper  Office."— W.  D.  Cooper,  in  the  Sussex  Archceological  So- 
cieti/s  Collections,  xiii.  268,  269. 

*  "  Wm.  Conysby  was  elected  recorder  of  Lynn,  pursuant  to  the  new  charter,  on  Monday  the  feast 
of  St.  Michael,  I'etli  Hen.  VIII.,  and  was  elected  burgess  to  serve  in  parliament,  for  that  borouph, 
31st  March,  28th  Hen.  Vril.  {Ex  inf. :  Alan  H.  Swatman,  Esq.)  He  was  afterwards  a  Judge  Cico 
Foss's  JiuJpes,  v.,  1 1.5.)    I  have  not  been  able  to  identify  IJonle's  houses."— Cooper. 

t  "  He  also  owned  West  Linch  Manor,  in  Norfolk."— CooiJer. 

74       boorde's  breuyary.     he  likes  ale  and  wine.      [§  42,  43.  a. 

"WiLLM.  Manley,  Gent.  John  Pannell.  Marten  Lane.  Hum- 
frey  Bell.  Edward  Hudson.  Thomas  Wosenam.  Nicholas 

"  Boorde's  Will  was  proved  in  the  Prerogative  Court  of  Canter- 
bury, by  the  oath  of  Richard  Mathew,  on  the  25th  of  April,  1549  ; 
and  the  copy  is  in  the  register  Poppulwell,  32."  ^ 

Boorde  must  thus  have  died  very  soon  after  the  date  of  his  WiU, 
11  April,  1549  ;  but  we  have  no  record  of  where  he  was  buried. 

§  42.  Portraits  of  Andreiv  Boorde.  No  authentic  portrait  of 
Boorde  exists  besides  that  which  he  has  left  us  in  his  works.  Neither 
of  the  two  old  woodcuts  of  him  in  this  volume  (pages  143, 
305)  was  ever  drawn  for  him.  The  engraving  of  him  in  the 
1796  edition  of  Scogin's  Jests,  after  (?)  Holbein's  ^  picture,  of  a  man 
carrying  a  bone  (?)  in  one  hand  and  a  cylindrical  jar  in  the  other,  is 
not  authenticated.  Readers  who  want  to  know  Boorde  must  therefore 
go  to  his  works,  of  which  the  two  most  characteristic  and  interesting 
are  contained  in  the  present  volume.  But  his  Breuyary  has  also 
many  incidental  passages  containing  statements  of  his  opinions, 
notices  of  his  travels,  and  touches  of  himself,  which  ought  to  be 
before  the  reader,  and  the  chief  of  these  I  therefore  extract  here. 

§  43.  Characteristic  Extracts  from  Boorde!  s  Breuyary. 

a.  Let  us  take  first  the  passages  in  which  Boorde  speaks  of  him- 
self or  his  tastes. 

I.  Boorde  hates  water, ^  but  likes  good  Ale  and  Wine. 

"This  impediment  [Hidroforhia  or  abhorynge  of  water]  doth 
come,  as  many  auctours  doth  say,  of  a  melancoly  humour,  for  the 
inpotent  is  named  a  melancoly  passion ;  but  I  do  saye  as  I  do 
knowe,  not  onelye  by  my  selfe,  but  by  manye  other,  whan  I  dyd 
vse  the  seas,  and  of  all  ages,  and  of  all  complexions  beynge  in 
my  company,  that  this  matter  dyd  come  more  of  coler  than  melan- 
coly, considerynge  that  coler  is  mouable,  and  doth  swimme  in  the 

1  Henry  Poppulwell's  will  is  the  first  in  it. 

^  Mr  R.  N.  Wornum  says  it  is  not  Holbein's. 

'  He  tells  you  also  to  wash  your  face  only  once  a  week  if  you  want  to  clear 
it  of  spots.  On  the  other  days,  wipe  it  with  a  Skarlet  cloth.  See  Fol.  xlix. 
and  p.  1)5  here,    bee  also  p.  102,  *  wypc  the  face  with  brownc  paper  that  is  sof te.' 

§  43.  a.]      FOREWORDS :    BOORDe's   OPINION    ON   EVIL   SPIRITS.  75 

A  remedy. 
For  this  matter,  purge  Coler  and  melancoly  humours ;  for  I 
my  splfe,  whiche  am  a  Phisicion,  is  combered  muche  lyke  this  passion, 
for  I  can  not  away  with  water,  nor  waters  by  nauigacion,  wherfore  I 
do  leue  al  water  ^,  and  to  take  my  selfe  to  good  Ale ;  and  other  whyle 
for  Ale  I  do  take  good  Gascon  wyne,  but  I  wyl  not  drynke  stronge 
wynes,  as  Malmesey,  Romney,  Romaniske  wyne,  wyne  Qoorse,  wyne 
Greke,  and  Secke ;  but  other  whyle,  a  draught  or  two  of  Muscadell  or 
Basterde,  Osey,  Caprycke,  Aligant,  Tyre,  Raspyte^,  I  wyll  not  re- 
fuse ;  but  white  wyne  of  Angeou,  or  wyne  of  Orleance,  or  Renyshe 
wyne,  white  or  read,  is  good  for  al  men ;  there  is  lytle  read  Renyshe 
wyne,  except  it  growe  about  Bon,  beyonde  Colyn.  There  be  many 
other  wynes  in  diuers  regions,  prouinces,  and  countreys,  that  we  haue 
not  in  Englande.  But  this  I  do  say,  that  all  the  kyngdomes  of  the 
worlde  haue  not  so  many  sondry  kyndes  of  wynes,  as  be  in  Englande, 
and  yet  there  is  nothynge  to  make  wyne  of." — Fol.  C.xxii. 

Boorde  does  not  love  Whirlwinds.     His  opinion  of  Evil  Spirits. 

"IT  The  .183.  Chapitre  dothe  shewe  of  standynge 
vp  of  mannes  heare. 

HOrripilacio  is  the  latin  worde.      In  Englyshe  it  is  named  stand- 
yng  vp  of  a  mans  heare. 

1^"  The  Cause  of  this  impediment. 
IT  This  impediment  doth  come  of  a  colde  reume  myxte  with  a 
melancoly  humour  and  fieume.  It  may  come  by  a  folyshe  feare, 
when  a  man  is  by  hym  selfe  alone,  and  is  a  frayde  of  his  owne 
shadow,  or  of  a  spirite.  0,  what  saye  11  1  shulde  haue  sayde,  afrayd 
of  the  spirite  of  the  buttry,  whiche  be  perylous  beastes.  for  suche 
spirites  doth  trouble  a  man  so  sore  that  he  can  not  dyuers  times 
stande  vpon  his  legges.  Al  this  notwithstandyng,  with  out  any 
doute,  in  thunderynge  and  in  lyghtenynge  and  tempestious  wethers 
many  euyl  thynges  hath  ben  sene  and  done ;  but  of  all  these  afore- 
sayde  thynges,  a  whorlewynde  I  do  not  loue  :  I  in  this  matter  myght 
bothe  wryte  &  speake,  the  which  I  wyl  passe  ouer  at  this  tyme. 

I^°  The  seconde  cause  of  this  impediment. 
IF  This  impediment  doth  come  of  a  faynte  herte,  and  of  a  feare- 
full  mynde,  and  of  a  mannes  folyshe  conceyte,  and  of  a  tymerous 

H  A  remedy. 

II  Fyrste,  let  euery  man,  woman,  or  chylde,  animate  them  selfe 

vpon  God,  and  trust  in  hym  that  neuer  deceyued  no  man,  that  euer 

had,  hath,  or  shal  haue  confidence  in  hym.    what  can  any  euyl  spirite 

or  deuell  do  any  man  harme  without  His  wyll  1     And  if  it  be  my 

*  II  n'a  pas  soif  qui  de  Veau  ne  boit :  Prov.  Hee's  not  athirst  that  will 
uot  water  drinke. — Cotgrave,  A.D.  1611.   See  p.  255,  below.       ^  for  'Raspyce.' 

76      BOORDe's    BREUYARY.      the   state    and   vices    of    ROME.      [§  43.  a. 

Lorde  Goddes  wyl,  I  wolde  all  the  deuyls  of  hell  dyd  teare  my  fleshe 
al  to  peces  !  for  Goddes  wyll  is  my  wyll  in  all  thynges." — Fol.  Ixv, 

Yet  Boorde  is  afraid  that  Devils  may  enter  into  him.     He  is  also 
shocked  at  the  vicious  state  of  Rome. 

"  The  fyrst  tyme  that  I  did  dwell  in  Eome,  there  was  a  gentyl- 
woman  of  Germany  the  wliiche  was  possessed  of  deuyls,  &  she  was 
brought  to  Eome  to  be  made  whole.  For  within  the  precynct  of  S. 
Peters  church,  without  S.  Peters  chapel,  standeth  a  pyller  of  white 
marble  grated  rounde  about  with  Yron,  to  the  whiche  our  Lorde 
lesus  Chryste  dyd  lye  in  hym  selfe  vnto  in  [so]  Pylates  hall,  as  the 
Romaynes  doth  say,  to  the  which  pyller  al  those  that  be  possessed  of 
the  deuyll,  out  of  dyuers  countres  and  nacions  be  brought  thyther, 
and  (as  they  saye  of  Rome)  such  persons  be  made  there  whole. 
Amonge  al  other,  this  woman  of  Germany,  whiche  is  .CCCC.  myles 
and  odde  frome  Rome,  was  brought  to  the  pyller ;  I  then  there  beyng 
j)resent,  with  great  strength  and  vyolently,  with  a  .xx,  or  mo  men,  this 
woman  was  put  into  that  pyller  within  the  yron  grate,  and  after  her 
dyd  go  in  a  Preest,  and  dyd  examyne  the  woman  vnder  this  maner 
in  the  Italyan  tonge  : — '  Thou  deuyl  or  deuyls,  I  do  abiure  the  by  the 
potenciall  power  of  the  father,  and  of  the  sonne  our  Lorde  lesus 
Chryste,  and  by  the  vertue  of  the  holy  ghoste,  that  thou  do  shew  to 
me,  for  what  cause  that  thou  doest  possesse  this  woman  ! '  what 
wordes  was  answered,  I  wyll  not  wryte,  for  men  wyll  not  beleue  it, 
but  wolde  say  it  were  a  foule  and  great  lye,  but  I  did  heare  that  I  was 
afrayd  to  tary  any  longer,  lest  that  the  deuyls  shulde  haue  come  out 
of  her,  and  to  haue  entred  into  me,  remembrynge  what  is  specified  in 
the  .viii.  Chapitre  of  S.  Mathewe,  when  that  lesus  Clirist  had  made 
.ii.  men  whole,  the  whiche  was  possessed,  of  a  legiow  of  deuyls.  A 
Icgiow  is  .ix.  M.  ix.  C.  nynety  and  nyne ;  the  sayd  deuyls  dyd  desyre 
Igsus,  that  when  they  were  expelled  out  of  the  aforesayd  two  men, 
that  they  myght  enter  into  a  herde  of  hogges ;  and  so  they  dyd,  and 
the  hoggeg  dyd  runne  into  the  sea,  and  were  drowned.  I,  consyder- 
ynge  this,  and  weke  of  faith  and  afeard,  crossed  my  selfe,  and  durst 
not  to  heare  and  se  suche  matters,  for  it  was  so  stiipendious  and  abouo 
all  reason,  yf  I  shulde  wryte  it.  and  in  this  matter  I  dyd  maruel  of  an 
other  thynge  :  yf  the  efficacitie  of  such  makynge  one  Avhole,  dyd  rest 
in  the  vertue  that  was  in  the  pyller,  or  els  in  the  wordes  that  the 
preste  dyd  speake.  I,  do  iudge  it  shuld  be  in  the  holy  wordes  that 
the  prest  dyd  speake,  and  not  in  the  pyller,  for  and  yf  it  were  in  tlie 
pyller  the  Byshops  and  the  cardinalles  that  hathe  ben  many  yeres 
past,  and  those  that  were  in  my  tyme,  and  they  that  hath  ben  sence, 
wolde  haue  had  it  in  more  reuerence,  and  not  to  suiFre  rayne,  hayle, 
snowe,  and  such  wether  to  fal  on  it,  for  it  hath  no  couerynge.  but  at 
last,  when  that  I  dyd  consyder  that  the  vernacle,  the  fysnomy  of 
Christ,  and    skarse    the   sacrament    of   the   aulter  was  in    maner 

§  43.  a.]         FOREWORDS.      BOORDE    ON    ST   PETER'S   AT   ROME.  77 

vncouered,  &  al  .S.  Peters  churche  downe  in  ruyne,  &  vtterly  decayed, 
and  nothyng  set  by ;  consydering,  in  olde  chapels,  beggers  and  baudes, 
hoores  and  theues,  dyd  ly  within  them  ;  asses,  and  moyles  dyd  defyle 
within' the  precynct  of  the  churche;  and  byenge  and  sellynge  there 
was  vsed  within  the  precynt  of  the  sayd  churche,  that  it  did  pytie  my 
hart  and  mynde  to  come  and  to  se  any  tyme  more  the  sayde  place 
and  churche.  Then  dyd  I  go  amonges  the  fryers  mendicantes,  and 
dyuers  tymes  I  dyd  se  releuathes  -pro  de-functis  hange  vppon  fryers 
backes  in  walettes ;  then  I  wente  to  other  relygious  houses,  as  to  the 
Celestynes  and  to  the  Charter-house,  and  there  I  dyd  se  nullus  ordo. 
And  after  that  I  dyd  go  amonges  the  monkes  &  chanons  and  cardy- 
nalles,  and  there  I  dyd  se  horror  inhahltans.  Then  did  I  go  rounde 
aboute  Eome,  and  in  euery  place  I  did  se  Lechery  and  boggery  i,  de- 
ceyt  and  vsery  in  euery  corner  and  place.  And  if  saint  JPeter  and 
Paule  do  lye  in  Rome,  they  do  lye  in  a  hole  vnder  an  Aulter,  hauyng 
as  much  golde  and  syluer,  or  any  other  lewell  as  I  haue  about  myne 
eye ;  and  yf  it  do  rayne,  hayle,  or  snowe,  yf  the  wind  stande  Est- 
warde,  it  shal  blowe  the  rayne,  hayle,  or  snow  to  saynt  Peters 
spelunke;  wherfore  it  maketh  manye  men  to  thynke  that  the  two 
holye  Apostles  shulde  not  lye  in  Rome,  specially  in  the  place  as  the 
Romaynes  say  they  do  lye.  I  do  marueyle  greatlye  that  suche  an 
holye  place  and  so  great  a  Churche  as  is  in  all  the  worlde  (except 
saynt  Sophis  churche  in  Constantinople),  shulde  be  in  such  a  vile  case 
as  it  is  in.  Consyderynge  that  the  bysshops  of  Romes  palice,  and 
his  castel  named  Castel  Angil  standyng  vpon  the  water  or  great  ryuer 
of  Tiber  within  Rome,  and  other  of  theyr  places,  and  all  that  Car- 

*  "  And  lyghtlye  there  is  none  of  theym  [Cardinals  and  Prelates]  withoute 
.iii.  or  .iiii.  paiges  trymmed  like  yonge  prynces ;  for  what  purpos  I  wolde  be 
loth  to  tell. — If  I  shoulde  saye,  that  vnder  theyr  longe  robes,  they  hyde  the 
greattest  pride  of  the  worlde,  it  might  happen  some  men  wolde  beleue  it,  but 
that  they  are  the  vainest  men  of  all  other,  theyr  owne  actes  doe  wel  declare. 
For  theyr  ordinarie  pastime  is  to  disguise  them  selfes,  to  go  laugh  at  the  Court- 
isanes  houses,  and  in  the  shrouing  time,  to  ride  maskyng  about  with  theim, 
which  is  the  occasion  that  Rome  wanteth  no  iolie  dames,  specially  the  strete 
called  Itdla,  whiche  is  no  more  than  halfe  a  myle  longe,  fayre  buylded  on  both 
sydes,  in  maner  inhabited  with  none  other  but  Courtisanes,  some  worthe  .x.  and 
some  worthe  .xx.  thousand  crownes,  more  or  lesse,  as  theyr  reputacyon  is. 
And  many  tymes  you  shal  see  a  Courtisane  ride  into  the  countrey,  with  .x.  or 
.xii.  horse  waityng  on  hir. — Briefely  by  reporte,  Rome  is  not  without  40,000. 
harlottes,  mainteigned  for  the  most  part  by  the  clergye  and  theyr  foloweis. 
So  that  the  Romaines  them  selfes  suffer  theyr  wifes  to  goe  seldome  abrode, 
either  to  churche  or  other  place,  and  some  of  theim  scarcelye  to  looks  out  at  a 
lattise  window,  wherof  theyr  prouerbe  sayeth,  In  lioma  tale  pin  la  jiutana^ 
eke  la  moglie  liomana,  that  is  to  say,  '  in  Rome  the  harlot  hath  a  better  lyfe, 
than  she  that  is  the  Romaines  wyfe.' — In  theyr  apparaile  they  are  as  gorgeouse 
as  may  be,  and  haue  in  theyr  goyng  such  a  solemne  pace,  as  I  neuer  sawe.  In 
conclusion,  to  line  in  Rome  is  more  costly  than  in  any  other  place  ;  but  he 
that  hathe  money  maye  haue  there  liym  lyketh." — 1549  a.d.,  Thomas's 
lUstonj  of  Itahjc,  foi.  39  (edit.  1561). 

78  boorde's  breuyary.     the  night-mare.  [§  43.  o. 

dynalles  palacis,  be  so  sumptuously  maynteyned,  as  well  without  as  in 
maner  within,  and  that  they  wyl  se  their  Cathedral  churche  to  lye 
lyke  a  Swynes  stie.  Our  Peter  pence  was  wel  bestowed  to  the  re- 
edifieng  of  s.  Peters  Churche,  the  which  dyd  no  good,  but  to  noryshe 
syn  &  to  niaynteyne  war.  And  shortly  to  conclude,  I  dyd  neuer  se 
no  vertue  nor  goodnes  in  Rome,  but  in  Byshop  Adrians  days,  which 
wold  haue  reformed  dyuers  enormities,  &  for  his  good  wyl  &  preteTice 
he  was  poysoned  within  .iii.  quarters  of  a  yere  after  he  did  come  to 
Pome,  as  this  mater,  with  many  other  matters  mo,  be  expressed  in  a 
boke  of  my  sermons.  &  now  to  co/iclude,  who  so  euer  hath  bene  in 
Pome,  &  haue  sene  theyr  vsage  there  (excepte  grace  do  worke  aboue 
nature,  he  shal  neuer  be  good  man  after),  be  not  these  creatures  pos- 
sessed of  the  deuyl  1  This  matter  I  do  remit  to  the  iudgement  of  the 
reders,  for  God  knoweth  that  I  do  not  wryte  halfe  as  it  is  or  was  ;  but 
that  I  do  write  is  but  to  true,  the  more  pitie,  as  God  knoweth." — 
JSxtrauaganteSj  Pol.  iv,  back. 

On  another  page  of  his  Breuyary  he  says  : 

"  In  Pome  they  will  poyson  a  mannes  sterope,  or  sadle,  or  any 
other  thynge ;  and  if  any  parte  of  ones  body  do  take  anye  heate  or 
warmenes  of  the  poyson,  the  man  is  then  poysoned."  Pol.  C.xvi.  back. 

Boorde  is  told  of  a  Spirit  hy  an  Ancress  at  St  Alban's. 

"The  .119.  Chapitre  dothe  shewe  of  the  Mare, 

and  of  the  spirites  named  Incubus 

and  Succuhus. 

EPhialtes  is  the  greke  worde.  Epialtes  is  the  barbams  worde. 
In  latin  it  is  named  Incubus  and  Succubus.  In  Englyshe  it  is 
named  the  Mare.  And  some  say  that  it  is  kynd  of  spirites,  the  which 
doth  infect  and  trouble  men  when  they  be  in  theyr  beddes  slepynge, 
as  Saynt  Augustine  say  the  De  ciuitate  dei,  Capi.  20.  and  Saynt 
Thomas  of  Alc^uine  sayth,  in  his  fyrst  parte  of  his  diuinitie.  Incubus 
doth  infeste  and  trouble  women,  and  Succubus  doth  infest  men. 
Some  holdeth  opynyon  that  Marlyn  was  begotten  of  his  mother  of 
the  spirite  named  Incubus.  Esdras  doth  speke  of  this  spirite,  and  I 
haue  red  much  of  this  spirite  in  Speculum  exemplorum ;  and  in  my 
tyme  at  saynt  Albons  here  in  Englande,  was  infested  an  Ancresse  of 
such  a  spirite,  as  she  shewed  me,  &  also  to  credyble  persons.^  but  this 
is  my  opynyon,  that  this  Ephialtes,  otherwyse  named  the  Mare,  the 

'  Compare  the  curious  set  of  depositions  in  a  Lansdowne  MS,  101,  leaves 
21-33,  as  to  'the  Catt'  which  Agnes  Bowker,  aged  27,  brought  'fforthe  at 
Herboroghe,  within  the  lurisdietion  of  y^  Archdeaconrie  of  Leicester,  22  Janu. 
1568.'  The  vermilion  drawing  of  'the  Catt,'  its  exact  size,  'measured  by  a 
paire  of  compasses,'  is  given  on  the  inside  of  the  folio,  leaf  32,  back,  and  leaf 
33.  Agnes  Bowker  seems  to  have  been  delivered  of  a  child,  and  to  have 
substituted  a  flayed  kitten  in  its  place. 

§  43.  a.]         FOREWORDS.      ANDREW    BOORDE   HAS    CACHEXIA.  79 

whiche  doth  come  to  man  or  woman  when  they  be  sleping,  doth  come 
of  some  euyll  humour ;  consyderyng  that  they  the  which  be  thus 
troubled  slepyng,  shall  thynke  that  they  do  se,  here,  &  fele ; — the 
thyng  that  is  not  true.  And  in  such  troublous  slepyng  a  man  shal 
scarse  drawe  his  breth. 

The  cause  of  this  impediment. 

IT  This  impediment  doth  come  of  a  vaporous  humour  or  fumosytie 
rysynge  out  and  frome  the  stomake  to  the  brayne ;  it  may  come  also 
thorowe  surfetynge  and  dronkennes,  and  lyenge  in  the  bed  vpryght ; 
it  may  come  also  of  a  reumatyke  humour  supressyng  the  brayne ;  and 
the  humour  discendynge,  doth  perturbate  the  hert,  bringyng  a  man 
slepynge  into  a  dreame,  to  thynke  that  the  which  is  nothynge,  is 
somwhat ;  and  to  fele  that  thyng  that  he  feleth  not,  and  to  se  that 
thynge  that  he  seeth  not,  with  such  lyke  matters. 
IT  A  remedy. 

^^  Fyrste,  let  suchepersons  beware  of  lyenge  vpryght,  lest  they 
be  suffocated,  or  dye  sodenly,  or  els  at  length  they  wyll  fall  into  a 
madnes,  named  Mania  ;  therfore  let  suche  persons  kepe  a  good  dyet  in 
eatynge  and  drynkynge,  let  theym  kepe  honeste  company,  where 
there  is  honest  myrth,  and  let  them  beware  of  musynge  or  studienge 
vpon  any  matter  the  whiche  wyl  trouble  the  brayne ;  and  vse  diners 
tymes  sternutacions  with  gargarices,  and  beware  of  wynes,  and  euery 
thyng  the  whiche  doth  engender  fumositie. 

|^°  Yf  it  be  a  spirite,  &c. 

IT  I  haue  red,  as  many  more  hath  done,  that  can  tell  yf  I  do 
wpyte  true  or  false,  there  is  an  herbe  named  fuga  Demonum,  or  as  the 
Grecians  do  name  it  Ipericon.  In  Englyshe  it  [is]  named  saynt 
Johns  worte,  the  which  herbe  is  of  that  vertue  that  it  doth  repell 
suche  malyfycyousnes  or  spirites." — Fol.  xlv. 

Boorde  has  Cachexia,  or  a  Bad  Habit  of  Body, 

The  .60.  Chapitre  dothe  shewe  of  an  infirmite  the 
whiche  is  concurrant  with  an  Hyedropsy. 

CAceciay  or  Cacexia^  or  Cathesia,  be  the  greke  wordes.  In  latin  it  is 
named   Mala   hahitudo.     In   Englyshe  it  is   named   an  euyl 
dweller,  for  it  is  an  infirmitie  concurrant  with  the  hidropsies. 
IF  The  cause  of  this  infirmytie. 
If  This   infirmitie  doth   come  thorowe   euyll,  slacke,  or  slowe 

II  A  remedy. 
I^°  Vse  the  confection  of  Alkengi,  and  kepe  a  good  dyet,  & 
beware  of  drynkynge  late,  and  drynke  not  before  thou  do  eate 
somewhat,  and  vse  temperate  drynkes,  and  labour  or  exercise  the  body 
to  swete.  I  was  in  this  infirmite,  and  by  greate  trauayl  I  dyd  make 
my  selfe  whole,  more  by  labour  than  by  phisicke  in  receyptes  of 
medecines." — Fol.  xxiii.  back. 

80    BOORDE  HAS  THE  STONE,  AND  GETS  NITS  DOWN  HIS  THROAT.   [§  43.  a. 

Boorde  accidentalh/  has  the  Stone,  and  cures  himself  of  it. 

"  IT  The  .207.  Cliapitre  dothe  sliewe  of  the  stone 
in  the  bladder 

LIthiasis  is  the  greke  worde.  In  latin  it  is  named  Calculus  in 
vesica,  and  Lapis  is  taken  for  all  the  kyndes  of  the  stones.  In 
Englysshe,  lithiasis  is  the  stone  in  the  bladder.  And  some  doth  saye 
that  Nefresis  is  the  stone  in  the  raynes  of  the  backe,  therfore  loke  in 
the  Chapytre  named  Nefresis. 

%  The  cause  of  this  impediment. 

This  impedimente  doth  come  eyther  by  nature,  or  els  by  eatynge 
of  euyl  and  vyscus  meates,  and  euyl  drinkes,  as  thycke  ale  or  beare, 
eatynge  broyled  and  fryed  meates,  or  meates  that  be  dryed  in  the 
smoke,  as  bacon,  martynmas  biefe,  reed  hearynge,  sprottes,  and  salt 
meates,  and  crustes  of  breade,  or  of  pasties,  and  such  lyke. 

IT  A  remedy. 

|^°  If  it  do  come  by  nature,  there  is  no  remedy ;  a  man  maye  miti- 
gate the  peyne,  and  breake  the  stone  for  a  tyme,  as  shalbe  rehersed. 
If  it  do  come  accidentally,  by  eatyng  of  meates  that  wyll  ingender 
the  stone,  take  of  the  bloud  of  an  Hare,  &  put  it  in  an  erthen  pot, 
and  put  therto  .iii.  vnces  of  Sa[xi]frage  rotes,  and  bake  this  togyther  in 
an  Ouen,  &  than  make  pouder  of  it,  and  drynke  of  it  mornynge  and 
euenyng.  For  this  mater,  this  is  my  practise  :  fyrste  I  do  vse  a  dyet 
eatynge  no  newe  bread,  excepte  it  be  .xxiiii.  houres  olde.  I  refuse 
Cake  bread,  Saffron  bread,  Rye  bread,  Leuyn  bread,  Cracknelles, 
Symnelles,  and  all  maner  of  crustes ;  than  I  do  drynke  no  newe  ale, 
nor  no  maner  of  beere  made  with  Hoppes,  nor  no  hoote  wynes.  I 
do  refrayne  from  Fleshe  and  fyshe,  which  e  be  dryed  in  the  smoke, 
and  from  salte  meates  and  shell  fyshes.  I  do  eate  no  grosse  meates, 
nor  burned  fleshe,  nor  fyshe.  thus  vsynge  my  selfe,  I  thanke  God  I  dyd 
make  my  sclfe  whole,  and  many  other,  but  at  the  begynnyng,  whan  I 
went  about  to  make  my  self  whole,  I  dyd  take  the  pouder  folowynge  : 
I  dyd  take  of  Brome  sedes,  of  Percilles  sedes,  of  Saxfrage  sedes,  of 
Gromel  sedes,  of  eyther  of  them  an  vnce ;  of  Gete  stone  a  quarter  of 
an  vnce,  of  Date  stone  as  much ;  of  egges  shelles  that  chekyn  hath 
lyne  in,  the  pyth  pulled  out,  half  an  vnce ;  make  pouder  of  al  this, 
and  drynke  halfe  a  sponeful  mornyng  and  euenynge  with  posset  ale 
or  whit  wyne.  Also  the  water  of  Hawes  is  good  to  drynke." — 
Fol.  Ixxii.     (See  p.  292,  below.) 

Boorde  occasionally  gets  a  Nit  or  a  Fly  doivn  his  Weasand,  and 
commits  the  Cure  to  God. 

"1^-  The  .356.  Chapitre  doth  shewe  of  the  Wesande 
or  throte  boll. 

TTMiachea  arteria  be  the  latin  wordes.     In  Englyshe  it  is  named  the 
X     wesande,  or  the  throte  bol,  by  tlie  whiche  the  wynde  and  the 

§  43.  a.]    BREUYARY   EXTRACTS.   BOORDe's  EXPERIENCES.        81 

ayer  is  conueyed  to  the  longes ;  &  if  any  crome  of  brede,  or  drop  of 
drynke,  go  or  enter  into  the  sayde  wesande,  yf  a  man  do  not  coughe 
he  shulde  be  stranguled  ;  and  therfore,  whether  he  wyl  or  wyll  not,  he 
must  cough,  and  laye  before  hym  that  is  in  the  throte  and  mouth ;  nor 
he  can  be  in  no  quietnes  vnto  the  tyme  the  matter  be  expelled  or  ex- 
pulsed  out  of  the  throte,  as  it  doth  more  largely  appere  in  the  Chapitre 
named  Strangulacio. 

IT  The  cause  of  this  impediment. 

IT  This  impedimente  doth  come  of  gredynes  to  eate  or  drynke 
sodeynly,  not  taking  leysure ;  also  it  may  come  of  some  flye  inhausted 
into  a  mans  throte  sodeynely,  as  I  haue  sene  by  other  men  as  by  my 
selfe ;  for  a  nytte  or  a  flye  comming  vnto  a  mannes  mouth,  when  he 
doth  take  in  his  breth  and  ayer,  loke  what  smal  thyng  is  before  the 
mouth,  is  inhausted  into  the  wesande,  and  so  it  perturbeth  the  pacient 
with  coughynge. 

|^°  A  remedy. 

4-  For  the  fyrst  cause,  be  nat  to  gredy,  eate  and  drynke  with  ley- 
ser,  fearyng  God ;  and  as  for  the  seconde  cause,  I  do  committe  only 
to  God  :  for  this  matter,  coughynge  is  good." — Fol.  C.xiiii.  See  too 
Fol.  C.xxi.  back. 

Boorde  can  take-in  other  Phisicians  by  his  Urine. 

"  There  is  not  the  wisest  Phisicion  liuynge,  but  that  I  (beynge  an 
whole  man)  may  deceyue  him  by  my  vryne ;  and  they  shall  iudge  a 
sicknes  that  I  haue  not  nor  neuer  had,  and  all  is  thorowe  distem- 
peraunce  of  the  bodye  vsed  the  day  before  that  the  vryne  is  made  in 
the  mornynge ;  and  this  I  do  saye,  as  for  the  colours  of  vrynes, 
[vryne]  is  a  strumpet  or  a  harlot,  and  in  it  many  phisicions  maye 
be  deceyued,  but  as  touchy nge  the  contentes  of  vrynes,  experte 
phisicions  maye  knowe  the  infyrmyties  of  a  pacient  vnfallybly." — 
ExtravAxgantes^  Fol.  xxvi. 

Booi'de  has  seen  Worms  come  out  of  Men. 

The  .364.  Chapitre  dothe  shewe  of  diners 
kyndes  of  wormes. 

YErmes  is  the  latin  worde.  In  greeke  it  is  named  ScoUces.  In 
English  e  it  is  wormes.  And  there  be  many  kyndes  of  wormes. 
There  be  in  the  bodye  thre  sortes,  named  Lumbrici,  Ascarides,  and 
Cucurbiti.  Lumbrici  be  longe  white  wormes  in  the  body.  Ascarides 
be  smal  lytle  white  wormes  as  bygge  as  an  here,  and  halfe  an  ynche 
of  length  ;  and  they  be  in  a  gutte  named  the  longacion ;  and  they  wyl 
tycle  in  a  mans  foundement.  Cucurhiti  be  square  wormes  in  a  mans 
body :  and  I  haue  sene  wormes  come  out  of  a  mans  body  lyke  the 
fashion  of  a  maggot,  but  they  haue  bene  swart,  or  hauynge  a  darke 
colour.  Also  there  be  wormes  in  a  mans  handes  named  Sirones,  & 
there  be  wormes  in  a  mans  fete  named  degges;  then  is  there  a  rynge 


82  BOORDE   ON    FASTING,    SWEARING,    AND    HERESIES.       [§  43.  /3. 

worme,  named  in  latin  Impetigo  ;  And  there  may  be  wormes  in  a  mans 
tethe  &  eares,  of  the  which  I  do  pretende  to  speke  of  nowe.  As  for 
all  the  other  wormes,  I  haue  declared  theyr  properties  and  reme- 
dies in  theyr  owne  Chapitres. 

1^°  The  cause  of  wormes  in  a  mannes  Eare. 

IT  Two  causes  there  be  that  a  man  haue  wonnes  in  his  eares,  the 
one  is  ingendred  thorowe  corruption  of  the  brayne,  the  other  is  acci- 
dentall,  by  crepynge  in  of  a  worme  into  a  mans  eare  or  eares. 
|^p°  A  remedy. 

|^°  Instyll  into  the  eare  the  oyle  of  bitter  Almons,  or  els  the  oyle 
of  woimewode,  or  els  the  iuyce  of  Eewe ;  warme  euery  thyng  that 
must  be  put  into  the  eare." 

§  43.  j3.  Let  us  take,  secondly,  the  notices  of  seven  evils  in  Eng- 
land of  which  Boorde  complains : — I.  The  neglect  of  fasting.  II. 
The  prevalence  of  swearing  and  heresies.  III.  The  Laziness  of  young 
People.  lY.  The  want  of  training  for  Midwives.  V.  Cobblers 
being  Physicians.  VI.  The  Mutability  of  Men's  Minds.  VII. 
The  Lust  and  Avarice  of  Men : — adding  his  few  allusions  to  the 
state  of  the  poor  (p.  86-7),  and  his  one  to  early  marriages  (p.  87). 

I.    The  neglect  of  Fasting. 

a.  "  As  for  fastyng,  that  rule  now  a  dayes  nede  not  to  be  spoken 
of,  for  fastynge,  prayer,  and  almes  dedes,  of  charytie,  be  banyshed 
out  of  al  regions  and  prouinces,  and  they  be  knockynge  at  paradyse 
gates  to  go  in,  wepynge  and  waylynge  for  the  Temporaltye  and  spirit- 
ualtye,  the  which  hath  exyled  them." — Fol.  vii.  back. 

(i.  "  Here  it  is  to  be  noted  that  nowe  a  dayes  few  or  els  none  doth 
set  by  prayer  or  fasting,  regardyng  not  Gods  wordes  :  in  this  mattere 
I  do  feare  that  such  persons  be  possessed  of  the  deuil,  although  they 
be  not  starke  madde." — The  JSxtrauagantes,  Fol.  iiii.  back. 

II.    The  prevalence  of  Sicearing  and  Heresies. 

"  Do  not  you  thynke  that  many  in  this  contrie  be  possessed  of  the 
deuil,  &  be  mad,  although  they  be  not  starke  mad?  who  is  blynder  then 
he  that  wil  not  se?  who  is  madder  then  he  that  doth  go  about  to  kyl  his 
owne  soule  ?  he  that  wil  not  labour  to  kepe  the  commaundementes  of 
God,  but  dayly  wil  breke  them,  doth  kil  his  soul,  who  is  he  that  loueth 
God  and  his  neyghbour,  as  he  ought  to  do  ]  but  who  is  he  that  nowe  a 
dayes  do  kepe  their  holydayes  ?  &  where  be  they  that  doth  vse  any 
wordes,  but  swearyng,  lyeng,  or  slaunderynge  is  the  one  ende  of  theyr 
tale.  In  all  the  worlde  there  is  no  regyon  nor  countrie  that  doth  vse 
more  swearynge,  then  is  vsed  in  Englande,  for  a  chylde  that  scarse 
can  speake,  a  boy,  a  gyrle,  a  wenche,  now  a  dayes  wyl  swere  as  great 

§  43.  (i.]      BOORDE   ON    SWEARING,  HERESIES,  AND    LAZINESS.  83 

otlies  as  an  olde  knaue  and  an  olde  drabbe.  it  was  vsed  that  when 
swearynge  dyd  come  vp  fyrst,  that  he  that  dyd  swere  shulde  haue  a 
phylyp,  gyue  that  knaue  or  drabbe  a  phylyp  with  a  club  that  they 
do  stagger  at  it,  and  then  they  and  chyldren  wolde  beware,  after  that, 
of  swerynge,  whiche  is  a  damnable  synne ;  the  vengeance  of  God  doth 
oft  hange  ouer  them,  and  yf  they  do  not  amend  and  take  repent- 
ance, they  shalbe  dampned  to  hell  where  they  shalbe  mad  for  euer 
more,  worlde  without  ende.  Wherfore  I  do  counsayle  al  suche  euyll 
disposed  persons,  of  what  degre  so  euer  they  be  of,  amende  these 
faultes  whyles  they  haue  nowe  leysure,  tyme,  and  space,  and  do 
penance,  for  els  there  is  no  remedy  but  eternall  punyshement. 

A  remedy. 
Wolde  to  God  that  the  Kynge  our  soueraygne  lorde,  with  his 
most  honorable  counsell,  wolde  se  a  reformacion  for  this  swerynge,  and 
for  Heresies,  for  the  whiche  synnes  we  haue  had  greate  pimyshment, 
as  by  dere  price  of  come  and  other  vitayles ;  for  no  man  can  remedy 
these  synnes,  but  God  and  our  kynge ;  for  there  be  a  perilous  nomber 
of  them  in  Englande  if  they  were  diligently  sought  out ;  I  do  speke 
here  of  heretikes  :  as  for  swearers,  a  man  nede  not  to  seke  for  theym, 
for  in  the  Kynges  courte,  and  lordes  courtes,  in  Cities,  Borowes,  and 
in  townes,  and  in  euery  house,  in  maner,  there  is  abhominable  swer- 
ynge, and  no  man  dothe  go  about  to  redresse  it,  but  doth  take 
swearyng  as  for  no  synne,  whiche  is  a  damnable  synne ;  &  they  the 
which  doth  vse  it,  be  possessed  of  the  Deuiil,  and  no  man  can  helpe 
them,  but  God  and  the  kyng.  For  Demoniacus  loke  in  the  Chapitre 
named  Mania." — The  Extrauagantes,  Fol.  vi. 

III.  The  Laziness  ^  of  young  People.^ 

"  l^°  The  .151.  Chapitre  dothe  shewe  of  an  euyl  Feuer 

the  whiche  dothe  cumber  yonge  persons, 

named  the  Feuer  lurden. 

AMonge  all  the  feuers  I  had  almost  forgotten  the  feuer  lurden,  with 
the  which  many  yonge  menne,  yonge  women,  maydens,  and 
other  yonge  persons,  be  sore  infected  nowe  a  dayes. 

*  '  the  slowe  worme  and  deadely  Dormouse  called  Idlenes,  the  ruine  of 
realmes,  and  confounder  of  nobilitie.'  Louis,  Duke  of  Orleans,  to  Henry  IV, 
in  the  5th  year  of  his  reign. — Hall's  Chronicle,  p.  33,  ed.  1809. 

^  Compare  Discipline's  saying,  in  W.  Wager's  "  The  longer  thou  liuest,  the 
more  foole  thou  art,"  ab.  1568  a.d.  (Hazlitt),  sign.  D  iij  back. 

Two  thinges  destroye  youth  at  this  day, 

Indulgentia  parentnm,  the  f ondnes  of  parents, 

Which  will  not  correct  there  noughty  way, 

But  rather  embolden  them  in  there  entents. 

Idlenesse,  alas  !  Idlenesse  is  an  other. 

Who  so  passeth  through  England, 

To  se  the  youth  he  would  wonder, 

How  Idle  they  be,  and  how  they  stand  I 

84      BOORDE  ON  LAZINESS,  MIDWIVES,  AND  COBBLER-DOCTORS.      [§  43.  ft. 

H  The  cause  of  this  Peuer. 

IT  This  feuer  doth  come  naturally,  or  els  by  euyll  and  slouthfuU 
bryngynge  vppe.  If  it  come  by  nature,  then  this  feuer  is  vncurable, 
for  it  can  neuer  out  of  the  lleshe  that  is  bred  in  the  bone ;  yf  it  come 
by  slouthfuU  bryngynge  vp,  it  may  be  holpen  by  dylygent  labour. 

U  A  remedy. 

|^°  There  is  nothyng  so  good  for  the  Feuer  lurden  as  is  Vngiien- 
turn  haculinura,  that  is  to  say,  Take  me  a  stycke  or  wan[d]  of  a  yerde  of 
length  and  more,  and  let  it  be  as  great  as  a  mans  fynger,  and  with  it 
anoynt  the  bake  and  the  shulders  well,  mornynge  and  euenynge,^  and 
do  this  .xxi.  dayes ;  and  if  this  Feuer  wyll  net  be  holpen  in  that 
tyme,  let  them  beware  of  waggynge  in  the  Galowes ;  and  whiles  they 
do  take  theyr  medecine,  put  no  Lubberworte  into  theyr  potage,  and 
be  [w]  are  of  knauerynge  aboute  theyr  hert ;  and  if  this  wyl  nat  helpe, 
sende  them  than  to  Newgate,  for  if  you  wyll  nat,  they  wyll  brynge 
them  selfe  thither  at  length." — Breu.  Fol.  Iv. 

IV.  The  loant  of  training  for  Midioives. 

"  If  it  do  come  of  euyll  orderynge  of  a  woman  whan  that  she 
is  deliuered,  it  must  come  of  an  vnexpert  Mydwyfe,  In  my  tyme,  as 
well  here  in  Englande  as  in  other  regions,  and  of  olde  antiquitie, 
euery  Midwyfe  shulde  be  presented  with  honest  women  of  great 
grauitie  to  the  Byshop,  and  that  they  shulde  testify,  for  her  that  they 
do  present  shulde  be  a  sadde  woman,  wyse  and  discrete,  hauynge  ex- 
perience, and  worthy  to  haue  the  office  of  a  Midwyfe.  Than  the 
Byshoppe,  with  the  counsel  of  a  doctor  of  Physick,  ought  to  examine 
her,  and  to  instructe  her  in  that  thynge  that  she  is  ignoraunt ;  and 
thus  proued  and  a[d]mitted,  is  a  laudable  thynge ;  for  and  this  were 
Ysed  in  Englande,  there  shulde  not  halfe  so  many  women  myscary, 
nor  so  many  chyldren  perish ^  in  euery  place  in  Englande  as  there  be. 
The  Byshop  ought  to  loke  on  this  matter." — The  ExtrauaganteSj  FoL 
XV.  back. 

V.   Cobblers  being  Physicians. 

**  0  lorde,  what  a  gTcat  detriment  is  this  to  the  noble  science  of 
phisicke,  that  ignoraunt  persons  wyl  enterpryse  to  medle  with  the 

A  Christian  mans  hart  it  would  pittie, 

To  behold  the  euill  bringing  vp  of  youth  ! 

God  preserue  London,  that  noble  Citie, 

Where  they  haue  taken  a  godly  ordre  for  a  truth  : 

God  geue  them  the  mindes  the  same  to  maintaine  ! 

For  in  the  world  is  not  a  better  ordre. 

Yf  it  may  be  Gods  fauour  still  to  remaine, 

Many  good  men  will  be  in  that  bordre. 
See  the  curious  list  of  Fool's  ofl&cers,  *  A  whole  Alphabete  '  of  them,  '  a  rable 
of  roysterly  ruffelers,'  on  the  back  of  leaf  F  4. 

•  See  quaint  W.  Bulleyn  on  Boxyng,  &c.,  Baiees  Booh,  p.  240-8. 

*  orig.  perished. 

§  43.  /3.]     BREUYARY  EXTRxVCTS.     MEN's  CHANGEABLENESS  AND  LUST.      85 

ministracion  of  phisicke,  that  Galen,  prince  of  phisicions,  in  his 
Terapentike  doth  reprehende  and  disproue,  sayeng,  'If  Phisicions 
had  nothyng  to  do  with  Astronomy,  Geomatry,  Logycke,  and  other 
sciences,  Coblers,  Curryars  of  lether.  Carpenters  and  Smythes,  and  al 
such  maner  of  people  wolde  leaue  theyr  craftes,  and  be  Phisicions,'  as 
it  appereth  no  we  a  dayes  that  many  Coblers  be,  fye  on  such  ones ! 
whervpon  Galen  reprehended  Tessalus  for  his  ignoraunce  :  for  Tes- 
salus  smattered  and  medled  with  Phisicke,  and  yet  he  knewe  not 
what  he  dyd,  as  many  doth  no  we  a  dayes,  the  whiche  I  maye  ac- 
compte  Tessalus  foolyshe  dyscyples." — Breu.  Fol.  ii.  (Compare  the 
First  Chapter  of  the  Introduction  of  Knowledge.) 

VI.  The  Mutahility  of  Men's  Minds. 

"  IF  The  .23.  Chapitre  doth  shewe  of  a  mannes  mynde. 

ANimus  is  the  latin  worde  :  In  greke  it  is  named  Tliimos.  In 
englyshe  it  is  a  mannes  mynde.  The  mynd  of  a  man  is  very 
mutable  and  inconstant,  more  in  one  man  then  in  another,  but  the 
moste  parte  myght  be  amended. 

IF  The  cause  of  this  Mutabilitie. 

|^°  This  mutabylytie  doth  come  thorowe  wauerynge  and  incon- 
stant wyttes,  lackynge  loue  and  charytye  to  God,  to  a  mannes  owne 
selfe,  and  to  his  neyghbour,  regardynge  more,  other  ^  sensualytie  or 
prodigalytie,  couetys  or  lucre,  then  the  welth  and  profyte  of  the  soule. 
Yet  the  mynde  of  man  is  so  occupied  aboute  worldly  matters  and 
businesses,  that  God  and  the  soule  of  man  is  forgotten,  by  the  whiche 
great  daungers  foloweth. 

1^"  A  remedy, 

IT  Fyrst,  let  euery  man  reconcylc  hym  selfe  in  and  to  God,  and  not 
to  set  by  the  worlde,  but  to  take  the  worlde  as  it  is,  not  beyng  par- 
manente  nor  abydynge  place,  but  to  lyue  as  one  shulde  dye  euery 
houre.  And  yf  a  man  may  haue  this  memory,  he  wyl  not  be 
mutable,  nor  set  by  the  worlde,  but  be  constant,  hauynge  euer  a 
respect  to  God  his  creatour,  and  to  his  neyghbour,  which  is  euery 
man  where  soeuer  he  dwell." — Breu.  Fol.  xv. 

VII.  The  Lust  and  Avarice  of  Men. 

"I^°  The  .340.  Chapitre  doth  shewe  of  touchyng 
the  whiche  is  one  of  the  .v.  wyttes. 

T Actus  is  the  latin  word.  In  greke  it  is  named  Aj^hi.  In  Eng- 
lishe  it  is  named  touching  or  handlyng ;  and  of  handlyng  or 
touching  be  ii.  sortes,  the  one  is  venerious  and  the  other  is  auari- 
cious  ;  the  one  is  thorowe  carnal  concupiscence,  &  the  other  is  thorowe 
cupiditie  of  worldly  substance  or  goodes. 

'  other  =  or. 

86  BOORDE   ON   DISEASES    OF    THE   POOR   IN    YOUTH.       [§  43.  /3. 

IF  The  cause  of  these  impedimentes. 

IT  The  fyrst  impedimente  doth  come  eyther  that  man  wyll  not 
call  for  grace  to  God  not  to  displese  hym,  or  els  a  man  wyl  folowe  his 
luxurious  sensualtie  lyke  a  brute  beaste.  The  seconde  impediment, 
the  which  is  auaryce  or  couetyse,  wyll  touch  all  thynges,  and  take  as 
much  as  he  can  get,  for  al  is  fyshe  that  cometh  to  the  nette  with  such 

1^°  A  remedy. 

IT  For  these  matters  I  knowe  no  remedy,  but  onely  God  ;  for  there 
is  fewe  or  none  that  doth  feare  God  in  none  of  these  .ii.  causes :  if 
the  feare  of  God  were  in  vs  we  wolde  not  do  so.  lesus  helpe  vs  all ! 
AMEJST." — Breu.  Fol.  C.x.  [Does  this  mean  '  guilty,  and  sorry  for 
it'1  p.  66.] 

On  the  state  of  the  poor  there  is  hardly  anything  in  Boorde's 
books.  The  chapters  on  Kybes,  noticing  the  bad  shoes  of  children, 
that  on  Croaking  in  the  Belly,  and  that  on  Lowsiness — a  point 
brought  under  our  notice  before  by  the  Bahees  Booh  (p.  134,  209), 
and  Caxton's  BooTc  of  Curtesye — are  the  only  ones  I  have  noted. 


"  l®°  The  .272.  Chapitre  dothe  shewe  of  an  impedi- 
ment in  the  Heles. 
PErniones  is  the  latin  worde.     Pernoni  is  the  Barbarous  worde.    In 
Englyshe  it  is  named  the  kybes  in  a  mannes  heales. 

|^°  The  cause  of  this  impedimente. 

IF  This  impediment  most  comonly  doth  infest  or  doth  happen 
to  yonge  persons  the  which  be  hardly  brought  vp,  goyng  barefoted,  or 
with  euyil  shoes  j  and  it  dothe  come  of  extreme  colde  and  fleumatyke 

If  A  remedy. 

IT  For  the  Kybes  beware  that  the  Snowe  do  nat  come  to  the 
Heles,  and  beware  of  colde,  nor  prycke,  nor  pycke  the  Kybes  :  kepe 
them  warme  with  woUen  clothes,  and  to  bedwarde  washe  the  heles 
and  the  fete  with  a  mans  propre  vrine,  &  with  Netes  fote  oyle." — 
Breu.  Foi.  Ixxxxi. 

Croaking  in  tlie  Belly. 

"t  The  .309.  Chapitre  dothe  shewe  of  crokyng 

in  a  mannes  bely. 

P  Vgitus  ventris  be  the  latin  wordes.      In  Englyshe  it  is  named 

It     crokyng  or   clockyng  in  ones  bely.      In  greke    it   is  named 


§  43.  /3.]      BEEUYARY  EXTRACTS.      ON  LOWSINESS  AND  THE  TONGUE.       87 

The  cause  of  this  impediment. 
This  impediment  doth  come  of  coldenes  in  the  guttes,  or 
longe  fastyng,  or  eatyng  of  fruites  and  wyndy  meates,  and  it  may 
come  of  euyl  dyet  in  youth. 

10°  A  remedy. 
10°  Fyrste,  beware  of  colde  and  longe  fastynge,  and  beware  of 
eatynge  of  frutes,  potages,  and  sewes,  and  beware  that  the  bely  be 
not   constupated   or  costiue,  and  vse  dragges  to  breake  wynde." — 
Breu.  Fol.  C.  back. 


"10°  The  .273.  Chapitre  dothe  shewe  of  lyce  in  a 
mannes  body  or  head  or  any  other  place. 

PEdiculacio  or  Morbus  pedieulorum  be  the  latin  wordes.  In  greke 
it  is  named  Phthiriasis.  In  Englyshe  it  is  named  lousines,  and 
there  be  .iiii.  kyndes,  whiche  be  to  say,  head  lyce,  body  lyce,  crabbe 
lyce,  and  nits. 

IF  The  cause  of  this  impediment. 
This  impediment  doth  come  by  the  corruption  of  bote  humours 
with  sweat,  or  els  of  rancknes  of  the  body,  or  els  by  vnclene  kepyngc, 
or  lyenge  with  lousy  persons,  or  els  not  chaungjmge  of  a  mannes 
sherte,  or  els  lyenge  in  a  lousy  bedde. 

10°  A  remedy. 
10°  Take  of  the  oyle  of  Baye,  an  vnce  and  a  halfe ;  of  Stauysacre 
made  in  fyne  ponder,  halfe  an  vnce ;  of  Mercury  mortified  with  fast- 
ynge spetyll,  an  vnce ;  incorporate  al  this  togyther  in  a  vessel  vpon  a 
chafynge  dyshe  of  coles,  and  anoynt  the  body.  I  do  take  onely  the 
oyle  of  Bayes  with  Mercury  mortified,  and  it  doth  helpe  euery  man 
and  woman,  excepte  they  be  not  to  rancke  of  complexion." — Fol. 

The  custom  of  mere  boys  marrying,  which  Stubbes  reproves  so 
strongly  in  his  Anatomie  of  Abuses,  p.  100,  ed.  1836  (quoted  in  my 
Ballads  from  MSS,  p.  32),  Boorde  only  notices  incidentally  : 

"  And  let  boyes,  folysh  men,  and  hasty  men,  the  whych  be 
maryed,  beware  howe  that  they  do  vse  theyr  wyues  when  they  be 
with  child." — Breu.  Fol.  viii, 

§  43.  y.  Thirdly,  we  may  take  some  of  Boorde's  opinions. 
Boorde  on  the  Tongue  and  its  greatest  Disease. 

"  IF  The  .208.  Chapitre  doth  shewe  of  a  mannes  tonge. 

Lingua  is  the  latin  worde.     In  greke  it  is  named  Glossa,  or  Glotta. 
In  Englyshe  it  is  named  a  tonge.     The  tonge  of  man  is  an  in- 
strument or  a  member,  by  the  whiche  not  onely  tasty ng,  but  also  the 

88  BOORDE    ON    THE   TONGUE,   AND    ON    MIRTH.  [§  43.  y. 

knowledge  of  mans  mynde  by  the  spekyng  of  the  tonge,  is  brought 
to  vnder-standynge,  that  reason  may  knowe  the  truth  frome  the  fals- 
hod.  and  soe  conuerse.  The  tonge  is  the  best  and  the  worste  offycyall 
member  in  man :  why,  and  wherfore,  I  do  remit  the  matter  to  the 
iudgement  of  the  reders.  But  this  I  do  say,  that  the  tonge  may  haue 
dyuers  impedimentes  besyde  sclaunderynge  and  lyenge,  the  which  is 
the  greatest  impediment  or  syckenes  of  all  other  diseases,  for  it  doth 
kyll  the  soule  without  repentaunce.  I  passe  ouer  this  matter,  and  wyll 
speake  of  the  sickenesses  whiche  may  be  in  mannes  tonge,  the  which 
niaye  swell,  or  elles  haue  fyssures,  or  wheales,  or  carnelles,  or  the 
palsey." — Breu.  Fol.  Ixxi.  back. 

Boorde  on  Mirth  and  Men's  Spirits. 

"The  .163.  Chapitre  dothe  shewe  of 
loye  or  myrthe. 

GAudium  is  the  latin  worde.     In  Englyshe  it  is  named  ioye  or 
myrth.     In  Greke  it  is  named  Hidonce. 

The  cause  of  myrthe. 

Myrth  commeth  many  wayes :  the  princypal  myrth  is  when  a 
man  doth  lyue  out  of  deadly  syn,  and  not  in  grudg  of  conscience  in 
this  worlde,  and  that  euerye  man  doth  reioyce  in  God,  and  in  charitie 
to  his  neyghbour.  there  be  many  other  myrthes  and  consolacions, 
some  beynge  good  and  laudable,  and  some  vytuperable.  laudable 
myrth  is,  one  man  or  one  neyghboure  to  be  mery  with  an  other,  with 
honesty  and  vertue,  without  sweryng  and  sclaunderyng,  and  rybaldry 
speaking.  Myrth  is  in  musyeall  instrumentes,  and  gostly  and  godly 
syngyng;  myrth  is  when  a  man  lyueth  out  of  det,  and  may  haue 
meate  and  drinke  and  cloth,  although  he  haue  neuer  a  peny  in  his 
purse  ;  but  nowe  a  dayes,  he  is  merye  that  hath  golde  and  syluer,  and 
ryches  with  lechery ;  and  all  is  not  worth  a  blewe  poynte. 

IF  A  remedy. 

IF  I  do  aduertise  euery  man  to  remember  that  he  must  dye,  how, 
whan,  and  what  tyme  he  can  nat  tel ;  wherfore  let  euery  man  amende 
his  lyfe,  and  commyt  hym  selfe  to  the  mercy  of  God." — Breu.  FoL 
Iviii.  back. 

The  .329.  Chapitre  doth  shewe  of  a  mannes  Spirites. 

SPiritus  is  the  latin  word.  In  Greke  it  is  named  Pnoce  or  Pneuma. 
In  Englyshe  it  is  named  a  spirite.  I  do  not  pretende  here  to 
speake  of  any  spirite  in  heauen  or  in  hell,  nor  no  other  spirite,  but 
onely  of  the  spirites  in  man,  in  the  which  doth  consyst  the  lyfe  of 
man,  &  there  be  thre,  naturall,  anymal,  and  vytall :  the  naturall 
spyrite  restcth  in  the  head,  the  animall  spirite  doth  rest  in  the  lyuer, 
and  the  vital  spirite  resteth  in  the  hert  of  man. 

§  43.  y.]     BREUYARY  EXTRACTS.      ON  THE  HEART,  MIRTH,  AND  PAIN.      89 

To  conforte  and  to  reioyce  these  spirites. 
Fyrste  lyue  out  of  syn,  and  folowe  Christes  doctrine,  and 
than  vse  honest  myrth  and  honest  company,  and  vse  to  eate  good 
meate,  and  drynke  moderatly." — Fol.  C.vii. 

"  iK"  To  comforte  the  stomake,  vse  Gynger  and  Galyngale,  vse 
myrth  and  well  to  fare ;  vse  Peper  in  meates,  &  beware  of  anger,  for 
it  is  a  shrode  hert  that  maketh  al  the  body  fare  the  worse." — Fol. 
C.viii.  back. 

Boorde  on  the  Heart  of  Man,  and  on  Mirth. 

"  IT  The  .86.  Chapitre  doth  shewe  of 
the  herte  of  man. 

COr  is  the  latin  worde.  In  Greke  it  is  named  Cardia.  In  Englyshe 
it  is  an  herte.  the  herte  is  the  principal  member  in  man ;  And 
it  is  the  member  that  hath  the  fyrste  lyfe  in  man,  and  it  is  the  laste 
thynge  that  dothe  dye  in  manne.  The  herte  dothe  viuifycate  all 
other  members,  and  is  the  grounde  and  foundacion  of  al  the  vitall 
spirites  in  man,  and  doth  lye  in  the  my  die  of  the  bodye,  and  is  bote 
and  drye.  And  there  is  nothyng  so  euyl  to  the  herte  as  is  thought 
and  care,  and  feare :  as  for  other  impedimentes  that  be  longynge  to 
the  herte,  [they]  dothe  appere  in  theyr  Chapitres,  as  Cardiaca. 
1^°  To  comfort  the  herte. 
There  is  nothynge  that  doth  comforte  the  herte  so  much,  besyde 
God,  as  honeste  myrth  and  good  company.  And  wyne  moderately 
taken  doth  letyfycate  and  dothe  comforte  the  herte ;  and  good  breade 
doth  confyrme  and  doth  stablyshe  a  mannes  herte.  And  all  good 
and  temperate  drynkes  the  which  doth  ingender  good  bloud  doth 
comforte  the  herte.  All  maner  of  cordyalles  and  restoratiues,  &  al 
Fwete  or  dulcet  thinges  doth  comfort  the  hert,  and  so  doth  maces  and 
gynger ;  rere  egges,  and  poched  egges  not  harde,  theyr  yolkes  be  a 
cordiall.  Also  the  electuary  of  citrons,  Roh  de  pitis,  Rob  de  ribes, 
Diambra  Aromaticum  mtistatum,  Aromaticum  rosatinn,  and  so  is 
Electuarium  de  gemmis,  and  the  confection  of  XiloaloeSf  and  such 
lyke  be  good  for  the  hert." — Breu.  Fol.  xxxv. 

Boorde  mi  Pain  and  Adversity. 
"^  Tlie  .99.  Chapitre  dothe  shewe  of  peyne  or  dolour. 

Dolor  is  the  latin  word.  In  Greke  it  is  named  Lype.  In  Eng- 
lyshe it  is  named  peyne  or  dolour,  the  whiche  may  be  many 
wayes,  as  by  syckenes  of  the  body,  or  disquietnes  of  a  mannes 

^p°  The  cause  of  this  peyne. 

1^"  Dyuers  tymes  of  greate  pleasure  doth  come  greate  peyne,  as 

we  se  dayly  that  thorowe  ryot  and  surfetyng  and  sensualytie  doth 

come  dyuers  sickenesses.     Also  with  sport  and  playe,  takyng  great 

heate,  or  takynge  of  extreme  colde  doth  ingender  diseases  and  peyne. 

90       BOORDE    ON    PAIN,    INTEMPERANCE,    AND   DRUNKENNESS.       [§,  43.  y. 

Also  for  lacke  of  pacyence  many  mens  and  womens  myndes  be  vexed 
and  troubled. 

IF  A  remedy. 
1^"  If  a  man  wyll  exchewe  many  peynes  and  dolours,  lette  hym 
lyue  a  sober  lyfe,  and  [not]  distemper  nor  disquyed  the  body  by  any 
excesse  or  sensualite.  And  let  hym  arme  hym  selfe  with  pacience, 
and  euermore  thanke  God  what  soeuer  is  sente  to  man ;  for  if  ad- 
uersitie  do  come,  it  is  either  sent  to  punysse  man  for  synne,  or  els 
probacion :  and  with  sorowe  vse  honest  myrth  and  good  company." 
— Breic.  Fol.  xxxviii.  back. 

Boorde  on  Intemperance. 

"  l^°  The  .214  Chapitre  doth  she  we  of  intemperance. 

LVxv4i  is  the  latin  word.  In  Greke  it  is  named  Asotia.  In  Eng- 
lishe  it  is  named  intemperance.  .  Temperance  is  a  morall  vertue, 
and  worthely  to  be  praysed,  considerynge  that  it  doth  set  all  vertues 
in  a  due  order.  Intemperance  is  a  greate  vyce,  for  it  doth  set  euery 
thyng  out  of  order ;  and  where  there  is  no  order  there  is  horror.  And 
therfore  this  worde  Luxus  may  be  taken  for  all  the  kyndes  of  sensual- 
itie,  the  whiche  can  neuer  be  subdued  without  the  recognition  and 
knowledge  of  a  mannes  selfe,  what  he  is  of  him  selfe,  and  what  God 
is.  And  for  asmuch  as  God  hath  geuen  to  euery  man  lining  fre  wil, 
therefore  euery  man  ought  to  stand  in  the  feare  of  God,  and  euer  to 
loke  to  his  conscience,  callynge  to  God  for  grace,  and  dayly  to  desyre 
and  to  praye  for  his  mercye ;  and  this  is  the  best  medecyne  that  I  do 
knowe  for  intemperance." — Fol.  Ixxiii.  back. 

Boorde  on  Drunkenness. 

"The  .110.  Chapitre  dothe  shewe 
of  dronkennes. 

EBrietas  is  the  latin  worde.     In  Greke  it  is  named  Mcethce.     In 
Englyshe  it  is  named  dronkennes. 

IT  The  cause  of  this  impediment. 
1^"  This  impedimente  doth  come   eyther   by  wekenes  of  the 
brayne,  or  els  by  some  greate  hurte  in  the  head,  or  of  to  much  ryotte. 

IT  A  remedy. 
|^°  If  it  do  come  by  an  hurt  in  the  head,  there  is  no  remedy  but 
pacience  of  all  partes.  If  it  do  come  by  debilite  of  the  brayne  & 
head,  drynke  in  the  mornynge  a  dyshe  of  mylke,  vse  a  Sirupe  named 
Sh'upus  acetosus  de  prunis,  and  vse  laxatiue  meates,  and  purgacions, 
if  nede  do  requyre,  and  beware  of  superuflous  drynkynge,  specially 
of  wyne  and  stronge  ale  and  beere,  and  if  anye  man  do  perceuye 
that  he  is  dronke,  let  hym  take  a  vomite  with  water  and  oyle,  or  with 
a  fether,  or  a  Eosemary  braunche,  or  els  with  his  finger,  or  els  let  hym 
go  to  his  bed  to  slepe." — Fol.  xlii. 

§  43.  y.]   SREUYARY  EXTRACTS.      ON  MAN,  MARRIAGE,  ETC.        91 

Boorde  on  Man  and  Woman,  which  he  reasonable  Beastes. 
"  IT  The  .182.  Chapitre  doth  shewe  of  a  man. 
Omo  is  the  latin  worde.     In  Greke  it  is  named  Anthropos  or 


Anir.  In  Englyshe  it  is  named  a  man  or  a  woman,  which  he 
resonable  beastes  ;  and  man  is  made  to  the  similitudenes  of  God,  and 
is  compacke  and  made  of  .xv.  substances.  Of  bones,  of  grystles,  of 
synewes,  of  veynes,  of  artures,  of  strynges,  of  cordes,  of  skyn,  of 
pannycles,  pellycles,  or  calles,  of  heare,  of  nayles,  of  grece,  of  fleshe, 
of  blond,  and  of  mary  within  the  bones,  a  man  hath  reason  with 
Angelles,  felynge  with  beastes,  lyuynge  with  trees,  hauyng  a  beyng 
with  stones." — Fol.  Ixiiii.  back. 

Boorde  on  Marriage, 

"  And  here  is  to  be  noted  for  maried  men,  that  Aristotle  sayth, 
Secundo  de  Anima,  that  euery  parfyte  thynge  is,  whan  one  may 
generate  a  thynge  lyke  to  hymselfe ;  for  by  it  he  is  assimiled  to  the 
immortall .  God.  Auicene  De  naturalihus  glorified  natural  procrea- 
cion.  And  for  this  cause  God  made  man  and  woman,  to  encrease  & 
multiply  to  the  worlds  ende.  For  this  matter  loke  further  in  the 
Extrauagantes  in  the  ende  of  this  boke." — Fol.  xxxii. 

Boorde  on  the  Words  of  late-speaking  Children, 

"  Chyldren  that  can  not  speake  vnto  the  tyme  that  they  do  come 
to  a  certein  age,  doth  speke  these  .iii.  wordes :  Aua,  Acca,  Agon, 
Aua  doth  signifye  father ;  Acca  doth  signifye  ioye  or  myrth  ;  Agon 
doth  signifye  dolour  or  sorow.  All  infantes  doth  speke  these  wordes, 
if  a  man  do  marke  them ;  and  what  wa  doth  signifye  when  they 
crye,  I  coulde  neuer  rede  of  it;  if  it  do  signifye  any  thynge,  it  is 
displeasure,  or  not  contented." — Extrauagantes,  Fol.  xxvi.  back. 

Boorde  on  the  Kings  Evil?- 

"IT  The  .236.  Chapitre  doth  shewe  of  the  Kynges  euyll. 

Orhus  regius  be  the  latin  wordes.     In  Englyshe  it  is  named  the 
kynges  euyll,  which  is  an  euyl  sickenes  or  impediment. 


^  See  Brand's  Antiquities,  ed.  Ellis,  iii.  140—150.  Boorde  also  believed  in 
kings  hallowing  Cramp-rings  as  a  remedy  for  Cramp :  see  his  Introdnction, 
p.  121,  below ;  and  Fol.  back,  of  his  Brenyary  : 

"  1^  The  kynges  maiestie  hath  a  great  helpe  in  this  matter  in  halowynge 
Crampe  rynges,  and  so  gyuen  without  mony  or  peticion.  Also  for  the  Crampe, 
take  of  the  oyle  of  Lyllyes  and  Castory,  yf  it  do  come  of  a  colde  cause.  If  it 
do  come  of  a  bote  cause,  anoynte  the  synewes  with  the  oyle  of  waters  Lyllyes, 
and  wyllowes,  and  Roses.  If  it  do  come  of  any  other  cause,  take  of  the  oyle 
of  Euforbiuw,  and  Castoiy,  and  of  Pyretory,  and  confecte  or  compounde  al  to- 
gyther,  and  anoynt  the  place  or  places,  with  the  partes  adiacent." 

92  BOORDE   ON   THE   KING'S   EVIL.  [§  43   y. 

The  cause  of  this  impediment. 

This  impediment  doth  come  of  the  corruption  of  humours 
reflectynge  more  to  a  pertyculer  place  then  to  vnyuersall  places,  and  it 
is  muche  lyke  to  a  fystle ;  for  and  yf  it  he  made  whole  in  one  place, 
it  wyl  breke  out  in  an  other  place. 

Bp  Percy  in  his  Northumberland  Household  Book,  p.  436,  ed.  1827,  has 
the  following  note  on  Creeping  to  the  Cross,  and  hallowing  Cramp-Rings  : — 
"  This  old  Popish  ceremony  is  particularly  described  in  an  ancient  Book  of  the 
Ceremonial  of  the  Kings  of  England,  bought  by  the  present  Dutchess  of 
Northumberland,  at  the  sale  of  manuscripts  of  the  late  Mr  Ansti's,  Garter 
King  of  Arms.  I  shall  give  the  whole  passage  at  length,  only  premising  that 
in  1536,  when  the  Convocation  under  Henry  VIII.  abolished  some  of  the  old 
superstitious  practices,  this  of  Creeping  to  the  Cross  on  Good-Friday,  &c.,  was 
ordered  to  be  retained  as  a  laudable  and  edifying  custom. — See  Herb.  Life  of 
Henry  VIII. 

*  The  Order  of  the  Kinge,  on  Good  Friday,  touchinge  the  cominge  to 
Service,  Hallorcinge  of  the  Cramjpe  Rings,  and  Offeringe  and  Creepinge  to  the 

*  Firste,  the  Kinge  to  come  to  the  Chappell  or  Closset,  withe  the  Lords,  and 
Noblemen,  waytinge  upon  him,  without  any  Sword  borne  before  him,  as  that 
day.  And  ther  to  tarrie  in  his  Travers  until  the  Byshope  and  the  Deane  have 
brought  in  the  Crucifixe  out  of  the  Vestrie,  and  layd  it  upon  the  Cushion 
before  the  highe  Alter.  And  then  the  Usher  to  lay  a  Carpett  for  the  Kinge  to 
Creepe  to  the  Crosse  upon.  And  that  done  ther  shal  be  a  Forme  sett  upon  the 
Carpett,  before  the  Crucifix,  and  a  Cushion  laid  upon  it  for  the  Kinge  to  knealo 
upon.  And  the  Master  of  the  Jewell  Homse  ther  to  he  ready  with  the 
CramjJe  Rings  in  a  Bason  of  Silver,  and  the  Kinge  to  kneele  upon  the  Cushion 
before  the  Forme,  And  then  the  Clerke  of  the  Closett  he  redie  with  tlie  Booke 
concerninge  the  Hallowinge  of  the  Crampe  Rings,  and  the  Amner  [i.  e. 
Almoner]  moste  kneele  on  the  right  hand  of  the  Kinge  holdinge  the  sayd  hooke. 
When  that  is  done,  the  King  shall  rise  and  goe  to  the  Alter,  wheare  a  Gent. 
Usher  shall  be  redie  with  a  Cushion  for  the  Kinge  to  kneele  upon  :  And  then 
tlie  greatest  Lords  that  shall  he  ther  to  take  t/te  Bason  with  the  Rings,  and 
heare  them  after  the  Kinge  to  offer.  And  thus  done,  the  Queene  shall  come 
downe  out  of  her  Closset  or  Traverse,  into  the  Chappell,  witfi  La[dies]  and 
Gentlewomen  waytinge  upon  her,  and  Creepe  to  the  Crosse  :  And  then  goe 
agayne  to  her  Closett  or  Traverse.  Arid  then  the  La  [dies]  to  Creepe  to  the 
Crosse  likewise  ;  And  the  Lords  and  Noblemen  likewise.' 

"  On  the  subject  of  these  Cramp-Rings,  I  cannot  help  observing,  that  our 
ancient  kings,  even  in  those  dark  times  of  superstition,  do  not  seem  to  have 
affected  to  cure  the  King's  Evil  ;  at  least  in  the  MS.  above  quoted  there  is  no 
mention  or  hint  of  any  power  of  that  sort.  This  miraculous  gift  was  left  to  be 
claimed  by  the  Stuarts  :  our  ancient  Plantagenets  were  humbly  content  to  cure 
the  Cramp." — Boorde's  words  abolish  this  inference  of  the  Bishop's.  Brand, 
Antiquities,  ed.  Ellis,  iii.  150,  col.  2,  quotes  Boorde's  Introd.  and  Brev.  on 
this  subject,  and  has  other  good  references,  iii.  160,  i.  87  (quoting  Percy),  i.  89, 
the  last  of  which  quotes  a  letter  of  "  Lord  Berners  the  accomplished  Translator 
of  Froissart  .  .  to  my  Lorde  Cardinall's  grace,"  21  June,  1518  :  "If  yowr  grace 
remember  me  \fiih  some  Crampe  Ryngs,  ye  shall  doo  a  thing  much  looked 

§  43.  y.]      BREVYARY  EXTRACTS.       KING'S  EyiL.       MAN's  FIVE  WITS.        93 

IT  A  remedy. 
*  For  this  matter  let  euery  man  make  frendes  to  the  Kynges 
maiestie,  for  it  doth  pertayne  to  a  Kynge  to  helpe  this  infirm  itie  by 
the  grace  the  whiche  is  geuen  to  a  Kynge  anoynted.  But  for  as 
muche  as  some  men  dothe  iudge  diners  tyme  a  Fystle  or  a  French 
pocke  to  be  the  kynges  Euyll,  in  suche  matters  it  behoueth  nat  a  Kynge 
to  medle  withall,  except  it  be  thorowe  and  of  his  bountifull  goodnes 
to  geue  his  pytyfull  &  gracious  counsel.  For  kynges,  and  kynges 
sones,  and  other  noble  men,  hath  ben  eximious  Phisicions,  as  it  ap- 
pereth  more  largely  in  the  Introduction  of  Knowlege,  a  boke  of  my 
makynge,  beynge  a  pryntyng  with  Ko.  Coplawde," — Breu.  Ixxx. 

Boorde  on  the  Five  Wits,  and  Men  being  Reasonable  Beasts. 

"IT  The  .321.  Chapitre  doth  shewe  of  the  .v. 
wittes  in  man. 

Sens2is  hominis  be  the  latin  wordes.  In  Greeks  it  is  named  Esthis^is 
anthropon.  In  Englyshe  it  is  named  the  sences  or  the  wyttes 
of  man.  And  there  be  .v.  which  be  to  saye,  heryng,  felynge,  seynge, 
smellynge,  and  tastynge ;  and  these  sences  may  be  thus  deuyded,  in 
naturall,  anymall,  and  ractionall.  The  naturall  sences  be  in  all  the 
members  of  man  the  which  hath  any  felyng.  The  animall  sences  bo 
the  eyes,  the  tonge,  the  eares,  the  smellynge,  and  all  thynges  per- 
teynyng  vnto  an  vnreasonable  beast.  The  racionall  sences  consisteth 
in  reason,  the  which  doth  make  a  man  or  woman  a  reasonable  beaste, 
which  by  reason  may  reuyle  vnresonable  beastes,  and  al  other  thynges 
beyng  vnder  his  dominion.  And  this  is  the  soule  of  man,  for  by 
reason  euery  man  created  doth  knowe  his  creatour,  which  is  onely 
God,  that  created  al  thynges  of  nothyng.  Man  thus  created  of  God 
doth  not  differ  from  a  beaste,  but  that  the  one  is  reasonable,  which 
is  man,  and  the  other  is  vnresonable,  the  whiche  is  euery  beast,  foule, 
fyshe,  and  worme.  And  for  as  much  as  dayly  we  do  se  and  haue  in 
experience  thart  the  moste  part  of  reasonable  beastes,  which  is  man, 
doth  decay  in  theyr  memory,  and  be  obliuious,  necessary  it  is  to  know 
the  cause,  and  so  consequently  to  haue  a  remedy. 

IF  The  cause  of  this  impedimente. 

I^°  This  impediment  doth  come  eyther  naturally  or  accydentally. 
I^p°  A  remedy. 

If  naturally  a  mans  memory  is  tarde  of  wyt  an<l  knowlege  or 
vnderstandyng,  I  know  no  remedy ;  yf  it  come  by  great  study  or  soli- 
citudnes,  breakyng  a  mans  mynde  about  many  matters  the  which  he 
can  nat  comprehende  by  his  capacite,  and  although  he  can  compre- 
hend it  with  his  capacite,  and  the  memory  fracted  from  the  pregnance 
of  it,  let  hym  vse  odiferous  sauours  and  no  contagiouse  ayers,  and 
vse  otherwhyle  to  drynke  wyne,  and  smel  to  Amber  de  grece :  euery 

94  BOORDE    ON    WOUNDS    AND    OBLIVIOUSNESS.  [§  43.  y. 

thyng  whiche  is  odiferous  doth  comfort  the  wittes,  the  memory,  and 
the  sences ;  and  all  euyll  saiioars  doth  hurt  the  sences  and  the  memory, 
as  it  appereth  in  the  Chapitre  named  Obliuio" — Fol.  C.iiii. 

Boorde  on  Wounds. 

"  1^"  The  .377.  Chapitre  doth  shewe  of  woundes. 

VVlnvs  or  Vulnera  he  the  latin  wordes.  In  Greke  it  is  named 
Trauma  or  Traumata.  In  Englyshe  it  is  named  a  wounde  or 
woundes  :  and  there  he  dyuers  sortes  of  woundes,  some  he  newe  and 
freshe  woundes,  and  some  he  olde  woundes,  some  he  depe  woundes, 
and  some  he  playne  woundes,  and  some  fystuled,  and  some  he  fes- 
tered, some  be  vloerated  and  some  hath  fyssures,  and  some  hath  none. 
1^"  The  cause  of  woundes. 

IF  Most  comonly  woundes  doth  come  thorowe  an  harlot,  or  for  an 
hounde ;  it  doth  come  also  thorowe  quarelynge,  that  some  hote  knau- 
yshe  hloude  wolde  he  out;  &  dyuers  tymes  woundes  doth  come 
thorowe  dronkennes,  for  when  the  drynke  is  in,  the  wytte  is  out,  and 
then  haue  at  the,  and  thou  at  me :  fooles  he  they  that  wold  them 
part,  that  wyl  make  such  a  dronken  marte. 

IT  A  remedy. 

1^"  If  it  he  a  grene  wounde,  fyrste  stanche  the  hloude ;  and  yf 
the  wounde  he  large  and  wyde,  styche  it,  and  after  that  lay  a  playster, 
and  let  it  lye  .xx.  houres  or  more,  thari  open  it,  and  mundify  it  with 
white  wyne.  And  if  the  wounde  he  depe,  vse  siccatiue  playsters 
made  with  Olihanum,  Frankensence,  Literge,  Yreos,  the  bran  of 
Bones,  and  Aristologia  rotunda  and  suche  lyke.  If  the  wounde  be 
playne,  take  of  the  rotes  of  Lyllies,  of  pome  Garnade  rynes,  of  Galles, 
of  Aloes  or  suche  lyke»  If  the  woundes  be  indifferent,  the  wounde 
mundified,  vse  the  ponder  of  Myrtylles  and  Rose  leues,  and  suche 
lyke  ]  and  let  the  pacient  beware  of  venerious  actes  &  of  contagious 
meates  and  drynkes." — Fol.  C.xxi. 

Boorde  on  Obliviousness. 

"  ^P°  The  .253.  Chapitre  doth  shewe  of  an  impedi- 
ment named  Obliuiousnes. 
OBliuio  is  the  latin  worde.     In  Greke  it  is  named  Lithi.     In  Eng- 
lyshe it  is  named  obliuiousnes  or  forgetfulnes. 

IF  The  cause  of  this  impediment. 
This  impedimente  doth  come  of  reume  or  some  ventosytie,  or 
of  some  colde  humour  lyenge  about  the  brayne ;  it  may  come  of  soli- 
citudenes,  or  great  study  occupyenge  the  memory  so  much  that  it  is 
fracted  ;  and  the  memory  fracted,  there  muste  nedes  then  be  obliuious- 
nes ;  &  it  may  come  to  yonge  men  and  women  when  theyr  mynde  is 

§  43.  y.]    BREUYARY   EXTRACTS.   ON  DREAMS  AND  THE  FACE.    9.5 

A  remedy. 

Fyrst  beware  and  eschewe  all  suche  thynges  as  do  make  or  in- 
gender  obliiiiousnes,  and  than  vse  the  confection  of  Anacardine,  & 
smel  to  odiferous  and  redolent  sauours,  and  vse  the  thynges  or  me- 
decines  the  whiche  is  specified  in  the  Chapitre  named  Anima  and 
Memoria.  *  A  medecine  for  Bryched  persones,  I  do  nat  knowe,  ex- 
cept it  be  Vnguentum  haculinum,  as  it  dothe  appere  in  the  Chapitre 
named  the  feuer  Lurden." — Fol.  Ixxxv.  back  (p.  83,  above). 

Boorde  on  Dreams. 

"  Q  Omnia  is  the  latin  worde.      In  Greke  it  is  named  Enqmia.     In 
U     Englyshe  it  is  named  dreames. 

IT  The  cause  of  this  impediment. 
^^  This  impedement  doth  come  most  comonly  of  wekenes  or 
emptynes  of  the  head,  or  els  of  superfluous  humours,  or  els  of  fan- 
tasticalnes,  or  coUucion,  or  illusyons  of  the  deuyll ;  it  maye  come  also 
by  God  thorowe  the  good  aungell,  or  such  lyke  matters :  but  specially, 
of  fraction  of  the  mynde  and  extreme  sickenes  doth  happen  to  many 

A  remedy. 
IT  For  this  matter  vse  dormitary,  and  refraine  from  such  matters 
as  shulde  be  the  occasion  of  such  matters,  and  be  not  costiue.  &c." — 
Extrauagantes^  Fol.  xxvii. 

Boorde  on  the  Face. 

«  The  .133.  Chapitre  dothe  shewe  of 
a  mannes  face. 

I'^Acies  is  the  Latin  worde.  In  Greke  it  is  named  Prosopmi.  In 
^  Englyshe  it  is  named  a  face,  the  which  is  the  fayrest  thing  that 
euer  God  made  in  the  compasse  of  a  fote ;  and  it  is  a  wonderfuU 
thynge  to  beholde,  consyderynge  that  one  face  is  not  lyke  another. 
The  face  may  haue  many  impedimentes.  The  fyrst  impedyment  is  to 
se  a  man  hauyng  no  berde,  and  a  woman  to  haue  a  berde.  In  the 
face  maye  be  moles,  wertes,  the  morphewe,  ale  pockes,  saucefleme, 
dandrutfe,  skurfe,  scabbes,  pockes,  mesele,  fystles,  cankers,  swell- 
ynges.  For  all  suche  matters  loke  in  the  Chapitres  of  the  in- 

IT  A  remedy  to  mundifie  the  face. 
|^p°  To  clere,  to  dense,  and  to  mundifie  the  face,  vse  stufes  and 
bathes,  and  euery  mornyng  after  keymyng  of  the  head,  wype  the  face 
with  a  Skarlet  cloth,  and  washe  not  the  face  ofte,  but  ones  a  weke 
anoynt  the  face  a  lytle  ouer  with  the  oyle  of  Costine,  and  vse  to  eat 
Electuary  de  aromatibus,  or  the  confection  of  Anacardine,  or  the 
syrupe  of  Fumitery,  or  confection  of  Manna,  and  do  as  is  wrytten  in 
the  Chapitre  named  Pulchritudo." —Breu.  Fol.  xlix. 

96  BOORDE    ON    THE   PACE,    AND    TRUSTING   TO    NATURE.     [§  43.  5. 

§  43.  5.  Fourthly,  let  us  see  Boorde  as  a  physician :  some  of  the 
cases  in  which  he  specially  notes  his  own  treatment  of  diseases.^ 
But  we  should  observe,  first,  that  he  does  not,  like  a  very  popular 
modern  medical  work  for  mothers,  insist  that  for  every  little  ail- 
ment the  right  treatment  is  "  Send  for  a  duly  qualified  medical 
man."  For  blisters  (or  boils)  "  the  whiche  doth  ryse  in  the  nyght 
vnkyndely,"  Boorde  says  (fol.  Ixxxv.), 

Fyrst,  for  this  matter,  bcAvare  of  surfetyng,  and  late  eating 
and  drynkyng.  And  for  this  impediment,  I  do  neither  minister 
medecines  nor  yet  no  salues,  but  I  do  wrap  a  lytle  clout  ouer  or  aboute 
it ;  and  as  it  dothe  come,  so  I  do  let  it  go ;  for  and  a  man  shulde,  for 
euery  tryfle  sycknes  and  impediment,  runne  ^  to  the  Phisicion  or 
to  the  Chirurgion,  so  a  man  shuld  neuer  be  at  no  point  with  hym- 
selfe,  as  longe  as  he  doth  lyue.  In  great  matters  aske  substancial 
counsel! ;  and  as  for  small  matters,  let  them  passe  ouer." 

And  he  repeats  the  advice  again,  under  "A  White  Flaws,"  Fol. 
Ixxxx.  back. 

"  I  wolde  not  councel  a  man  for  euery  tryfle  sycknes  to  go  to 
Phisike  or  Chierurgy :  let  nature  operate  in  suche  matters  in  expul- 
synge  suche  humours,  and  medle  no  further." 

So  also  under  "  A  Blast  in  the  Eye,"  Fol.  C.xxi.  back,  he  says : 

"  I  myghte  here  shewe  of  many  salubriouse  medecines,  but  the 
best  medecine  that  I  do  knowe  is,  to  lette  the  matter  alone,  and 
medle  nat  with  it,  but  were  before  the  eyes  a  pece  of  blacke  sarcenet, 
and  eate  neyther  garlycke  nor  onyons,  nor  drynke  no  wynes  nor 
stronge  ale,  and  it  wyll  were  awaye." 

JBoorde's  treatment  of  Itch : — A  good  Pair  of  Nails. 

"  If  The  .292.  Chapitre  doth  shewe  of  Itchynge. 

PRurigo  is  the  latin  word.     In  Englyshe  it  is  named  itching  of  a 
mans  body,  skyn,  or  fleshe. 

%  The  cause  of  this  impedimente. 

IT  This  impediment  doth  come  of  corrupcion  of  euyll  bloud,  the 
which  wolde  be  out  of  the  fleshe ;  it  may  also  come  of  fleume  myxt 
with  corrupt  bloud,  the  which  doth  putrifie  the  fleshe,  and  so  conse- 
quently the  skyn. 

'  See  that  of  Stone,  p.  80.  '  shulde  runne,  orlg. 


A  remedy. 

This  I  do  aduertise  euery  man,  for  this  matter  to  ordeyne  or 
prepare  a  good  payre  of  nayles,  to  crache  and  clawe,  and  to  rent  & 
teare  the  skynne  and  the  fleshe,  that  the  corrupt  bloud  niaye  rimne 
out  of  the  fleshe ;  and  vse  than  purgacions  and  stuphes  &  sweates ; 
and  beware,  reuerberate  not  the  cause  inwarde  with  no  oyntment,  nor 
clawe  nat  the  skyn  with  fyshye  fyngers,  but  washe  the  handes  to  bed- 
warde." — Breu,  Fol.  Ixxxxvi.  back. 

So  under  Pruritits  he  says  : 

"  For  this  mater  ordeyne  a  good  payre  of  nayles  and  rent  the  skyn 
and  teare  the  fleshe  and  let  out  water  and  bloude." — Fol.  Ixxxxvi. 

Booi'de's  treatment  of  Tertian  Fever. 

"  The  medecines  the  whiche  dothe  helpe  the  Feuer  causon,  wyl 
helpe  a  Feuer  terciane.  Fyrste  purge  coler,  and  .iii.  or  .iiii.  houres 
before  the  fytte  dothe  come,  I  do  thus.  I  cause  a  man  to  lye  in  his 
doublet,  and  a  woman  in  her  waste  cote,  then  do  I  cause  them  to 
put  on  a  payre  of  gloues,  &  with  .ii.  garters  I  do  bynde  the  wrestes 
of  the  armes,  and  do  lay  theyr  armes  and  handes  into  the  bedde,  & 
do  cast  on  clothes  to  brynge  theym  to  a  sweate  before  the  fyt  do  come 
.iii.  or  .iiii.  houres ;  and  out  of  Gose  quylles,  one  put  into  an  other, 
they  do  take  theyr  drynke,  because  they  shall  take  no  ayer  into  the 
bed ;  then  I  do  geue  them  fyrst  an  ale  brue,  and  suff'er  them  to  drynke 
as  muche  Posset  ale  as  they  wyl ;  &  when  the  burnyng  do  begyn,  I 
do  withdrawe  the  clothes ;  and  thus  I  do  .iii.  courses,  &  haue  made 
many  hundredes  whole ;  but  theyr  good  dayes  I  do  nat  sufii-e  them  to 
go  in  the  open  ayer." — Fol.  li. 

Boorde^s  treatment  of  Scurf. 

"  IT  For  this  matter  I  do  take  .iii.  vnces  of  Bores  grece,  the 
skynnes  pulled  out ;  than  I  do  put  to  it  an  vnce  of  the  pouder  of 
Oyster  shelles  burnt,  and  of  the  pouder  of  Brymstone,  and  .iii.  vnces 
of  Mercury  mortified  with  fastyng  spetyl ;  compounde  al  this  togy- 
ther,  &  anoynt  the  body  .iii.  or  .iiii.  tymes,  &  take  an  easy  purgacion." 
— Fol.  IxxiiL 

Curding  of  Milk  in  WomerCs  Breasts. 

"  If  the  niylke  be  curded  in  the  brestes,  some  olde  auctours  wyll 
gyue  repercussiues ;  I  wolde  not  do  so,  I  do  thus :  I  do  take  Dragagant^, 
and  gumine  Arabycke,  and  do  compounde  them  with  the  whyte  of 
rawe  egges,  and  the  oyle  of  violettes,  and  do  make  a  playster.  Or 
els  I  do  take  pytch,  and  do  lyquifye  it  in  the  oyle  of  Roses,  puttynge 
a  lytle  doues  dunge  to  it,  and  dregges  of  wyne  or  ale,  and  make 
playsters." — Fol.  Ixxv. 

'  Tragacanth,  a  gum. 

98    BOORDE  ON  women's  APPETITES  AND  ULCER  IN  THE  NOSE.     [§  43.  ^. 

Pregnant  Women^s  unnatural  Appetite. 
"  An  vnnaturall  appetyde  is  to  eate  and  drynke  at  all  tymes  with- 
out dewe  order,  or  to  desyre  to  eate  rawe  and  vnlefull  thynges,  as 
women  with  chylde  doth  and  such  lyke 

IT  A  remedy  for  women  that  haue  vnlefull  lustes. 

If  I  have  knowen  that  such  lustes  hath  ben  put  awaye  by  smel- 
lynge  to  the  sauer  of  theyr  owne  shoes,  when  they  be  put  of.  In 
such  lustes,  it  is  best  that  women  haue  theyr  desyre,  if  it  may  be 
gotten,  for  they  shal  neuer  take  surfet  by  such  lustes." — Fol.  xvi. 

Ulcer  in  the  Nose  ;  and  how  then  to  blow  your  Nose. 

The  .264.  Chapitre  doth  shewe  of  an 
vlcer  in  the  Nose. 

Zenai  is  the  Greke  worde.     In  latin  it  is  named  Vlcera  narium. 
In  Englyshe  it  is  named  an  Vlcer  or  sore^  in  the  nose. 


IF  The  cause  of  this  impediment. 

IF  This  impedimente  doth  come  of  a  fylthy  and  euyll  humour,  the 
which  doth  come  from  the  brayne  and  heade,  ingendred  of  reume  and 
corrupte  bloud. 

II  A  remedy. 

-\-  In  this  matter,  reume  must  be  purged,  as  it  dothe  appere  in  the 
Chapitre  named  Eeuma ;  than,  pycke  not  the  nose,  nor  tuche  it  not,  ex- 
cepte  vrgent  causes  causeth  the  contrary,  &  vse  gargarices  and  sternu- 
tacions.  I  wyll  councell  no  man  to  vse  vehement  or  extreme 
sternutacions  for^  perturbatyng  the  brayne.  Gentyl  sternutacions  is 
vsed  after  this  sorte.  Fyrst,  a  man  rysynge  from  slepe,  or  comynge 
sodenly  out  of  a  house,  and  lokynge  into  the  element  or  Sonne,  shal 
nese  twyse  or  thrise,  or  «ls  put  a  strawe  or  a  ryshe  into  the  nose,  and 
tyckle  the  ryshe  or  the  strawe  in  the  nose,  and  it  wyl  make  sternuta- 
cions :  the  ponder  of  Peper,  the  pouder  of  EUhorus  alhus,  simft  or 
blowen  into  the  nose,  dothe  make  quycke  sternutacions.  But  in  this 
matter  I  do  aduertise  euery  man  not  to  take  to  muche  of  these  ponders 
at  a  tyme,  for^  troblynge  the  seconde  principal  member^  whiche  is  the 
brayne.  and  they  the  whiche  wyll  not  nese,  stope  the  nosethrylles 
witli  the  fore  fynger  and  the  thome  vpon  the  nose,  and  nat  within 
the  nosethrylles ;  and  if  they  wold,  they  can  not  nese,  al  maner  of 
medecines  natwithstandyng ;  howe  be  it,  I  wolde  councell  all  men 
takyng  a  thynge  to  prouoke  suche  matters  to  make  no  restrictions." — 
Fol.  Ixxxviii.  back. 

'  eere,  t»rig.  ^  for  fear  of,  to  prevent.  ^  menber,  orig. 

§  43.  ^.]        BREUYARY   EXTRACTS.       ASTHMA,    rALSY,    EXCORIATION.        99 

Boarders  cure  for  Asthma. 

"  ^W  ^  confection  of  muske  is  good.  Also  loch^  depino,  loch  de 
squiUa,  locJi  alfescera  be  good,  and  so  is  the  sirupe  of  Isope,  and  the 
sirup  of  Calamint.  For  I  haue  practised  these  thynges,  and  haue 
sped  wel.  Fyrst  I  haue  made  a  ptysane  vnder  this  maner.  Take  of 
Enula  campane  rootes,  pycked  and  made  clene,  and  cut  in  slyces,  vii. 
vnces ;  of  the  rootes  of  Fenell  washed,  and  the  pyth  pulled  out  .vi.  or 
.vii.  vnces ;  of  Anes  sedes  halfe  a  pounde,  of  fygges  halfe  a  pounde ; 
of  greate  reasons,  the  stones  pulled  out,  a  quartron  of  a  pounde ;  of 
Isope  thre  good  handfulles,  of  barly  clensed  .v.  handefulles ;  seth  al 
this  togither  in  two  galons  of  runnyng  water,  to  halfe  a  galon.  And 
.XV.  dayes  I  haue  gyuen  to  my  pacyent,  mornynge,  noone,  and  nyght, 
ix.  sponefuUes  at  a  tyme ;  and  at  the  ,xv.  dayes  ende  I  haue  geuen 
pylles  of  Cochee,  and  after  that  I  haue  ministred  Dyasulfur,  and  haue 
made  many  whole.  Also  the  confection  of  Philonii  of  the  fyrst  in- 
uencion  is  good :  And  so  is  to  anoynt  the  stomake  with  the  oyle  of 
Philosophers,  named  in  latin  Oleum  philosophorum.  And  beware  of 
Nuttes,  Almons,  Chese  and  mylke,  and  colde.  And  the  pylles  of 
Agarycke  is  good  for  this  sycknes." — Fol.  xx. 

Boorde's  treatment  of  Falsi/. 

"  ^^  ^yrst,  vse  a  good  dyet,  and  eate  no  contagious  meates ;  and 
yf  nede  be,  vse  clysters,  and  anoynt  the  body  with  the  oyles  of  Laury 
and  Camomyll ;  but  whether  the  Palsy  be  vniuersal  or  perticuler,  I 
do  anoynte  the  body  with  the  oyle  of  Turpentine  compounds  with 
Aqua  vite,  and  vse  fricaciows  or  rubbynges  with  the  haiides,  as  one 
wolde  rub  with  grece  an  olde  payre  of  Botes,  not  hurtynge  the  skyn 
nor  the  pacient.  And  I  do  gyue  the  pacient  Treacle  with  the  ponder 
of  Peper,  or  els  Mitridatum  Avith  Peper ;  or  els  take  of  Diatriapipe- 
rion.  And  if  one  wyll,  he  may  rub  the  pacient  with  the  rotes  of 
Lylyes  brayed  or  stamped ;  after  that  vse  drye  stuphes,  as  the  pacient 
is  able  to  abyde.  Or  els,  take  a  Foxe,  and  with  the  skynne  and  all 
the  body  quartered,  and  with  the  herte,  lyuer  and  lunges,  and  the  fat- 
nes  of  the  intrayles,  stones  and  kydnes,  sethe  it  longe  in  runnynge 
water  with  Calamynt  and  Balme  and  Carawayes,  and  bath  the  pacient 
in  the  water  of  it ;  and  the  smell  of  a  Foxe  is  good  for  the  Palsy." — 
Fol.  Ixxxxi. 

Wood-powder,  Boorde^s  remedy  for  Excoriation. 

"  ^W  Anoynt  the  place  with  Vnguentum  ceridnum,  or  washe  the 
place  ofte  with  the  water  of  Eoch  alome,  and  then  caste  vpon  the 
place  the  pouder  of  a  Poste ;  and  if  one  wyll  not  washe  the  place 
with  the  water  of  Roche  alome,  washe  the  place  then  with  white 
wyne,  and  vse  the  fyne  pouder  of  a  Poste,  and  there  is  nothynge  wyll 
skyn  so  sone  as  it  wyll  do.     Parauenture  some  persons  readyng  this 

7  *  '  lozenge. 

100      BOORDE  ON  FOGEYNliiSS,  PRIAPISMUS,  WEBB  IN  THE  EYE.      [§  43.  B. 

boke,  specially  tliis  mater,  wyl  laughe  me  to  scorne ;  but  for  all  that, 
for  skynnynge  of  a  place  there  is  nothyng  shal  skyn  so  sone  as  it  wyl 
do  if  it  be  vsed,  excepte  the  place  be  to  miiche  vlcerated,  but  for  a 
mans  yerd  and  other  secrete  places,  I  haue  proued  this  pouder  to  be 
the  most  best." — Fol.  xlix. 

Boorde's  remedy  for  Fatness^  Fogeyness,  or  such  lyJce. 

The  best  remedy  that  I  do  knowe  is  to  vse  purgacions, 
and  with  mete  and  potages  of  sewes  is  to  eate  muche  Peper,  and  vse 
electuary  of  Lachar,  and  vse  gargarices  and  sternutacions,  as  it  is 
specified  in  the  Chapitre  named  Ozinei." — FoL  Ixxxxiii. 

Boorde  on  Priajyismus.     a. 

"^W  The  .282.  Chapitre  dothe  shewe  of  inuoluntary 
standynge  of  a  mannes  Yerd. 

PRiajnsmus  is  the  Greke  worde..   In  latin  it  is  named  Erectio  inuol- 
untaria  virge.     In  Englyshe  it  is  named  an  inuoluntary  stand- 
yng  of  a  mans  yerd. 

The  cause  of  this  impediment. 

This  impediment  doth  come  thorow  calidite  and  inflacions  from 
the  raynes  of  the  backe,  or  els  it  dothe  come  of  inflacions  of  the 
vaynes  in  the  yerde  and  stones;  it  may  come  by  the  vsage  of  venerious 

IT  A  remedy. 

1^°  Fyrst,  anoynt  the  yerde  and  coddes  with  the  oyle  of  luneper ; 
and  the  oyle  Camphoric  is  good.  And  so  is  Agnus  castus  brayed,  and 
made  in  a  playster,  and  layde  vpon  the  stones,  and  let  prestes  vse 
fastyng,  watchynge,  euyll  fare,  harde  lodgynge,  and  greate  study,  and 
fle  from  al  maner  of  occasions  of  Lechery,  and  let  them  smel  to  Rue, 
Vrneger  and  Camphire." — Fol.  Ixxxxiii.  back. 

/3.  Erection  of  the  yerde  to  synne.  A  remedy  for  that  is  to  leape 
into  a  greate  vessel  of  colde  water,  or  to  put  Nettles  in  the  codpeece 
about  the  yerde  and  stones.     Fol.  C.ii.^ 

Weh  in  the  Eye. 

"  4-  In  this  matter  there  is  .ii.  wayes  to  make  one  whole.  The 
first  is  by  wyndynge  or  cuttyng  awaye  the  webbe  with  an  instra- 
me7zt.  And  the  other  is  by  a  water  to  corrode  &  to  eate  away  the 
webbe.  it  maye  be  remedied  by  the  iuyce  of  Horehounde,  Oculus 
Christi,  and  Diaserys,  iniected  into  the  eye,  but  I  take  only  the  iuyce 
of  Horehonde;  &  the  iuyce  of  Lycoryce  iniected  in  the  eye  is  very 
good." — ^Fol.  Ixxxxvii.  back. 

*  bee  also  the  end  of  Chapter  77  on  CoituSy  Fol.  xxxii. 

§  43.  h.]      BREUYARY   EXTRACTS.   GUT-CAUL,  SAUCEFLEWME  FACE.   101 

Impediment  in  tJie  Eye. 

"I  myghte  here  shewe  of  many  salubriouse  medecines,  but 
the  best  medecine  that  I  do  knowe  is  to  lette  the  matter  alone,  and 
medle  nat  with  it,  but  were  before  the  eyes  a  pece  of  blacke  sarcenet, 
and  eate  neyther  garlycke  nor  onyons,  nor  drynke  no  wynes  nor 
stronge  ale,  and  it  wyll  were  awaye." — Fol.  C.xxi.  back. 

Boorde  on  the  Gut-caul. 

**|^p°  The  .384.  Chapitre  doth  shewe  of  a  Panniclo 
the  whiche  shalbe  rehersed. 

ZL'bus  is  the  latin  worde.  In  Englyshe  it  is  a  pannycle  or  a  caule 
compounde  of  ii.  thyn  tunicles  of  dyuers  artoures,  and  vaynes 
and  fatnesse ;  it  doth  couer  the  stomake  and  the  guttes,  and  it  doth 
kepe  the  heet  of  them,  and  doth  defende  the  cold :  this  pellicle  or 
pannycle  or  caule  may  be  relaxed  or  broken. 

The  cause  of  this  impedimente. 
IT  This  impediment  doth  come  of  some  great  strayne,  brose,  or 
fall,  or  some  greate  lyft,  or  suche  lyke  thynges. 

If  A  remedy. 
|^°  Fyrst  make  incision,  and  after  that  cauterise  the  abstraction ; 
and  I  haue  sene  the  cut  cauterised,  that  the  fluxe  of  bloud  shuld  nat 
folowe.  The  ouerplus  of  my  mynde  in  this  matter,  and  all  other 
matters,  I  do  commyt  it  to  the  industry  of  wyse  and  expert  Phisi- 
cions  and  Chierurgions." — Fol.  C.xxiiL 

For  the  sake  of  Chaucer's  Somonour, 

That  hadde  a  fyr  reed  Cberubynnes  face, 
ffor  sawcejieevi  he  was,  with  eyen  narwe. 
(^Canterbury  Tales,  Group  A,  §  1, 11. 624-5,  Ellesmere  MS,  Chaucer  Soc,  p.  18) 

I  add  Boorde's  two  chapters  on  the  disease. 

A  Saucefleiome  Face. 

**ir  The  .170.  Chapitre  dothe  shewe  of  a 
saucefleume  face. 

GVtia  rosacea  be  the  latin  wordes.     In  Englyshe  it  is  named  a 
sauce  fleume  face,  which  is  a  rednes  about  the  nose  and  the 
chekes,  with  small  pymples :  it  is  a  preuye  signe  of  leprousnes. 
^p°  The  cause  of  this  impediment. 
IT  This  impedyment  doth  come  of  euyl  dyet,  and  a  hote'lyuer,  or 
disorderynge  a  mans  complexion  in  his  youth,  watchynge  and  syt- 
tynge  vp  late. 

102      BOORDE   ON    A    SAUCEFLEWME   FACE.      ON    THE   SOUL.       [§  43.  5,  t. 

IT  A  remedy. 
Fyrst,  kepe  a  good  dyet  in  meates  &  drynkes,  drynke  no  wyne, 
feade  nat  of  fresh e  befe,  eate  no  shell  fyshes,  beware  of  Samon  & 
Eles,  and  egges,  and  qualyfie  the  heate  of  the  Lyuer  and  the  stomake 
with  the  confection  of  Acetose,  and  than  take  this  oyntemewt :  take 
of  Bores  grece  .ii.  vnces,  of  Sage  pouned  smal,  an  vnce  and  a  halfe, 
of  Quycke  syluer  mortified  with  fastynge  spetyll,  an  vnce ;  compounde 
all  this  togyther,  and  momynge  and  euenynge  anoynte  the  face,  &  kepe 
the  chamber  .vii.  dayes :  or  els,  take  of  Burre  rotes  and  of  Affodyl 
rotes,  of  eyther  .ii.  vnces,  of  white  vinegar  .ii.  vnces,  of  Auripigment 
.ii.  drames,  of  Brymstone  a  drame ;  make  ponder  of  al  that,  that 
shulde  be  made  ponder  of;  than  put  al  togyther,  and  let  it  stande 
.xxiiii.  houres,  and  after  that  anoynte  the  nose  and  the  face." — Fol. 
Ix.  back. 

"I®°  The  .311.  Chapitre  dothe  shewe  of  a  Sau- 
cefleume  face. 

SAlsum  flegma  be  the  latin  wordes.     In  Englyshe  it  is  named  a 
sausefleume    face,  whiche  is    a  token   or   a   preuy   sygne   of 

^P°  The  cause  of  this  infirmite. 
This  infirmytie  doth  come  eyther  of  the  calydytie  or  heate  of 
the  lyuer,  or  els  of  the  malice  of  the  stomake  :  it  doth  most  comonly 
come  of  euyll  dyet,  and  late  drynkynge,  and  great  surfetynge. 
1^"  A  remedy. 
^  Take  of  Bores  grece — the  skyn  and  straynes  clene  pycked  out — 
an  vnce,  of  Sage  fynely  stamped  an  handfull,  of  Mercury  mortified 
with  fastyng  spetyl,  an  vnce ;  incorporate  al  this  togyther,  and  anoynt 
the  face  to  bedward.     In  the  mornyng  wype  the  face  with  browne 
paper  that  is  softe,  and  washe  nat  the  face  in  .vi.  or  .vii.  dayes,  and 
kepe  the  pacient  close  out  of  the  wynde." — Fol.  C.i.  back. 

§  43.  £.  Fifthly,  and  lastly,  let  us  see  our  author  in  his  serious 

"  IF  The  .22.  Chapitre  doth  shewe  of  the  soule  of  man. 

ANima  is  the  latin  worde.  In  Greeke  it  is  named  Psichae.  In 
Englyshe  it  is  named  the  soule  of  manne.  The  soule  of  man  is 
the  lyfe  of  the  bodye,  for  when  the  soule  is  departed  from  the  body, 
the  body  is  but  a  deade  thynge  that  can  not  se,  heare,  nor  feele. 
The  soule  can  not  be  felte  nor  sene,  for  it  is  lyke  the  nature  of  an 
Angell,  hauynge  wyll,  wyt,  wysdome,  reason,  knowledge  and  vnder- 
standynge.  And  is  partaker  of  good  or  euyll,  as  the  bodye  and  it 
doth  or  hath  deserued  or  operated.  The  soule  also  is  a  creature  made 
with  man  and  connexed  to  man,  for  man  is  of  .ii.  natures,  which  is 
to  say,  the  nature  of  the  soule,  and  the  nature  of  the  body,  whiche 

§  43.  c]  BREUYARY   EXTRACTS.       THE   SOUL.       FREE-WILL.  103 

is  flcshe  and  bloud,  the  fleshe  or  body  is  palpyble  and  may  be  aene 
and  felte.  The  soule  is  not  palbyble  nor  can  not  be  sene  nor  felt,  but 
both  beyng  together  nowe  and  shalbe  after  the  generall  resurrection 
in  tynie  to  come,  doth,  and  shal  do,  fele  ioy  or  payne,  &c. 

It  is  not  the  soule  onely  doth  make  a  man,  nor  the  body  of  a  man 
is  a  man,  but  soule  and  bodye  connexed  or  ioyned  together  maketh  a 
man.  And  the  one  decepered  from  the  other  be  of  .ii.  natures  as  I 
haue  sayd,  vnto  the  tyme  that  they  do  mete  againe  at  the  day  of 
dome.  Ther  fore  let  euery  man  in  this  lyfe  so  prouide  by  the  meryte 
of  Chrystes  passion  that  soule  and  body  beynge  perfite  man  may 
enter  into  euerlastynge  ioy  and  glory  to  be  in  heauen  with  God.  The 
electuary  of  Gemmis :  and  the  confection  named  Alcliermes  be  good 
to  comforte  the  soule  or  the  spirites  of  man,  soule  and  body  beynge 
together  here  in  earth." — Fol.  xiiii.  back. 

The  Apendex  to  all  the  premisses 
that  foloweth. 

LOrdes,  Ladies,  and  Gentylmen,  learned  and  vnlerned,  of  what 
estate  or  degree  so  euer  you  be  of,  thynke  not  that  no  man  can 
be  holpen  by  no  maner  of  medecynes,  yf  so  be  God  do  sende  the 
sicknes ;  for  he  hath  put  a  tyme  to  euery  man,  ouer  the  which  tyme 
no  man  by  no  art  nor  science  can  not  prolonge  the  time :  for  the  nom- 
ber  of  the  monthes  and  dayes  of  mans  lyfe,  God  knoweth.  But  this 
aforesayde  tyme,  these  monthes  and  dayes,  a  man  may  shorten  or 
abreuiate  many  wayes,  concerning  that  God  hath  geuen  man  in  this 
lyfe  free  "wyl,  the  whiche  of  his  ryghteousnes,  as  longe  as  we  do  lyue, 
he  can  not  take  it  awaye  from  vs.  Nowe,  we  hauyng  this  free  wyll, 
dyuers  tymes  we  do  not  occupy  it  to  the  wyll  of  God,  as  it  appereth, 
both  for  soule  and  body  ;  we  do  kyll  our  soules  as  much  as  doth  lye  in 
vs,  when  that  we  do  breake  any  of  his  commaundementes,  or  do 
synne  deadly ;  for  that  matter  he  hath  prouided  a  spirituall  medecine, 
whiche  is,  repentaunce  with  penaunce.  Also  we  do  kyll  our  bodyes 
as  much  as  lyeth  in  vs  (excepte  that  a  man  do  kyl  hyni  selfe  wylfully, 
as  many  dayly  doth,  contrary  to  Goddes  wyll)  as  wel  the  one  as  the 
other,  when  a  manne  doth  abreuiate  his  lyfe  by  surfettynge,  by  dronk- 
ennes,  by  pencyfulnes,  by  thought  and  care,  by  takyngc  the  pockes 
with  women,  and  leprousnes,  and  many  other  infectious  sickenesscs, 
beside  robbyng,  fyghtyng,  kyllyng,  and  many  other  myschaunces, 
whiche  is  not  Goddes  wyl  that  such  thinges  shuld  be  done ;  but  God, 
knowynge  at  the  begynnyng  of  the  creacion  of  the  worlde,  that  man 
wolde  be  prone  many  wayes  to  abreuiate  his  lyfe,  made  then  prouision 
that  man  might  be  holpen,  by  his  grace,  and  then,  the  vertue  the 
whiche  he  dyd  gyue  to  herbes,  wedes,  trees,  rootes,  frutes,  and  stones. 
The  propertie  and  vertue  of  the  whiche,  fewe  men  or  none  doth 
knowe  them,  except  doctours  of  phisicke,  and  such  as  doth  Labour 
to  haue  the  knowledge  of  theyr  operacions.  And  this  knowledge 
notwithstandynge,  let  no  man  thynke  that  there  is  no  Phisicion  nor 

104  boorde's  advice  to  the  sick  and  dying.  [§  43.  e. 

CLiemrgion  can  make  a  man  sodenly  wliole  of  his  infyrmytie,  as 
Cliryst  and  his  disciples  and  manye  other  sayntes  dyd ;  for  they  must 
haue  leysure  tyme  and  space  as  theyr  lerning  and  practise  is ;  for  sycke 
men  and  women  be  lyke  a  pece  of  rustye  harnys,  the  whiche  can 
not  be  made  bryght  at  the  fyrst  scourynge ;  but  lette  a  man  continewe 
in  rubbynge  and  scourynge,  and  than  the  harnys  wyll  be  bryghte ;  so 
in  lyke  maner  a  sycke  man  can  not  be  made  whole  of  his  malady  or 
syckenes  the  fyrst  day,  but  he  must  continewe  with  his  medecines. 
But  here  let  euery  man  that  is  sycke,  beware  of  blynd  Phisicions  and 
Chierurgions  the  which  be  ignoraunt,  and  can  not  tel  what  thynges 
doth  parteyne  to  their  science ;  and  therfore  let  al  men  be  ware  of 
vagabundes  and  ronagates  that  wyl  sniatter  with  Physicke,  for  by 
such  persons  many  sycke  men  haue  ben  deceyued,  the  more  pytie, 
God  knoweth  !  who  helpe  vs  al  nowe  and  euer !     Amen  1" 

"IT  A  Preamble  to  sicke  men  and  to  those 
that  be  wounded. 

I  Do  aduertise  euery  sicke  man,  and  al  other  men  the  which  hath 
any  infirmitie,  sickenes,  or  impediment,  aboue  all  thynges  to 
pacyfye  hym  selfe,  or  to  arme  hym  selfe  with  pacyence,  and  to  fyxe 
his  harte  and  mynde  in  Christes  death  and  passion,  and  to  call  to  his 
remembrance,  what  peynes,  what  aduersyte,  and  what  penury,  and 
pouerty  Chryst  dyd  suffer  for  vs.  And  he  that  can  thus  pacyfy  him 
selfe,  and  fele  his  owne  peyne  in  Chrystes  passyon,  shall  mittigate 
his  peynes  and  anguyshe,  be  it  neuer  so  greate.  And  therefore  let 
euery  sycke  person  stycke  as  fast  to  Christe  in  his  peynes  and  sicke- 
nes, as  Christ  dyd  stycke  fast  to  the  Crosse  for  our  sinnes  and  re- 
dempcion.  And  then  if  the  pacient  wyl  haue  any  councell  in 
Phisicke  :  fyrste  let  hym  call  to  him  his  spirituall  Phisicion,  which  is 
his  goostly  father,  and  let  him  make  his  conscience  cleane,'  and  that 
he  be  in  perfyte  loue  and  charitie ;  and  yf  he  haue  done  any  wronge, 
let  him  make  restitucion  yf  he  cjan ;  and  yf  he  be  in  dette,  let  him 
loke  to  it,  and  make  a  formal  wyl  or  testament,  settyng  euery  thynge 
in  a  dewe  order  for  the  welth  of  his  soule, — wyse  men  be  sure  of  theyr 
testamentes  makynge  many  yeres  before  they  dye,  and  dothe  renewe 
it  once  a  yere  as  they  increase  or  decrease  in  gooddcs  or  substance. — 
All  these  aforesayd  thynges  goostly  and  godly  prouided  for  the  soule, 
Then  let  the  pacient  prouyde  for  his  body,  and  take  councel  of  some 
expert  phisicion,  howe  &  in  what  wyse  the  body  may  be  recouered  of 
his  infirmitie,  and  than  to  commyt  his  body  to  the  industry  of  his 
Phisicion,  and  at  al  tymes  redy  to  folow  the  wil,  mynde,  and  councell 
of  his  Phisicion,  for  who  so  euer  wyll  do  the  contrary,  saynt  Augus- 
tine sayth,  Seipsum  interimit  qui  jpi^ecepta  medici  ohseriiare  non  vidt^ 
that  is  to  save.  He  doth  kyll  hym  selfe  that  doth  not  obserue  the 
commaundement  of  his  Phisition." 

(The  reader  should  now  turn  to  the  Hindwords,  p.  317.) 

§  44.]  FOREWORDS.      CHARACTER   OP   ANDREW   BOORDE.  105 

§  44.  If  any  one  groans  over  the  length  of  these  extracts,  he 
can  relieve  himself  by  skipping  them,  and  losing  the  chance  of 
knowing  Boorde  -well.  But  if  he  reads  them  all  through,  as  well  as 
the  books  following,  I  think  he'll  find  Andrew  Boorde  worth  know- 
ing, a  man  at  times  of  great  seriousness  and  earnestness,  yet  withal 
of  a  pleasant  humour ;  reproving  his  countrymen's  vices,  and  ridicul- 
ing their  follies  ;  exhorting  them  to  prepare  for  their  latter  end,  and 
yet  to  enliven  their  present  days  by  honest  mirth.  A  man  eager  to 
search  out  and  know  the  truth  of  things,  restless  in  that  search, 
wandering  far  and  often  to  see  for  himself.  Yet  a  man  bound  by 
many  of  the  superstitions  of  his  time,  though  also  free  from  many; 
not  "  a  lewd  Popish  hypocrite  and  ungratious  priest,"  as  Harrison 
calls  him,  but  a  man  genuine  in  his  piety  as  well  as  his  love  of  good 
ale  and  wine,  and  mirt}#;  clever,  able  to  take-in  a  Scotchman;  at 
times  weak  and  versatile,  showing  off  occasionally,  readily  helping 
strangers,  chancing  to  get  drunk,  falling  into  sexual  excess — having, 
like  his  sex,  "  bursts  of  great  heart  and  slips  in  sensual  mire," — yet 
sound  at  the  core,  a  pleasant  companion  in  many  of  England's  most 
memorable  days,  worthy,  with  all  his  faults,  of  respect  and  regard 
from  our  Victorian  time.  Any  one  who  would  make  him  a  mere 
Merry- Andrew,  or  more  of  that  than  anything  else,  is  a  bigger  fool 
than  he  would  make  Boorde.     (See  the  Hindwards,  p.  317.) 

§  45.  That  Boorde  and  his  writings  were  esteemed  by  his  con- 
temporaries, we  have  seen,  by  his  appointment  as  Suffragan  Bishop  of 
Chichester,  his  attendance  on  Sir  Robert  Drury  and  the  Duke  of 
Norfolk,  his  waiting  on  Henry  VIII,  his  connection  with  Cromwell, 
Barnes's  account  of  great  people  resorting  to  him,  the  evident 
references  to  his  books  in  Wilson's  Rhetorique  (p.  116,  below), 
"  doctor  Boords  breuiary  of  health  "  being  in  Captain  Cox's  Library,^ 
and  Harrison's  mention  of  the  Introduction  of  Knowledge,  and  of  the 
Dyetary  (if  *  parks '  mean  *  pleasure  for  harte  &  hynde,  &c.') : — 

"An  Englishman,  indeuoring  sometime  to  write  of  our  attire, 
made  sundrie  platformes  for  his  purpose,  supposing  by  some  of  them 
to  find  out  one  stedfast  ground  whereon  to  build  the  summe  of  his 

'  It's  the  last  in  the  list  of  the  Captain's  books.  See  p.  .SO  of  my  edition 
of  Cajptain  Cox,  or  LanchanCs  Letter,  for  the  Ballad  Society,  1870. 

106  WM   HARRISON    IN    1577-86    ON    ANDREW   BOORDE.      [§  45,  46. 

discourse.  But  in  the  end  (like  an  oratour  long  without  exercise) 
when  he  saw  what  a  difficult  peece  of  work  he  had  taken  in  hand, 
he  gaue  ouer  his  trauell,  and  onelie  drue  the  picture  of  a  naked  man, 
vnto  whome  he  gaue  a  paire  of  sheares  in  the  one  hand,  and  a  peece 
of  cloth  in  the  other,  to  the  end  he  shuld  shape  his  apparell  after 
such  fashion  as  himselfe  liked,  sith  he  could  find  no  kind  of  garment 
that  could  please  him  anie  while  togither,  and  this  he  called  an  Eiig- 
Andrew  Hshmau.  Ccrtcs  this  writer  (otherwise  being  a  lewd  [*  popish 
Boord  hypocrite]  and  vngratious  priest)  shewed  himself  herein  not 
to  be  [altogether]  void  of  iudgement,  sith  the  phantasticall  follie  of 
our  nation,  [euen  from  the  courtier  to  the  carter]  is  such,  that  no 
forme  of  apparell  liketh  vs  longer  than  the  first  garment  is  in  the 
wearing,  if  it  continue  so  long  and  be  not  laid  aside,  to  receiue  some 
other  trinket  newlie  deuised  by  the  fickle-headed  tailors,  who  couet  to 
haue  seuerall  trickes  in  cutting,  thereby  to  draw  fond  customers  to 
more  expense  of  monie  .  .  .  the  Morisco  gownes,  the  Barbarian  sleeues, 
[the  mandilion  worne  to  Collie  weston  ward,  and  the  short  French 
breches]  make  such  a  comelie  vesture,  that  except  it  were  a  dog  in  a 
doublet,  you  shall  not  see  anie  so  disguised,  as  are  my  countrie-men 
of  England." — Harrison's  Description  of  Englandy  ed.  1586,  p. 

"  these  dales,  wherein  Andrew  Boorde  saith  there  are  more  parks 
in  England  than  in  all  Europe  (ouer  which  he  trauelled  in  his  owne 
person),"  ih.  p.  205,  col.  2.     See  below,  p.  274. 

Traditions  of  Boorde  linger  in  Sussex,^  whose  anti-nightingale 
forest  of  St  Leonards,  its  keepers  and  nigh-dwellers  he  knew,^  and 
the  Sussex  Archaeological  Society  has  revived  the  memory  of  him  in 
our  day.  Though  Warton  thought  that  his  Dyetary  was  the  only 
work  that  would  interest  posterity,  yet  Upcott's  repriht  of  his  Intro- 
dtiction  showed  that  that  book  too  had  plenty  of  amusement  and 
information  in  it  (see  p.  36,  above),  while  the  present  volume  testifies 
to  the  value  of  both  works,  as  well  as  that  of  the  Breuyary,  which 
contains  some  of  his  most  characteristic  passages,  and  will,  I  hope, 
soon  find  an  antiquarian  doctor  as  an  editor. 

§  46.  The  present  reprint  of  the  Fyrst  Boke  of  the  Irdroduction 
of  Knowledge  is  made,  as  I  have  said  at  p.  19,  from  Mr  Christie- 
Miller's  unique  copy  of  William  Coplande's  first  edition  printed  at 
the  Rose-Garland  in  Fleet  Street  in  1547  or  -8,  collated  with  his 
second  of  1562  or  -3,  printed  in  Lothbury.    My  thanks  are  due  1.  to 

'  The  square  brackets  [  ]  show  the  new  matter  inserted  in  the  2n(l  oditiou 
of  1586.  '  M.  A.  Lower,  in  Sussex  Archccol.  Collect io7is,  vi. 

'  Introduction,  p.  121. 

§  46.]         FOREWORDS.       THE   WOODCUTS    OF   THE   INTRODUCTION.  107 

Mr  Christie-Miller  for  his  kindness  and  hospitality  to  Mr  Hooper 
and  myself;  and  2.  to  the  Committee  of  the  Chetham  Library,  and 
their  Librarian,  Mr  Jones,  for  lending  me  their  very  rare  Lothbury 
volume,  and  enabling  Mr  W.  H.  Hooper  to  copy  all  the  cuts  in  it, 
of  which  Upcott  had  only  a  few  copied.  The  reader  will  see  that 
the  same  cut  often  serves  for  men  of  different  countries.  Mr 
Hooper  says : 

"  A  Man  with  a  hawk,  and  a  Peasant  with  long-handled  bill  over 
his  shoulder,  are  used,  Chap.  6,  p.  143,  in  the  Lothbury  edition  (B) 
for  'Norway  and  Islonde,'  Ch.  8,  p.  146;  both  in  A  (the  Rose- 
Garland  edition)  and  B,  for  *  Flaunders,'  changing  places  right  and 
left;  and  the  hawker  appears  again  at  Ch.  14,  'high  Almayne,'  in 
both  A  and  B. 

A  dinner  party  illustrates  Ch.  9,  p.  148,  *  Selande  and  Holand,' 
and  Ch.  13,  p.  155,  'base  Almayne,'  in  both  A  and  B. 

A  man  with  a  cloak  very  jauntily  thrown  over  his  shoulder  re- 
presents in  B,  Ch.  16,  p.  165,  '  Saxony;'  Ch.  30,  p.  198,  'Spaine;' 
Ch.  33,  p.  206,  'Bion;'  and  Ch.  38,  p.  217,  'Egypt.' 

f  A  bearded  man  in  a  skull-cap  and  long  coat,  Ch.  19,  p.  170,  is 
'Hungary,'  and  Ch.  26,  p.  188,  a  Genoese;  at  Ch.  19,  p.  170,  he 
is  in  company  with  a  bird  in  a  tree  that  appears  at  Ch.  15  as  a  pro- 
duction of '  Denmarke.' 

A  turbaned  figure,  half-length,  is  in  both  A  and  B,  as,  Ch.  20, 
p.  171,  'Greece;'  Ch.  23,  p.  175,  'Italy;'  and  Ch.  24,  p.  181, 
'  Venis  ; '  with  two  little  gi'oups  in  this  last  instance. 

A  crowned  head,  half-length,  stands  in  B  for  (Ch.  21)  'Sicell;* 
Ch.28,p.l94, 'Catalony;'  Ch.  31,  p.  199, 'Castile  &biscay;'  Ch.  32, 
p.  202,  *  Nauer  ;'  while  in  A,  two  cuts  do  duty  for  the  four  countries. 

A  grave  and  learned  individual  in  a  long  robe  stands  alone,  Ch. 
25,  for  'Lombardye,'  p.  186  ;  and  at  Ch.  35,  p.  209,  he  enacts  'The 
latyn  man '  so  well  that  the  '  englyshma7i '  takes  off  his  hat  to  him. 

t  The  foresaid  long-coated  man  in  Ch.  19  and  26  is  very  like  the 
man  labelled  Dr  Boorde  in  Barnes  in  the  defence  of  the  Berde ;  so 
like  that  I  think  it  is  hardly  worth  while  to  cut  another. 

The  cuts  for  this  book  seem  to  have  been  got  together  from  all 
quarters.  The  Englishman  in  the  first  chapter  may  have  been  cut 
for  the  work :  there  is  a  bluff  King-Hal  sort  of  a  look  about  him 
that  suggests  the  period.^  But  the  Irishman  is  so  knocked  about 
that  it  is  certain  he  is  '  written  up  to,'  ^  as  the  publishers  have  it  now- 
a-days.  They  look  to  me  an  odd  lot  in  every  sense  of  the  word ; 
for  some  seem  printed  from  the  wood,  while  others  are  from  casts, 
e.g.  the  Scot  is  bruised  at  the  edges,  and  the  ends  of  the  ground-lines 
are  thickened,  just  as  old  '  stereos  '  wear.     Some  of  the  blocks  seem 

'  The  cut  of  the  Frenchman,  p.  190,  seems  to  me  of  the  period  too. — F. 
*  No  1  The  Irishmau's  parasites  were  well  known, — F. 

108  THE   WOODCUTS   OF   THE   INTRODUCTION.  [§    46. 

to  be  much  older  than  the  date  of  the  book,  m  they  are  wormed,  and 
damaged  by  use." 

Ou  turning  to  Wynkyn  de  Worde's  print  of  HyckescorneTy  for 
my  edition  of  Laneham,  I  found,  on  the  back  of  the  title,  two  of  our 
Introduction  cuts.  The  man  who  in  the  Lothbury  edition  does  duty 
for  Saxony,  Spain,  Bayonne,  and  Egypt,  p.  165,  206,  &c.,  figures  in 
Hyckescorner  as  "  Imagyna{cyon],"  while  the  long-coated  man  used  by 
Copland  for  the  Hungarian  (p.  170),  and  the  Genoese  (p.  188),  and 
by  Wyer  for  Boorde  (p.  305),  is  Wynkyn  de  Worde's  "Pyte."  In 
T?Le  Enterlude  of  Youthy  printed  by  William  Coplande  at  Lothbury 
(after  the  Rose-Garland  Introduction)^  Boorde's  Dane,  p.  162,  is  used 
for  "  Humility"  (though  he  has  no  name  over  his  head) ;  and 
Boorde's  Bohemian,  p.  166,  is  used  for  "Youth." 

In  like  manner  the  cut  used  for  Andrew  Boorde  himself  i,  Intro- 
ductioUy  Ch.  VII,  p.  143,  below,  is  merely  an  old  cut  of  some  one  else, 
with  a  corner  cut  out,  and  Boorde's  name  let  down  into  it ;  a  fact  ob- 
scured by  Upcott's  woodcutter,  who  evidently  thought  the  break  in  the 
top  line  ugly,  and  so  filled  it  up.  This  "  portrait  (as  is  well  observed 
by  Herbert,  in  his  MS  memoranda)  is  introduced  for  one  of  Skelton 
in  the  frontispiece  to  *  Certaine  bookes  co?wpiled  by  maister  Skelto??, 
Poet  Laureat,  printed  by  Kynge  and  Marshe.'  " — A  mes  (ed.  Dibdin, 
1816),  iii.  160.  Many  of  the  Boorde  cuts  are  used  in  the  titleless 
copy  of  the  Shepherd's  Kalendar  in  the  British  Museum,  which  I 
claim  as  Copland's  (p.  25,  above) ;  and  most  have,  no  doubt,  an 
earlier  continental  history.  That  on  p.  208  is  part  of  Wynkyn  de 
Worde's  '  Robert  the  DeuyU.' 

Again,  the  2-men  cut  of  Galen  and  another  man  in  Boorde's 

Dyetary,  p.  232,  below,  is  used  on  the  title-page  of  a  little  tract  in 

4  leaves   in   the  British  Museum,   "Imprynted   by  me  Rycharde 

Banckes,"  and  called  "  The  practyse  of  Cyrurgyons  of  Mountpyller  : 

and  of  other  that  neuer  came  there."     It  is  chiefly  on  the  treatment 

of  skull-wounds. 

'  The  cut  on  the  title-page  of  the  Introductwn,  which  Mr  W.  C.  Hazlitt 
calls  one  *of  two  serving-men  conversing,'  is  stated  by  him  to  have  been 
copied  on  the  title-page  of  '  The  doctrynall  of  good  sei'vauntoH.  Impryntcd  at 
London  in  Flete  strete,  at  the  sygne  of  Saynt  Johau  Euangelyste,  by  me 
Johan  Butler  [^circa  1550]  4to.  4  leaves.  In  verse.'  Dr  Kimbault  re-edited 
this  tract  for  the  Percy  Society.     The  cut  is  also  in  Frcderyke  of  Jcnncn. 

§    46.]  FOREWORDS.       THE   DYETARY  AND    ITS    INITIALS.  109 

To  our  member,  Mr  Henry  Hucks  Gibbs, — an  old  friend  and 
helper  of  Herbert  Coleridge  and  myself  in  our  Dictionary  work 
since  1858, — I  am  indebted  for  the  ready  loan  of  his  copy — unique, 
so  far  as  I  know — of  the  1542  edition  of  Boorde's  Dyetary  from 
which  the  reprint  in  the  present  volume  is  taken.  It  has  been  col- 
lated with  the  undated  edition  by  Robert  Wyer  in  the  British 
Museum,  and  also  with  the  edition  of  1547  (colophon  1567)  by 
Wyllyam  Powell.  Mr  W.  H.  Hooper  has  copied  the  cuts  for  this 
tract  too,  and  wishes  to  call  attention  to  the  two  of  St  John  at  the 
end  of  it  and  on  the  title-page.  That  on  the  title  is  evidently  from 
a  cast  of  the  block  of  that  in  the  colophon,  which  cast  has  been  cut 
down,  and  had  another  ornament  put  at  the  side  of  it,  with  a  line 
atop,  just  as  Mr  Hooper  has  made  the  facsimile  now.  Mr  Hooper 
has  further  evidence  which  proves  clearly  to  him  as  a  woodcutter, 
that  our  old  printers  in  the  16th  century  could  cast,  and  used  casts, 
as  we  do,  though  of  course  to  a  less  extent. 

Of  the  big  initial  letters  used  in  the  Dyetary ^  Mr  Hooper  has  cut 
all  but  five,  of  which  he  thought  the  designs  much  less  good  than 
those  he  has  cut,  and  one  extra-big  A  of  the  same  pattern  as  the 
smaller  one  used  on  page  234,  &c.,  below,  which  latter  he  has  copied. 
The  only  other  alterations  in  the  text  are,  that  the  contractions  have 
been  expanded  in  italics  according  to  our  rule, — a  as  a?^,  y*  as  thaty 
&c., — and  that  the  first  letters  of  proper  names,  and  the  stops,  have 
been  conformed  to  modern  usage. 

§  47.  For  all  the  materials  of  these  Forewords  I  am  indebted  to 
Boorde^s  own  books,  and  to  the  workers  who  have  preceded  me  in 
the  field,  Wood,  Bliss,  Ellis,  Lower,  Cooper,  Rimbault,  Hazlitt,  &c. 
To  the  latter  I  feel  grateful,  though  I  have  expressed  freely  some  of 
my  differences  from  them.  My  task  has  been  only  to  get  to  their 
authorities,  keep  to  these  without  straggling  into  guesses,  and  work 
into  them  Boorde's  own  statements  in  his  different  books.  The 
number  of  supposes  and  probables  is  still  lamentably  great ;  I  hope 
they  will  be  lessened  by  the  future  volumes  of  Professor  Brewer's 
admirable  Calendar,  or  some  other  antiquarian  publication  of  this 
age,  which  is  setting  itself,  with  more  or  less  vigour,  to  get  at  all  the 
facts  it  can  about  the  men  and  speech  of  Early  and  Middle  England. 


The  notes  I  have  added  would  have  been  longer  and  better,  had 
I  been  at  home  among  my  books,  but  this,  and  divers  other  bits  of 
work,  have  dawdled  on  during  our  four-months'  stay  here,  from  the 
time  when  I  began  to  write  in  the  garden,  with  the  lovely  lilacs 
round  me,  and  the  hum  of  bees,  till  all  the  roses  have  gone,  and  the 
fresh  green  of  the  grass  is  brown.  Games  with  my  boy,  long  walks 
with  my  wife  under  "  the  glad  light  green"  of  Windsor-Park  beeches 
lit  by  the  golden  sun,  strolls  down  the  long  Ehododendron-Walk 
with  its  glorious  masses  of  mauve  towering  high  on  either  hand, 
over  Runnymede,  starred  with  wild  flowers,  canopied  with  sunsets  of 
wondrous  hue;  rows  on  the  Thames,  dotted  with  snowy  swans 
sailing  over  the  ever-varying  green  of  water-plants;  gaily-coloured 
races  at  Ascot,  picnic  at  the  truly-named  Belvedere ;  drives,  visits, 
dances — oh  fair-haired  Alice,  how  well  you  waltz  ! — chats,  pleasant 
outdoor  country-life  :  who  can  work  in  the  midst  of  it  all  ?  I  can't. 

And  now  comes  the  angry  roar  of  war  to  trouble  one's  sweet 
content,  to  make  one  feel  it  wrong  almost  to  think  of  private 
pleasure  or  Society's  work.  What  interest  can  one  take  in  printers' 
dates,  or  Boorde's  allusions,  when  the  furious  waves  of  French  vain- 
glory, driven  by  the  guilty  ambition  of  a  conscienceless  adventurer,  are 
dashing  against  the  barriers  of  German  patriotism,  striving  to  deluge 
thousands  of  innocent  homes  in  blood? — May  this  Napoleon  and 
his  followers  be  humbled  to  the  dust ! — Still,  the  Forewords,  &c., 
take  up  one-third  of  this  book,  and  that  is  a  fair  share  for  an  editor 
to  fill.  A  great  number  of  most  troublesome  little  points  have 
started  up  in  the  course  of  the  work,  and  my  ignorance  of  monastic 
rule.  Continental  countries,  coins,  languages,  medicine,  and  botany, 
has  made  me  leave  many  of  these  points  to  future  students  of  the 
book  to  settle.  I  hope,  however,  that  Andrew  Boorde  will  be  hence- 
forth better  known  to  English  readers  than  heretofore,  and  only 
regret  that  some  of  the  mirth  he  loved  so  well,  has  not  crept  into 
these  foregoing  pages,  through  all  the  bright  sights  and  sweet  sounds 
that  have  been  before  and  around  me  while  this  work  has  been  going 
on.     But  one  does  not  get  lighter-hearted  as  one  gets  older,  alas ! 

\Valnut-T7'ee  Cottage^  Egharriy 
July  30,  1870. 

Itttrobuttion  of  kitobkirgt    €\ft  hjfjgcij 

botije  teaclje  a  man  to  speate  parte  of  all  matter  of 

languageisf,  anti  to  Jtnoto  t\}t  fasage  anti  fasJ}ton  of 

all  maner  of  eountregs.    ^ntJ  for  to  fenoto  tlje 

moste  parte  of  all  maner  of  eognes  of  mo- 

nej,  t^e  toijgcl)  is  eurrant  in  euerg  region* 

JHatie  is  anlireto  Bortie,  of  pj)2^ 

Sgcfte  IDoctor*    JietJscatelJ  to 

tlje  rigJ)t  J}onoraljle  $c  gra^ 

ciow5  latig  JHarg  tiouglji 

ter  of  our  soueragne 

iortie  ftgng  Senrg 

tjje  eggljt* 


^  To  the  ryght  honorable  and  gracyous  lady  Mary 

doughter  of  our  souerayne  Lorde  kyng  Henry 

the  .viii.  Andrew  horde  of  phisyk  doctor, 

doth  surrender  humble  com- 

mendacion  wyth  honour 

and  helth. 

AFter  that  I  had  dwelt  (moste  gracyous  Lady)  in  Scotlande,  and 
had  trauayled  thorow  and  round  about  all  the  regions  of 
Christynte,  &  dwelling  in  Mou?itpyler,*  remembryng  your  bountyful 
goodnes,  pretended  to  make  thys  first  booke,  named  "  the  Introduc- 
tion of  knowledge"  to  your  grace,  the  whyche  boke  dothe  teache  a  man 
to  speake  parte  of  al  maner  of  languages ;  and  by  it  one  maye  knowe 
the  vsage  and  fashyon  of  all  maner  of  countres  or  regions,  and  also  to 
know  the  moste  part  of  all  maner  of  coynes  of  mony,  that  whych  is 
currant  in  euery  prouince  or  region;  trustyng  that  your  grace  will 
accept  my  good  wyll  and  dylygent  labour  in  Chryste,  who  kepe  your 
grace  in  health  and  honour.  Fro  Mountpyler  the  .iii.  daye  of  Maye, 
the  >ere  of  our  Lorde  .M.CCCGC.xlii. 

f  The  Table  of  thys  booke  foloweth. 

THe    fyrst  chapter  treateth   of  the  naturall  disposicyon  of  an 
Englyshman,  and  of  the  noble  realm  of  England,  and  of  the 
mony  that  there  is  vsyd.     [And  of  Cornwall,  p.  122]  (p.  116) 

The  seconde  chapter  treateth  of  the  naturall  dysposycion  of 
Walshmen,  and  of  the  countre  of  Wales,  teching  an  Englyshe  man 
to  speake  some  Walshe.  (P-  125) 

The  thyrd  chapter  treateth  of  the  naturall  dysposiciow  of  an 
Irysh  man,  and  of  the  kyngdomeshyp  of  Irland,  and  also  teachyng 
an  Englyshe  man  to  speake  some  Irysh,  and  of  theyr  mony.  (p.  131) 

•  Contractions  in  the  original  are  expanded  here  in  italics,  as  *  that '  for 
•  y' ; '  capitals  are  put  to  some  proper  names ;  foreign  words  are  printed  in 
italics  ;  modern  stops  are  put,  and  hyphens. 


^  The  fourthe  chapter  treateth  of  the  naturall  disposycyon  of  a 
Scotyshe  man,  and  of  the  Kingdom  of  Scotland,  and  the  speche  of 
Scotland,  and  of  their  mony.  (p.  135) 

The  .V.  chapter  treateth  of  Shotlande  ^  and  of  Fryselond,  and 
of  the  naturall  dysposycion  of  the  people  of  the  countreys,  and  of  ^ 
theyr  money.  (p.  139) 

The  .vi.  chapter  treateth  of  Norway  &  of  Islond,  and  of  the* 
naturall  disposycion  of  the  people  of  the  countreys,  and  of  theyr 
speche,  and  of  theyr  money.  (p.  140) 

The  .vii.  chapter  treateth  of  the  Auctor,  tliQ^  which  went  thorow 
and  rounde  about  Christendome ;  and  what  payne  he  dyd  take  to  do 
other  men  pleasure.  (p.  143) 

The  .viii.  chapter  treateth  of  Flaunders,  and  of  the  naturall  dis- 
posicion^  of  Fleminges,  and  of  their  money,  and  oV  theyr  speche. 

(p.  146) 

The  .ix.  chapter  treateth  of  Seland  &  Holand,  &  of  the  natural 
disposicion  of  the  people,  &  of  theyr  spech,  and  of  their  money,  (p.  148) 

The  .X.  chapter  treateth  of  Braban,  &  of  the  naturall  disposicion 
of  Brabanders,  &  of  their  money  &  speche.  (p.  150) 

The  .xi.  chapter  treateth  of  Gelderlawd  and  of  Cleuelawd,  and  of 
the  natural  disposicion  of  the  people  of  that^  couwtreys,  and  of  ^ 
their  money  and  speche.  (p.  152) 

The  .xii.  chapter  treateth  of  Gulik  &  Lewke,^''  &  of  the  naturall 
disposycion  ^  of  the  people  of  the®  countreys,  and  of  their  money, 
and  of  their  speche.  (p.  155) 

The  .xiii.  chapter  treateth  of  base  Almayn,  and  of  the  natural 
disposicion  of  the  people  of  that  countrey,  and  of  theyr  money,  and 
of'  theyr  speche.  (p.  155) 

The  .xiiii.  Chapter  treateth  of  high  Almayn,  &  of  the  naturall 
disposicion  of  the  people  of  that  couwtrey,  and  of  theyr  mony,  and 
of  their  spech.^i  (p.  159) 

*  sign.  A  .ii.  '  Scotlande  A  ;  Soctlande  B. 

»  A  has  only  «  of  ;  "  B  only  "  and."  "  theyr  AB.  *  of  Auctor  y«  AB. 

'  dispocion  A  ;  a  mistake  made  4  or  5  times  more.         ''  B  leaves  out  "of." 

*  for  "  those."  '  B  leaves  out  "  and  of." 

"  Julich  or  Juliers  (the  town  is  between  Aix  and  Cologne)  and  Li^ge. 

"  and  speche  B, 



The  .XV.  chapter  treateth  of  Denmarke,  and  of  the'  na^turall  dis- 
posicion  of  the  people  of  the  countrey,  and  of  the  money  and  speche. 

(p.  162) 

The  .xvi.  chap,  treateth  of  Saxsony,  &  of  the  natural  disposicion 
of  t?i6  Saxons,  &  of  their  money,  &  of  their  spech.  (p.  164) 

The  .xvii.  chapter  treateth  of  the  kingdom  of  Boem,  and  of  the 
disposicion  of  the  people  of  the  countrey,  and  of  theyr  money,  and 
of  their  speche.  (p.  166) 

The  .xviii.  chapter  treateth  of  the  kingdom  of  Poll,  &  of  the 
naturall  disposicion  of  the  people  of  the  countre,  &  of  theyr  mony, 
and  of  theyr  speche.  (p.  168) 

The  .xix.  chapter  treateth  of  the  kingdome  of  Hungry,  and  of 
the  natural  disposicion  of  the  people  of  theyr  couwtrey,  and  of  theyr 
money,  and  of  their  speche.  (p.  170) 

The  .XX.  chapter  treateth  of  the  land  of  Grece,  &  of  Cowstantin- 
nople,  and  of  the  natural  disposicion  of  the  people  of  the  countrey, 
and  of  theyr  mony  and  speche.  (p.  171) 

The  .xxi.  chapter  treateth  of  the  kyngdom  of  Sycel  &  of 
Calabry,  and  of  the  disposicion  of  the  people  of  the  countrey,  and 
of  theyr  mony  and  speche.  (p.  175) 

The  .xxii.  chapter  treateth  of  the  kingdom  of  Naples,  and  of  the 
disposicion  of  the  people  of  the  countrey,  and  of  tjieyr  money  and 
speche.  (p.  176) 

The  .xxiii.  chapter  treateth  of  Italy  and  of  Eome,  and  of  the  dis- 
posicion of  the  people  of  the  countrey,  and  of  theyr  money,  and  of 
theyr  speche.  (p-  177) 

The  .xxiiii.  chapter  treateth  of  Venys,  &  of  the  disposicion  of  the 
people  of  the  couTitrey,  &  of^  their  money  &  spech.  (p.  181) 

The  .XXV.  chapter  treateth  of  Lombardy,  &  of  the  natural  dis- 
posicions  of  the  people  of  the  countrey,  &  of  theyr  money,  and  of 
theyr  speche.  (p.  186) 

The  .xxvi.  chapter  treateth  of  leene  and  of  the  leneueys,*  and  of 
theyr  spech,  and  of  theyr  money.  (p.  188) 

The  .xxvii.  chapter  treateth  of  Fraunce,  and  of  other  ^prouinces 

'  that  AB.  »  sign.  A  .11.  back.  ^  B  leaves  out  "&  of." 

*  Genoa  and  the  Genoese.  *  A  .ill.  not  signed. 


the  which  be  vnder  Fraunce,  and  of  the  disposicion  of  the  people, 
and  of  their  mony  and  speche.  (p.  190) 

The  .xxviii.  chapter  treateth  of  ^  Catalony,  and  of  the  kyngdom  of 
Aragon,  and  of  the  disposicion  of  the  people,  and  of  theyr  money,  and 
of  theyr  speche.  (p.  194) 

The  .xxix.  chapter  treateth  of  Andalosye,  and  of  the  kingdome  of 
Portingale,  and  of  the  dysposicion  of  the  people,  and  of  theyr  speche, 
and  of  theyr  money.  (p.  196) 

The  .XXX.  chapter  treateth  of  Spayne,  &  of  the  disposycion  of  a 
Spayneard,  and  of  the^  money  and  of  the^  speche.  (p.  198) 

The  .xxxi.  chapter  treateth  of  the  kyngdome  of  CasteP  and  of 
Byscaye^,  and  of  the  dysposycion  of  the  ®  people  of  that  countrey,  and 
of^  theyr  money  and  spech.  (p.  199) 

The  .xxxii.  chapter  treateth  of  the  kyngdome  of  Nauer,  and  of 
the  disposicion  of  the  people,  and  of  ^  theyr  money  and  theyr  speche. 

(p.  202) 

The  .xxxiii.  chapter  treateth  of  Bay  on,  and  Gascoyn,  and  of  lytle 
Britayn,  and  of  the  disposicion  of  the  people  of  those  countreys,  and 
of  theyr  mony  and  of  ^  their  spech.  (p.  206) 

The  .xxxiiii.  chapter  treateth  of  NormaTwiy  &  Picardy;  of  the 
disposicion  of  the  people,  &  of  their  money  &  spech.  (p.  208) 

ITie  .XXXV.  chapter  treateth  of  the  Latyn  man  and  of  the 
Englysh  man,  and  where  Latine  is  most  vsed.  (p.  209) 

The  .xxxvi.  chapter  treateth  of  Barbari,  and  of  the  blake  Mores, 
and  of*  Moryske  speche.  (p.  212) 

The  .xxxvii.  chapter  treateth  of  Turkey,  &  of  the  Turkes,  and  of 
their  money  and  of®  their  speche.  (p.  214) 

The  .xxxviii.  chapter  treateth  of  Egypt,  and  of  the  Egypciens,  & 
of «  their  speche.  (p.  217) 

The  .xxxix.  chapter  treateth  of  lury  and  of  the  lues,  and  of® 
their  speche.  (p.  218) 

IT  Thus  endeth  the  table. 

*  B  leaves  out  "of."  *  and  their  B.  '  Castle  B  (Castille). 

*  Bascaye  H.         *-*  people  and  B.         ^  B  leaves  out  "  and  of." 

116  THE    ENGLISHMAN   WHO   LOVES    NEW    FASHIONS.        [ciIAP.    I. 

%  The  fyrst  chapter  treateth  of  the  naturall  dysposi- 

cion  of  an  Englyshman,  and  of  the  noble  realme  of 

England,  &  of  the  money  that  there  is  vsed. 

I'm  naked, 
as  I  can't  settle 
what  to  wear. 

I  like  new 

IT  I  am  an  English  man,  and  naked  I  stand  here, 
Musyng  in  my  mynde  what  payment  I  shal  were  3 
For  now  I  wyll  were  thys,  and  now  I  wyl  were  that ; 
Now  I  wyl  were  I  cannot  tel  what.  4 

All  new  fashyons  he  plesaunt  to  me ; 
I  wyl  haue  them,  whether  I  thryue  or  thee.^ 

*  A  .iii.  back. 

^  See  chapter  xxii.  below,  p.  177.  The  Neapolitan  sa3's :  "  Al 
new  fashyons  to  Englond  I  do  bequeue."  Wilson,  speaking  of 
books,  says :  "  And  not  onely  are  matters  set  out  by  description, 
but  men  are  painted  out  in  their  colours,  yea,  buildynges  are  set 
forthe,  Kingdomes  and  Realmes  are  portreed,  places  &c  timca 


Kow  I  am  a  frysker,  all  men  doth  on  me  looke; 

What  should  I  do,  hut  set  cocke  on  the  hoope?  8 

What  do  I  care,  yf  aU  the  worlde  me  fayle? 

I  wyll  get  a  garment,  shal  reche  to  my  tayle ;  I'n  pet  a  garment 

.    ,  to  reach  to  my 

Inan  I  am  a  minion,  for  I  were  the  new  gyse.  tau. 

^The  next  2  yere  after  this  I  trust  to  he  wyse,  12 

Not  only  in  wering  my  gorgious  aray, 

For  I  wyl  go  to  learnyng  a  hoole  somers  day :  ^  Next  year  I'U 

take  to  leai-ning. 

I  wyll  learne  Latyne,  Hehrew,  Greeke  and  Frenche, 

And  I  wyl  learne  Douche,  sittyng  on  my  henche.      16 

I  do  feare  no  man ;  all  men  feryth  me ;  Aii  men  fear  me. 

I  ouercome  my  aduersaries  hy  land  and  by  see ; 

I  had  no  peere,  yf  to  my  selfe  I  were  trew ; 

Bycause  I  am  not  so,  dyuers  times  I  do  rew.  20 

Yet  I  lake  nothyng,  I  haue  all  thynge  at  wyll ;  i  lack  nothing. 

Yf  I  were  wyse,  and  wolde  holde  my  self  styl. 

And  medel  wyth  no  matters  not*  to  me  partayning, 

But  euer  to  be  trew  to  God  and  [to]  my  kynge.^        24 

But  I  haue  suche  matters  rolling  in  my  pate, 

That  I  wyl  speake  and  do,  I  cannot  tell  what ; 

"No  man  shall  let  me,  but  I  wyl  haue  my  mynde,       27  iviuioM  luice. 

And  to  father,  mother,  and  freende,  I  wyl  be  vnkynde; 

I  wyU  folow  myne  owne  mynd  and  myn  old  trade; 

Who  shal  let  me,  the  deuyls  nayles  vnpared?  who'Ustopme.p 

Yet  aboue  al  thinges,  new  fashions  I  loue  well,  i  do  love  new 

And  to  were  them,  my  thryft  I  wyl  sell.  32 

In  all  this  worlde,  I  shall  haue  but  a  time ; 

Holde  the  cuppe,  good  felow,  here  is  thyne  and  myne  ! 

are  described.  The  Englishma/i  for  feeding  and  chaunging 
for  (sic)  apparell  :  The  Dutchman  for  drinking  :  The  French- 
man for  pride  &  inconstance  :  The  Spanyard  for  nimblenes  of 
body,  and  much  disdaine  :  the  Italian  for  great  wit  and  pol- 
licie :  the  Scottes  for  boldnesse,  and  the  Boeme  for  stubborn- 
nesse." — 1553.  Wilson's  Art  of  Bhetorique,  edit.  1584,  fol. 
181-2.— W.  C.  Hazlitt. 

'  A  .iiii.  not  signed.  '  B  leaves  out  "  next." 

^  See  note  ',  next  page.  *  A  leaves  out  B's  "  not." 

*  B  leaves  out  this  line  :  because  of  the  "  kynge,"  I  sup- 
pose, as  Queen  Elizabeth  was  reigning  in  1562  and  1563. 


^  The  Auctor  respondith. 

Englishmen!  f  Q  good  Englyshe-man,  here  what  I  shall  say: 

strive  for  leam-     Study  to  haue  learnyng,^  with  vertue,  night  and  day ; 

ing,  and  stop  ■,-,■,  ni-r 

swearing;  Leue  thy  swearyng,  and  set  pryde  a  syde,  37 

And  cal  thou  for  grace,  that  with  thee  it  may  byde ; 
Than  shall  al  nacions,  example  of  the^  take, 
That  thou  hast  subdued  syn,  for  lesus  Christes  sake.  40 
And  werkes  of  mercy,  and  charyte,  do  thou  vse  ; 
And  al  vyces  and  syn,  vtterly  refuse ; 

then  all  countries  Than  al  countreys  a  confluence  wyl  haue  to  thee, 

will  come  to  you 

to  learn  the  truth,  s  To  haue  knowledge  of  trueth  and  of  the  veryte,      44 
Of  lernyng  of  Engly^he,  of  maners  also, 
lesus  I  beseche,  to  kepe  thee  from  all  wo, 
And  send  thee  euer  fortune,  and  also  much  grace, 
That  in  heauen  thou  mayst  haue  a  restyng  place.        48 

Is  our  land  good,  ^   The  Italycu   and  the    Lombarde   say,    Anglia 

our  people  bad  ?  .  ^       , 

No.  terra — bona  terra,  mala  gent.  1  hat  is  to  say,  "the  lam 

of  England  is  a  good  land,  but  the  people  be  yl."     But 

Englishmen  are     I  Say,  as  I  doo  know,  the  people  of  England  be  as  good 

men;  as  any  people  in  any  other  lande  and  nacion  thai  euer 

I  haue  trauayled  in,  yea,  and  much  more  better  in  many 

thynges,  specially  in  maners  &>  manhod.  as  for  the  noble 

and  English         fartylc  cou??trey  of  England,  hath  no  regyon  lyke  it;  for 

none^like!'^^  *       there  is  plentye  of  Gold  &  Siluer.     Eor  Gold,  Siluer, 

Tin,  Lead  &  Yron,  doth  grow  there.     Also  there  is 

plenty  of  fisshe,  flesshe  and  wylde  foule,  and  copious- 

Butnocom         ncs  of  woll  &  clotli.     And  if  they  wold  kepe  their 

ported.       '        come  w^t7^in  their  realme,  they  had  ynough  to  finde 

themself  wMout  scarcite,  &  of  a  low  price.     Though 

they  haue  no  wines  growing  within  the  realme — tliQ 

which  they  might  haue  yf  they  would, — yet  there  is  no 

'  On  the  contempt  for  learning  in  England  in  Henry  VIII's  time,  see  the 
Forewords  to  the  Bahees  Book,  p.  xii-xiv,  the  Additions  to  it  of  186^,  the 
Preface  to  Qtiene  Elizahetlies  Ackademy,  &c.  p.  ix,  x,  and  Starkey's  Dialogue 
on  Bngland  in  Henry  VIITs  Time,  E.  E.  T.  Soc.  1870,  p.  182-6,  &c.  On  tho 
Swearing  in  England,  see  p.  82-3  above.  *  thee  B.  ^  A  .iiii.  back. 


realme  that  hath  so  many  sortes  of  wines  as  they.     The 

regioTi  is  of  such  fertilite  that  they  of  the  countrey 

nede  not  of  other  regions  to  helpe  them.     EnglishmeTz  Englishmen  are 

be  bolde,  stroTig,  &  mighty ;  the  women  be  ful  of  bewty,  Englishwomen 

,         Till  imi         /.  .-i^-i.     ^^^  of  beauty. 

6  they  be  decked  gayly.  They  fare  sumptiously ;  God  is 

serued  in  their  churches  deuoutli :  but  treason  &  deceyt  ^ut  treason  is  in 

'  "^      the  l?.nd. 

among  them  is  vsed  crafty ly,  the  more  pitie;  for  yf  they 

were  true  wythin  themselfs,  thei  nede  not  to  feare  al-  were  we  true 

to  ourselves, 

though  al  naciows  were  set  agai72st  them;  specialli  now,  we  need  fear 

cowsyderiwg  our  noble  prynce  hath,  &  dayly  dothe^  make 

noble  defences,  as  castels,  bulwarkes,  &  blokhouses,  so  our  King  buuds 

ciistles  too. 

thatj  almost,  his  grace  hath  munited,  &  in  maner  walled 
England  rounde  aboute,  for  ^^e  sauegard  of  the  realme,  so 
that  the  poore  subiectes  may  slepe  and  wake  in  saufe- 
gard,  doing  theyr  busines  without  parturbaunce. 

^  IF  In  England  there  be  manye  noble  Cities  and 
townes,  Amonges  the  whyche  the  noble  citie  of  London  The  nobic  city  of 

London  excels 

precelleth  al  other,  not  onely  of  that  region,  but  of  all  aii  others;  and 

other  regyons  ;  for  there  is  not  Constantynople,  Venis, 

Kome,  Flore?ice,  Paris,  nor  Colyn,  can  not  be  compared 

to  London,  the  qualities  and  the  quantite  consydred  in 

al  thynges.     And   as  foi  the  ordre   of  the  citie  in 

maners,  and  good  fashyons,  &  curtasy,  it  excelleth  al 

other  cities  and  townes.     And  there  is  suche  a  brydge  of  its  bridge  is  the 

''    °  fairest  in  the 

pulcritudnes,  that  in  all  the  worlde  there  is  none  lyke.*  world. 

In   Englande   is   a   metropolytane,   the    whych    is   a  tii»  Metropolitan 

°  r     J  J  J  of  England  is  a 

patriarke;  and  ther  be  now  but  few;  for  there  was  a  Patriarch, 
patriarke  of  lerusalem,  ther  is  a  patryarke  at  Constanti- 
nople, &  there  is  a  patryarke  af*  Venis;  but  al  these 
aforesayde  patriarkes  hath  not,  one  for  one,  so  many  with  more 

•^         ^  7  ./     bjgjjQpg  than  any 

bysshops  vnder  them  as  the  patriarke  or  metrapolytan  other. 

'  ?  this  applies  rather  to  1542  than  1547.    See  Notes.    Boorde  notices  that 

7  castles  were  built,  and  5  renewed  by  Henry. — Forewords,  p.  23,  near  the  foot. 

■■*  sign.  B  .i. 

^  This  bridge  was  the  first  stone  London  Bridge,  begun  by  Peter  of  Cole- 
church,  A.D.  1176,  finished  in  1209,  and  which  lasted  till  the  New  Bridge  was 
built  in  1825.  For  many  centuries  it  was  the  wonder  of  Europe. —  Chronicles 
a/ London  Bridge,  2nd  ed.  1839.  "  A  leaves  out  B's  "at." 





Oxford  and 

Ports  and 

The  speeches 
spoken  in 





Northern  or 
Scottish ; 

and  all  kinds  by 

The  wonders  of 
England : 

hot  baths  at 

salt  wells ; 


of  England.  In  England  is  the  tliyrd  auwtyke^  vniuer- 
site  of  the  worlde,  named  Oxford.  And  there  is  another 
nohle  vniuersitie  called  Cambrige.  There  is  also  in 
Englande  more  nobiler  ^  portes  and  hauens  than  in  any 
other  region;  there  is  Sandwiche,  Doner,  Rye,  Wyn 
chelse,  Hastynges,  Pemsey,  Bryght-Hemston,^  Arndel 
Chychester,  Porche  mouthe,  Southhampton,  Dartmouth 
Exmouth,  and  Plommouth.  I  do  not  recone  no  hauens 
nor  portes  betwixt  Cornewall,  Deynshire,  and  WaleSj 
but  beyond  Cornewal  and  Wales,  as  saynt  Dauys 
Carnaruan,  Umarys,'*  Abarde,^  Cornewal,  Weschesterj 
Cokersend,  and  Cokermouth,  Carlel,  Barwyke,  New 
castell,  Bryllyngtone,  Hull,  Bostowe,  Lyn,  Yermouthe 
and  Harwyche,  and  dyuers  other  portes  and  hauyns 
long  to  reherse.  IT  In  Englande,  and  vnder  the  do 
minion  of  England,  be  many  sondry  speches  beside 
Englyshe :  there  is  Frenche  vsed  in  Engla/id,  specyally 
at  Calys,  Gersey,  and  Jersey :  In  Englande,  the  ^  Walshe 
tongue  is  in  Wales,  The  Cornyshe  tongue  in  Corne' 
wall,  and  Iryshe  in  Irlande,  and  Frenche  in  the  Eng- 
lysshe  pale.  There  is  also  the  Northen  tongue,  the 
whyche  is  trew  Scotysshe;  and  the  Scbttes  tongue  is  the 
Northen  tongue.  Furthermore,  in  England  is  vsed  all 
maner  of  languages  and  speches  of  alyens  in  diuers 
Cities  and  Townes,  specyally  in  London  by  the  Sea 
syde.  If  Also  in  England  be  manye  wonderfuU  thynges  : 
Fyrst,  there  is  at  Baath  certayne  waters,  the  whyche  be 
euer  bote  or  warme,  and  neuer  colde;  wynter  &  Somer, 
they  be  euer  at  a  temperat  heate.  In  wynter  the  poore 
people  doth  go  into  the  water  to  kepe  themself  warme, 
and  to  get  them  a  heate.  ^  In  England  be  salt  wel 
waters ;  of  the  whych  waters,  Salte  is  made.  If  Vpon  the 
playn  of  Salysbury  is  the  stonege,  whyche  is  certayne 

•  ancientest.     '  noble  B.     '  Bryght,  Hewston  A ;  Brighthelmstone  or  Brighton. 

*  ?  Beaumaris,  on  the  east  coast  of  Anglesey. 

'  ?  A})erystwith,  on  the  west  coast  of  Cardiganshire,  or  Aberffraw,  west  coast 
of  Anglesey,  &o.  ®  sign.  B  .i.  back. 


great  stones,  some  standyng,  and  some  lyenge  ouer- 
thawart,  lyeng  and  hangyng,  that  no  Gemetricion  can  set 
them  as  they  do  hange.  And  although  they  stande 
many  a  hondred  yeares,  hauyng  no  reparacion  nor  no 
solidacioTi  of  morter,  yet  there  is  no  wynde  nor  wether 
that  doth  hurte  or  peryshe  them.    Men  say  that  Marlyn  (Merlin  ooiit 


brought  to  that  place  the  sayd  stones  by  the  deuels 
helpe  &  crafte. 

IF  In  the  Forest  of  saynt  Leonardes  in  Southsex  there  a  forest,  st 
dothe  neuer  synge  Nightyngale ;  althoughe  the  Forest  no  nightingale 
rounde  aboute  in  tyme  of  the   yeare  is  replenysshed        ^  ^  '"* 
wyth  Nightyngales,  they  wyl  syng  rounde  aboute  the 
Forest,  and  neuer  within  the  precyncte  of  the  Forest,  as 
dyuers  kepers  of  the  Forest,  and  other  credible  parsons 
dwellyng  there,  dyd  shew  me. 

IT  In  dyuers  places  in  England  there  is  wood  the  which  wood  that  turns 

into  stone. 

doth  tume  into  stone.  IT  The  kynges  of  England,  by  the 
power  that  God  hath  gyuen  to  them,  dothe  make  sicke 
men  whole  of  a  sycknes  called  the  kynges  euyll.^  f  The 
''Kynges  of  Englande  doth  halowe  euery  yere  Crampe  Cramp-Eings 

hallowed  by  our 

rynges,^  the  whyche  rynges,  worne  on  ones  fynger,  dothe  Kings, 
helpe  them  the  whyche  hath  the  Crampe. 

^  There  is  no  regyon  nor  countrey  in  al  the  world  England's  the 

only  country  with 

that  thej'^r  money  is  onely  gold  &  syluer,  but  only  Eng-  only  gold  and 

lande;  for  in  England  all  theyr  money  is  golde  &  syluer. 

There  Golde  is  fyne  and  good,  specyally  the  souerayns.  Our  gold  coins. 

the  Ryals,  and  the  halfe  Ryals;  the  olde  noble,  .the 

Aungels  and  the  halfe  aungels,  is  fyne  golde.     But  the 

nobles  of  twenty  grotes,  and  the  crownes  and  the  halfe 

crownes  of  Englande,  be  not  so  fyne  Golde  as  the  other 

is.    Also  Golde  of  other  regyons,  and  some  Syluer,  yf  it 

be  good,  doth  go  in  England.     The  syluer  of  England  our  silver  coma. 

is  Grotes,  halfe  grotes.  Pens,  halfe  pens,  and  there  be 

some  Fardynges.     IT  In  England  doth  grow  golde,  and  Our  mines. 

*  See  The  Brevyary  of  Health,  fol.  Ixx,  and  Forewords,  p.  91-93  above. 
*  sigu.  B  .ii.  '  See  the  Forewords,  p.  91-2. 

122  OP   CORNWALL,    AND   CORNISH   MSN.  j^CHAP.    I. 

Mines  In  Eng-  Syluei,  Tyn,  Leade,  and  Irene.  IF  The  speche  of  Eng- 
Engiish  speech  lande  is  a  base  speche  to  other  nohle  speches,  as  Italion, 
is  base.  Castylion,  and  Frenche ;  howheit  the  speche  of  Englande 

of  late  dayes  is  amended.^ 

%  The  apendex  to  the  fyrst  Chapter,  treatinge  of 
Oornewall,  and  Cornyshe  men. 

I  can  brew  ^  Iche  cham  a  Cornyshe  man,  al[e]  che  can  brew; 

beastly  beer 

It  wyll  make  one  to  kacke,  also  to  spew ; 
It  is  dycke  and  smoky,  and  also  it  is  dyn ; 
like  hogwash.  It  is  lyke  wash,  as  pygges  had  wrestled  dryn.^       4 

Iche  cannot  brew,  nor  dresse  Fleshe,  nor  vyshe  ; 

Many  volke  do  segge,  I  mar  many  a  good  dyshe. 
Dup  the  dore,  gos  ^  !  iche  hab  some  dyng  to  seg,  7 

'  Whan  olde  knaues  be  dead,  yonge  knaiies  be  fleg." 
I'm  very  hungry;  Iche  chaym  yU  afyngred,*  iche  swere  by  my  fay 
Iche  nys  not  eate  no  soole  ^  sens  yester  daye; 
6  Iche  wolde  fayne  taale  ons  myd  the  cup; 
give  me  a  quart  Nym  mc  a  Quart  of  ale,  that  iche  may  it  of  sup.    12 

of  ale.    I've  fish  J  ^  »  j  r 

and  tin,  A,  good  gosse,  ichc  hab  a  toome,''^  vyshe,  and  also  tyn ; 

Drynke,  gosse,  to  me,  or  els  iche  chyl  begyn. 
but  suflfer  cold       Qod  !  watysh  great  colde,  and  fynger  iche  do  abyd  ! 

and  hunger  ./         o 

Wyl  your  bedauer,  gosse,  come  home  at  the  next  tyde. 
Iche  pray  God  to  coun  him  wel  to  vare,  1 7 

That,  whan  he  comit  home,  myd  me  he  do  not  starie 
For  putting  a  straw  dorow  his  great  net. 

Another  pot  of  ale,  good  gosse,  now  me  fet ;        20 
I'll  go  to  law        For  my  bedauer  wyl  to  London,  to  try  the  law, 

To  sew  Tre  poll  pen,  for  waggyng  of  a  straw. 
15'ow,  gosse,  farewell !  yche  can  no  lenger  abyde  ; 

Iche  must  ouer  to  the  ale  howse  at  the  yender  syde ; 

'  Boorde  evidently  didn't  appreciate  the  Anglo-Saxon  words  of  our  speech 
as  he  did  his  own  long  Latin  and  Greek  coinages. 

*  therein  :  as  dyn  above  is  "  thin,"  dycke,  "  thick."  ^  gossip,  mate. 

*  a-hungered.  *  soul,  flavouring,  meat ;  p.  138, 1.  21. 
°  aign.  B  .ii.  back.  '  at  home. 


And  now  come  myd  me,  gosse,  I  thee  pray,  26 

And  let  vs  make  mery,  as  longe  as  we  may. 

IT  Cornwal  is  a  pore  and  very  barren  countrey  of  al 
maner  thing,  except  Tyn  and  Fysshe.    There  meate,  and  comwaii  has 
theyr  oread,  and  dryncke,  is  marde  and  spylt  for  lacke      (See  Notes.) 
of  good  ordring  and  dressynge.     Fyrres  and  turues  is  Their  food  is 
theyr  chief  fewel;  there  ale  is  starke  nought,  lokinge  cooking, 
whvte  &  thycke,  as  pyeges  had  wrasteled  in  it.  Their  aie  is 

J  J         J         trj  oo  awful  stuff; 

^  smoky  and  ropye, 

and  neuer  a  good  sope, 

in  moste  places  it  is  worse  and  worse, 

pitie  it  is  them  to  curse ; 

for  wagginge  of  a  straw 

they  wyl  go  to  law,  ^^^y'li  go  to  law 

•J        ''     '=>  '  for  wagging  of  a 

and  al  not  worth  a  hawe,  straw, 

playinge  so  the  dawe. 

IF  In  Cornwall  is  two  speches ;  the  one  is  naughty 
Englyshe,  and  the  other  is  Cornyshe  speche. 

And  there  be  many  men  and  women  the  whiche  ManyComish 

people  can't 

cannot  speake  one  worde  of  Englyshe,  but  all  Cornyshe.  speak  a  word  of 
Who  so  wyll  speake  any  Cornyshe,  Englyshe  and  Cor- 
nyshe doth  folow. 
One.    two.  thre.  foure.     fyue.    six.    seuen.  eyght.  nyne.  The  Comish 


Ouyn.  daw.  tray,  peswar.  pimp.  whe.  syth.    eth.      naw. 
2  Ten.  aleuyn.  twelue.  thertene.  fourtene.      fyftene. 

Dec.  vnec.      dowee.   tredeec.    peswardeec.  pympdeec. 
Syxtene.  seuentine.  eyghtyne.  nyntene.  twenty. 
Wliedeec.  sythdeec.    ethdeec.      nawdeec.  Igous. 
One  and  twenty,  two  and  twenty,  three  and  twenty. 
Ouyn  war  igous.  dow  war  Igous.     tray  war  ygom. 
Fouer  and  twenty,  &c. 
pesimr  ygovs :  and  so  forthe  tyl  you  come  to  thyrty. 

IF    No  Cornysheman  dothe    nomber   aboue   .xxx.  so  is  their  highest 


and  is  named.  Deec  wamegous.     And  whan  they  haue 

tolde  thyrty,  they  do  begyn   agayn,  "  one,  two,  and 

'  Printed  as  prose.  ^  B  .iii.  not  signed. 

124  A   TALK   IN    CORNISH    AND    ENGLISH.  [CHAP.  L 

thre,"  And  so  forth,    and  whan  they  haue  recounted  to  a 
hondred,  they  saye  kans.     And  if  they  nomber  to  a 
thousand,  than  they  saye  Myle. 
A  talk  in  Cornish         God  moiow  to  you,  syi !  Dar  day  dew  a  why,  serra  / 
God  spede  you,  mayde  !    Dar  zona  de  why  math-tath} 
You  be  welcome,  good  wyfe  ! 

Welcom  a  whe  givra  da 
I  do  thanke  you,  syr.     Dar  dala  de  why,  syrcu 
How  do  you  fare  ?     Vata  leio  genar  why  ? 
Well,  God  thanke  you,  good  master ! 

Da  dar  dala  de  why,  master  da  / 
Hostes,  haue  you  any  good  meate  1 
HosteSf  eus  bones  ^  de  why  1 

Yes,  syr,  I  haue  enowghe.   Eus,  sarra,  grace  a  deio. 

Giue  me  some  meate,  good  hostes  I 
Rewh  hones  *  de  vy,  hostes  da  I 

Mayde,  giue  me  bread  and  drinks ! 
Math-tath}  eus  me  harow  ha  dewas  / 

Wife,  bringe  me  a  quarte  of  wme ! 
Gwrac,  drewh  quart  gwin  de  vy  I 

Woman,  bringe  me  some  fishe ! 
Benen^  drewh  pyscos  de  vi  ! 

*  Mayde,  brynge  me  egges  and  butter 
Math-tath,^  drewgh  me  eyo  ^  hag  a  manyn  de  vi 

Syr,  much  good  do  it  you  ! 
Syrra,  betha  why  lowe  weny  eke  ! 

Hostes,  what  shal  I  paye  1 
Hostes  J  jprendra  we  pay  ? 

Syr,  your  rekenyng  is  .v.  pens. 
Syrra,  iges  rechen  eu  2yymp  in  ar. 

How  many  myles  is  it  to  londoni 
Pes  myll  der  eus  a  lemma  de  Londres  ? 

Syr,  it  is  thre  houndred  myle. 
Syrra,  tray  kans  myle  dere. 

Mahtheid  P.  (John  W.  Peard).  '  Boos  P  '  Beven  AB.  (Bemien  ?.) 

♦  B  .iii.  back.  *  oije,  an  egg  ;  pi.  oyow  P. 

CHAP.    II.] 



God  be  with  you,  good  hostes ! 
Bena  tewgena  a^  why  liostes  da  1 

God  gyue  you  a  good  nyght ! 
DeAO  rebera  vos  da  de  why! 

God  send  you  wel  to  fare  ! 
Dew  reth  euenna  thee  lohy  fare  eta  t 

God  bo  wyth  you !     Deio  gena  why  1 

I  pray  you,  commend  me  to  all  good  felowes. 
Meesdesyor^  why  coinmende  ine  the  aide  matas^  da. 

Syr,  I  wyl  do  your  commaun dement. 
Syira,  me  euydeii  geivel  ages  commaundement  why. 

God  bo  witli  you  !    Deto  gena  why  / 

A  talk  in  ComiBh 
and  English. 

%  The  second  chapytre 

treateth  of  Wales.  And 

of  the  natural  disposi- 

cion   of   Welshmen. 

Teaching  an  Eng- 

lyshman  to  speake 

some  Welsh. 

Am  a  Welshman,  and  do  dwel  in  Wales, 
I  liaue  loued  to  serche  boudgets,  &  looke  in  males;  i  like  thieving. 

'  Dew  geneWy  P.  '  1  Maz  den  syra,  good  man  Sir,  good  Sir,  P. 

^  ?  viayni/s,  pi.  of  vuiyn,  an  intimate,  P.  *  B  .iiii.  not  signed. 


I  don't  like  work, 
and  I  do  like 

I'm  a  gentleman 
and  love  the 
Virgin  Mary. 

I  go  bare-legged. 

I  love  Roasted 
Cheese,    (p.  129.) 

My  Harp  is  my 
treasure  j 

it's  made  of 
mare-skin  and 

I  sing  like  a 

South  Wales  is 
better  than  North, 
for  food. 

Mountains : 
Snowdon  and 
Manath  Deny. 


[chap.  II. 



I  loue  not  to  labour,  nor  to  delue  nor  to  dyg ; 
My  fyngers  be  lymed  lyke  a  lyme  twyg ; 
And  wherby  ryches  I  do  not  greatly  set, 
Syth  all  hys  fysshe  that  commeth  to  the  net. 
I  am  a  gentylman,  and  come  of  brutes  blood ; 
My  name  is,  ap  Eyce,  ap  Dauy,  ap  Flood. 
I  loue  our  Lady,  for  I  am  of  hyr  kynne  ; 
He  that  doth  not  loue  hyr,  I  be-shrew  his  chynne. 
My  kyndred  is  ap  hoby,  ap  lenkin,  ap  goffe. 
Bycause  I  do  go  barlegged,  I  do  each  the  coffe  ; 
And  if  I  do  go  barlegged,  it  is  for  no  pryde ; 
I  haue  a  gray  cote,  my  body  for  to  hyde. 
'  I  do  loue  cawse  boby,^  good  rosted^  chese ; 
And  swyshe  swash  e  metheglyn  I  take  *  for  my  fees ;  16 
And  yf  I  haue  my  harpe,  I  care  for  no  more ; 
It  is  my  treasure,  I  do  kepe^  it  in  store ; 
For  my  harpe  is  made  of  a  good  mares  skyn,  19 

The  stringes  be  of  horse  heare,  it  maketh  a  good  din ; 
My  songe,  and  my  voyce,  and  my  harpe  doth  agree, 
Muche  lyke  the  hussyng  of  a  homble  be ; 
Yet  in  my  countrey  I  do  make  good  pastyme, 
In  tellyng  of  prophyces  whyche  be  not  in  ryme.        24 
Wales  is  deuided  into  two  partes,  whyche  be  to  saye, 
North  Wales,  and  South  Wales.    South  Wales  is  better 
than  North  Wales  in  many  thinges,  specially  for  wyne, 
Ale,  Breade,  and  wylde  foule;  yet  bothe  the  countreys  be 
very  barayne,  for  there  is  muche  waste,  &  wast  ground, 
consydering  there  is  maryses,  &  wylde  and  high  moun- 
taynes.     The  mountayne  of  Snowdon  is  the  hyghest 
mountayne  of  Wales.     There  is  another  hyghe  moun- 
tain [in]  Walles,  called  Manath  deny,  vpow  the  toppe 

'  B  .iiii.  back. 

'  See  the  anecdote  in  *  The  Hundred  Merry  Tales '  (^Notes') 
of  St  Peter  getting  the  bothering  Welsh  out  of  heaven  by  shout- 
ing "  Cause  hobe"  outside  the  gate,  and  then  locking  the  gate 
on  them  when  they'd  rusht  out.  ^  roted  A  ;  rosted  B. 

*  toke  B.  *  I  kepe  B. 


of  the  which  is  a  fayre  fountayne.  And  yf  the  winde  be  a  wonder  of 
any  thyng  vp,  yf  a  man  do  stande  at  the  top  of  the 
hyl  in  any  place,  and  do  cast  his  hat  or  cap  downe  the 
hyll,  the  cap  or  hat  shall  flye  bacwarde,  and  not  for- 
warde,  although  a  man  stande  in  neuer  so  came^  a  place, 
as  they  of  the  couwtrey  doth  tel  me. 

There  is  a  wel  in  Wales  called  "  Saynte  "Wenefrydes  st  Winifred's 
Well."     Walshe  me?*  sayth  that  if  a  man  doth  cast  a      (see  xoten.) 
cupe,  a  staffe,  or  a  napkyn,  in  the  well,  it  wyll  be  full  of  Welshmen  He 
droppes  or  frakils,  and  redyshe  like  blonde;  the  whyche 
is  false,  for  I  haue  proued  the  contrary  in  son  dry  tymes. 
f  In  Wales  there  hath  ben  many  goodly  &  strowge 
Castels,  and  some  of  them  stande  yet.   The  Castels  and  waies  is  uke 
the  Countre   of   Wales,  and  the  people  of  Wales,  be  Biiay. 
muche  lyke  to  the  Castels  and  the  countrey  and  the 
people  of  Castyle  and  Byscaye;  ^for  there  is  muche 
pouerty,  and  many  reude  and  beastlye  people,  for  they  do  The  people  are 
drynke  mylke  and  whay;  they  do  fare  ful  euel,  and  theyr  ^^t^"^  *"** 
lodgynge  is  poore  and  bare,  excepte  in  market  townes, 
In  the  whych  is  vsed  good  fashion  and  good  vytales, 
good  meate,  wine,  and  competent  Ale,  and  lodgynge. 
North  Wales  and  Sowth  Wales  do  vary  in  there  speche, 
and  in  there  fare,  and  maners.     Sowth  Wales  is  best;  south  waies is 
but  for  all  the  variaunce  of  the  premisses,  they  cannot  b^''®'^*'^^ North, 
speke  .X.   wordes  to-gyther  of  Welshe,  but  "  deauol,"  Welshmen  always 
that  is  to  say,  "  the  deuyl,"  is  at  the  ende  of  one  of  the  orvn.^^*''' 
wordes.  As  "the  foule  euyll,"  whyche  is  the  fallyng  and  Scotchmen 
syckenes,^  is  at  the  ende  of  euery  skottysh  mans  tale.  ^^  "^®  ^°"^  ^^^ 
In  Wales  in  diuers  places  is  vsed  these  two  stulticious*  TheWeishdo 
matters,  the  fyrste  is,  that  they  wyP  sell  there  lams,  and  "'"p'*^  *^'"^'  '• 
theyr  calues,  and  theyr  corne  the  whyche  is  not  sowen,  i.  seii  aii  produce 
and  all  other  newynges,  a  yere  before  that  they  be  sure  *  ^**"^ 
of  any  newynge ;  and  men  wyl  bye  it,  truvstynge  vppon 
hope  of  suche  thynges  that  wyl  come.     The  seconde 

*  ?  calm.         '  sign.  C  .1.         ^  See  p.  136,  line  4. 
*  stulticious  in,  B.         '  well  A  ;  wel  B. 




[chap.  II. 

2.  When  a  friend 

they  cry  out, 
"  Darling,  why 
did  ycu  do  it  ? 

Come  back,  or 
we'll  die  with 

I  saw  this  at 
Ruthin  and 

The  Welsh  think 
too  much  of  their 

stulticious  matter  is,  that  yf  any  of  tlieyr  frendes  do 
dye,  &  whan  they  shall  be  buried  and  put  in  to  the 
graue,  in  certayne  places  they  wyl  cry  out,  making  an 
exclamacion,  and  sayeng,  "  0  venit^ !"  that  is  to  saye,  "0 
swetynge!  why  dost  thou  dye?  thou  shalt  not  go  from 
vs!"  and  wil  pul  away  the  corse,  sayeng,  "venit!  we 
wyl  die  with  the,  or  els  thou  shalt  tary  with  vs  ! " 
wyth  many  other  folyshe  wordes,  as  the  Castilions  and 
the  Spaniardes  do  say  &  do  at  the  burieng  of  theyr 
frendes  2 :  thys  dyd  I  se  &  here  in  Rithen  and  Oswold- 
estre,  and  other  places. 

%  The  Walsh  men  be  hardy  men,  stronge  men,  & 
goodly  men ;  they  woulde  be  exalted,  &  they  do  set  muche 
by  theyr  kynred  &  prophecyes;  and  many  of  them  be 
louynge  and  kyndharted,  faythful,  &  vertuous.  And 
are  thieves;  there  be  many  ^of  them  the  whyche  be  lyght  fyngered, 
&  loueth  a  purse ;  but  this  ^  matter  latly  is  reformed, 
but  lechery  in  manye  places  is  to  much  vsed,  Wherfore 
ther  be  many  bastards  openly  knowen ;  and  many  prestes 
sonnes  aboundeth  in  the  countre,  specially  in  North 
Wales;  but  that  is  no  we  reformed,  considring  the  re- 
striction of  the  kynges  actes,  that  prestes  shal  haue  no 
concubynes.'*  who  so  wyll  lerne  to  speake  some  Welshe, 
Englyshe.and  Welshe  foloweth.  And  where  that  I  do 
not  wryte  true  Welshe,  I  do  write  it  that  euery  man 
may  rede  it  and  vnderstand  it  without  any  teachynge. 
One.  two.  thre.  four.  fyue.  syx.  seuyn.  eyght. 
Uun,  daw.  try.  pedwar.  pimp,  wheeth^.  saygth.  oweyth. 
jSTyne.  ten.  aleuen.  twelue.  thyrtene.  fourtene. 
nau.  deek.  vnardeeh.  deuardeek.  tryardeek.  pedwardeeh, 
Fyftene.      syxtene.  seuyntene.         eyghtene. 

pympdeek.  vnarhundeek.  dauarhundeek.  tryarhundeek. 
Nyntene.  twentye.  one  and  twenty,  two  and  twenty. 

pedwarhuntheek.  igain.    vnar  igayn.        deuar  igayn. 

'  Lat.  benedictns,  D.  (B.  Davies.)         ^  See  p.  200.         '  sign.  C  .i.  back. 
*  Statute  31  Hen.  VIIT,  chap.  14,  A.D.  1539.     See  'Notes.'  *  wJieech  D. 

there  are  many 
bastards  and 
priests'  sons ; 

but  that's  stopt 

The  Welsh 

OHAP.    II.] 



Therty.  forty,     fyfty.  syxty.  seuenty. 

thegarUgen.  deugen.  degadugen.  try  gen.  degatrygen. 
Eyghty.         nynety.  a.C.    two  .C.     M. 

pedivarugen.  degapedwaittgen.  leant,  dekant.  MyL 

%  God  spede,  fayre  woman  ! . 

Deu  ven-dicko  *,  gwen  wraac  ! 

Good  morow,  fayr  mayd !    Deyth  dawh  theetmorwyn t 

IF  God  nyght,  masters  all !     Nos  dawy  masters  igeet. 

Syr,  can  you  speke  any  Welshe  1 

Sere,  auedoroivgh  weh  Gamraac  ? 

Ye,  syr,  I  can  speke  some  Welshe. 

Ede,  oh  sere,  medora  heth^  dycJc. 

Mayden,  come  hether,  and  gyue  me  some  roste  chese  I 

Morwyn,  therdomma  moes  imi  gawse  hohy  ! 

Tarry  a  lytle,  man,  and  you  shall  haue  enowgh. 

8  Arow  heth*  dycke,  gower  wheh  gooh  dygan. 

Wyfe  !  hath  preestes  wyues  in  Wales? 

Wraac,  oes  gwrath^  yn  Kymery  f 

Hold  thy  peace !  they  haue  no  Wyues  now. 

Tau  son  /  neth  os  mor^  gicragath  irrowan. 

Syr,  wyll  you  lend  me  a  horse  to  ryde  to  London  % 

Sere,  a  rowhe  imi  margh  euer  hogeth  klynden? 

You  shall  haue  a  horse.         Wheh  agewh  ar  margh. 

Syr,  how  far  is  it  to  London  ?  Sere,  pabeWiter'^  klindent 

Syr,  it  is  .ix.  myle.  Sere,  now^  mylter. 

Is  this  the  ryght  way  to  the  towne  1 

Ay  hon  yoo  yr  forth  yr  dre  ? 

Wher  is  the  best  In  &  hest  lodging  ] 

Pie  may  I  cletty  gore  ynei 

At  lohn  ap  Dauy  ap  Ryse  house. 

In  hy  Ioha.n  ap  Dauyth  ap  Rys. 

Hostes,  god  saue  you  ! 

Vey  cleto  wraac,  Duw  ah  erosso^  why  I 

Welsh  Numerals. 

and  English. 

»  Lat.  benedicat  D. 

2  ychy  D. 

'  sign.  C  .11. 

*  Aroi  ychy  D. 

*  IgTvragath  D. 

^  ?  mwy  D. 

'  pahellter  D. 

*  na/m  D. 

^  crosso  D. 



130  A   TALK   IN    WELSH    AND    ENGLISH.  [CHAP.    IL 

A  talk  in  Welsh     Syi,  you  be  haityly  welcome  ! 

and  English.  j  ^-l      , 

Seray  mae  yn  grosso  duw  loorthy  ! 

Maystres,  haue  you  any  good  meat  and  lodgyng  ? 

Veymaistres,  oesgennowh  whe  thin  or  hooyd  ta  a  dettyda  7 

Syr,  I  haue  good  meate  and  good  lodgyng. 

Sere,  mae  gennyf  vid  ta  a  cletty  da. 

Hostes,  what  is  it  a  clocke  ? 

Veye  cleto  wraac,  beth  idioo  hy  ar  i  glowh  ? 

Syr,  it  is  .vi.  a  clock. 

Sere,  me  hy  yn  wheh  ar  y  glowh. 

Hostes,  when  shall  we  go  to  supper  ? 

Vey  cleto  vraacpamser  i  cawh^  ny  in  supper? 

By  and  by.     Yn  ynian. 

Gyue  me  some  drynke  !     Moes  imi  diod  ! 

Gyue  me  some  ale  !  Moes  imi  currow  ! 

Gyue  me  some  bred  I         ^oes  imi^  vara  ! 

Gyue  me  some  chese !        Moes  imi  gaws. 

Hostes,  geue  me  a  rekening  ! 

Vey  leto  wraac  moes^  imi  gyfry. 

*  Syr,  ye  shall  pay  thre  pens  for  your  supper. 

Sere,  whe  delowgh  tair  keinowh  dio  se^  ich  sopper. 

Hostes,  God  thanke  you  ! 

Voy  cleto  wraac^  dew  a  thiolchahf^ 

Much  good  do  it  you  !         Enwhyn  thawen  ! 

How  do  you  fare  ?  Par  hewiut  charuoh^  whe  ? 

Good  morow  !  Daws.^ 

Good  nyght  to  you.^  Nos  a  dawh  a  whe. 

Farewell !  Yni  awn  !  ^^ 

Tary,  tary,  come  hydder!     Arow  arow'^^  therdomma  ! 

Hold  thy  peas,  hold  your  peas  !     I'au,  tau  son  t 

Thus  endeth  of  Wales. 

*  rawn  A.        '  ima  A.         ^  mee  A.         *  sign.  C  .ii.  back. 

*  ?  dros  for  dio  se  D.  "  wraas  A.         "^  thiolphah  A. 
'  arnoch  D. 

*  Upcott's  reprint  of  B  leaves  out  these  phrases,  though  B 
has  them.  '"  Yn  i  awh  A.         "  for  Aros,  aras  D. 


f  The  thyrde  Chapter 

treatethof  Irland.  And 

of  the  naturall  dispo- 

sicion  of  an  Irishe 

man,  &  of  theyr 

money  and 


%^..  - 

I  make  frieze 
and  aqua  viUe. 

Lice  bite  me. 

IT  ^  I  am  an  Iryshe  man,  in  Irland  I  was  borne ; 

I  loue  to  weare  a  saffron  shert,  all  though  it  be  to-tome.  i  wear  a  saffron 

shirt,  and  am 

My  anger  and  my  hastynes  doth  hurt  me  full  sore ;  hasty. 

I  cannot  leaue  it,  it  creaseth  more  and  more  ;  4 

And  although  I  be  poore,  I  haue  an  angry  hart. 

I  can  kepe  a  Hobby,  a  gardyn,  and  a  cart ; 

I  can  make  good  mantyls,  and  good  Irysh  fryce ; 

I  can  make  aqua  vite,  and  good  square  dyce.  8 

Pediculus  other  whyle  do  byte  me  by  the  backe, 

Wherfore  dyvers  times  I  make  theyr  bones  cracke. 

I  do  loue  to  eate  my  meate,  syttyng  vpon  the  ground,     i  squat  on  the 

ground,  and 

And  do  lye  in  oten  strawe,  slepyng  full  sound.  12  sleep  in  straw. 

I  (;are  not  for  ryches,  but  for  meate  and  drynke ; 

And  dyuers  tymes  I  wake,  whan  other  men  do  wynke. 

I  do  vse  no  potte  to  seeth  my  meate  in, 

Wherfore  I  do  boyle  it  in  a  bestes  skyn;  16 

*  C  .iii.  not  signed. 
9  • 



[chap.    III. 

I  don't  use  cups ; 

and  I  live  poor. 

Ireland  is  divided 
into  the  English 
Pale,  and  the 
wild  Irish. 

Men  of  the  Pale 
have  English 

but  are  testy. 

The  wild  Irish 
and  Redshanks 

don't  sow  or 
till,  or  care 
for  household 

They  are  rude 
and  wrathful : 

they  boil  their 
meat  in  a  skin. 

Than  after  my  meate,  the  brothe  I  do  drynk  vp, 
I  care  not  for  my  master,  neyther  cruse  nor  cup. 
I  am  not  new  fangled,  nor  neuer  wyll  be; 
I  do  lyue  in  pouerty,  in  myne  owne  countre.  20 

%  Irland  is  a  kingdomship  longing  to  the  kyng  of 
England.  It  is  in  the  west  parte  of  the  world,  &  is 
deuyded  in  ii.  partes,  one  is  the  Engly[sh]  pale,  &  the 
other,  the  wyld  Irysh.  The  English  pale  is  a  good  coun- 
trey,  plentye  of  fishe,  flesh,  wyldfoule,  &  corne.  There 
be  good  townes  &  cities,  as  Du[b]lyn  &  Waterford,  wher 
the  English  fashion  is,  as  in  meat,  drinke,  other  fare  & 
lodgi?ig.  The  people  of  the  Englyshe  pale  be  metely  wel 
manerd,  vsing  the  Englishe  tunge ;  but  naturally  they 
be  testy,  specially  yf  they  be  vexed ;  Yet  there  be  many 
well  disposed  people,  as  wel  ^in  the  Englysh  pale  as  in 
the  wylde  Iryshe,  &  vertuous  creatures,  whan  grace 
worketh  aboue  nature.  51  The  other  parte  of  Irland  is 
called  the  wilde  Irysh ;  and  the  Redshankes  be  ^  among 
them.  That  countrey  is  wylde,  wast  &  vast,  full  of 
marcyces  ^  &  mouwtayns,  &  lytle  corne ;  but  they  haue 
flesh  sufficient,  &  litle  bread  or  none,  and  none  ale. 
For  the  people  there  be  slouthfuU,  not  regarding  to  sow 
&  tille  theyr  landes,  nor  caryng  for  ryches.  For  in 
many  places  they  care  not  for  pot,  pan,  kettyl,  nor  for 
mattrys,  fether  bed,  nor  such  implementes  of  hous- 
hold.  Wherfore  it  is  presuppose  that  they  lak  maners 
&  honesty,  &  be  vntaught  &  rude ;  the  which  rudenes, 
with  theyr  melo?zcoly  complexion,  causeth  them  to  be 
angry  &  testy  wythout  a  cause.  IT  In  those  partyes 
they  wyll  eate  theyr  meat  syttyng  on  the  ground  or 
erth.  And  they  wyl  sethe  theyr  meat  in  a  beastes 
skyn.  And  the  skyn  shall  be  set  on  manye  stakes  of 
wood,  &  than  they  wyll  put  in  the  water  and  the 
fleshe.  And  than  they  wyl  make  a  great  fyre  vnder  the 
skyn  betwyxt  the  stakes,  &  the  skyn  wyl  not  greatly 
*  C  .iii.  back.  ^  marryces  B. 

CHAP.  III.]      INTRODUCTION.       OP   IRELAND    AND    THE   IRISH.  133 

bren.     And  wha»  the  meate  is  eaten,  they,  for  theyr 

drynke,  wil  drynk  vp  the  brothe.    In  suche  places  men  Men  and  women 

•'  '  *^  ^  .  ^  lie  together  in 

and  womew  wyll  ly  to-gether  in  mantles  and  straw,  straw. 

There  be  many  the  which  be  swyft  of  fote,  &  can  cast 

a  dart  perylouslv.     I  did  neuer  finde  more  amyte  and  i  never  knew 

^     '^  "  "^  better  men  than 

loue  than  I  haue  found  of  Iryshe  men  the  whyche  was  someofthePaie. 

borne  within  the  English  pale.     And  in  my  lyfe  I  dyd 

neuer  know  more  faythfuller  men  &  parfyt  lyuers  than 

I  haue  knowen  of  them.     %  In  Irlond  there  is  saynt  st  Patrick's  Pur- 

gatory  isn't  mucU 

Partryckes  ^  purgatory,  the  whych,  as  I  haue  lerned  of  good. 

men  dwellyng  there,  and  of  them  that  hath  be  there,  is 

not  of  that  effycacyte  as  is  spoken  of,  nor  nothing  lyke. 

Wh  erf  ore  I  do  aduertise  euery  maw  not  haue  affyaunce 

in  such  matters  ;  yet  in  lerland  is  stupe/zdyous  thynges; 

for  there  is  nevther  Pyes  nor  venymus  wormes.    There  There  are  no 

"  Magpies,  Snakes, 

is  no  Adder,  nor  Snake,  nor  Toode,  nor  Lyzerd,  nor  no  Toads,  or  Efts, 

-111  "'  Ireland. 

Euyt,  nor  none  suche  lyke. 

2  I  haue  sene  stones  the  whiche  haue  had  the  forme  I've  seen  there 

stones,  said  to 

and  shap  of  a  snake  and  other  venimous  wormes.   And  have  been  once 


the  people  of  the  countre  sayth  that  suche  stones  were 
wormes,  and  they  were  turned  into  stones  by  the  power 
of  God  and  the  prayers  of  saynt  Patryk.    And  Englysh  Irish  earth  is 
marchauntes  of  England  do  fetch  of  the  erth  of  Irlonde  venomous  worms, 
to  caste  in  their  gardens,  to  kepe  out  and  to  kyU  venim- 
ous wormes.     IT  Englysh  money  goth  in  Irelond,  for 
Irlowd  belongeth  to  England,  for  the  kynge  of  Englonde 
is  kyng  of  Irlond.      In  Irlond  they  haue  Irysh  grotes.  They  have  groats 
and  harped  grotes,  &  Irysh  pens.     %  If  there  be  any 
man  the  which  wyll  lerne  some  Irysh,  Englysh  and 
Irysh  dothe  folow^  here  togyther. 
One.      two.  thre.  foure.  fyue.    syx.  seuen.      eyght.        The  Irish 

,  numerals. 

Heioen.  doio.  ire.     kaar.  quiek.  seth.  showght.  howgtit 
nyne.  ten.  aleuyn.  twelue.  thirtene.  fourtene. 
nygh.  deli,  hewnek.  dowek.   tredeek.   kaardeek. 

'  patriarkes  B.       ■*  C  .iv.  not  signed.       ^  fololow  A ;  folowe  B. 



[chap.    III. 

Irish  numerals. 

A  talk  in  Irish 
and  English. 

fyuetene.     syxtene.  seuentene.      eyghtene. 
quiekdeek?-  sehdeek.  showghtdeek.  Iiowghtdeek, 
nynetene.  twenty,  one  &  twenty,  ii.  &  twew  ty .  thre  &  twenty 
nythdek,  feh.        hewn  feet.      doichfeet,     trefeet 
Thirty,    forty,      fyfty.  syxty.       a  hondred. 

Dehfeet  eayfeet.  dewhegesdayth.^  trefeet.      keede. 

God  spede  you,  syr !  Anoha  dewh  sor  / 

You  be  welcome  to  the  towne.     De  van  wely. 

How  do  you  fare  % 

I  do  fare  well,  I  thanke  you. 

Tarn  agoomawli  gramahogood 

Syr,  can  you  speke  Iryshe  ? 

^  IT  I  can  speke  a  lytle. 

Mayden,  come  hether,  and  gyue  me  som  meate  ! 

KalyUy  tarin  cliowhj  toor  dewh  ! 

IF  Wyfe,  haue  you  any  good  meate  ? 

Benitee,  wyl  heemah  hogoot  ? 

IT  Syr,  I  haue  enough  e. 

Kanys  stato  ? 

Sor,  woll  galoio  oket  ? 
Tasyn  agomee. 

IT  "Wyfe,  gyue  me  bread  ! 

IT  Man,  gyue  me  wine  ! 

IT  Mayden,  gyue  me  chese  ! 

IF  Wyfe,  gyue  me  fleshe  ! 

Gyue  me  some  fyshe  ! 

IF  Much  good  do  it  you  ! 

IF  How  far  is  it  to  Waterford  1 

Gath  haad  o  showh  go  part  laarg. 

Sor,  tha  gwyler. 
Benytee,  toor  haran  I 
Farate,  toor  f yen  1 
Kalyn,  toor  case  I 
Benyte,  toor  foeule! 
Toor  yeske! 
Teena  go  sowgh  / 

It  is  one  an  twenty  myle. 
IF  What  is  it  a  clocke  1 
IF  It  is  .vi.  a  clocke. 
IF  Whan  shal  we  go  to  supper  1 
Oahad  rah  moyd  auer  soper  ? 
^  Giue  me  a  rekenyng,  wyfe. 
2'oor  countes  doyen,  benitee 
^  Ye  shall  pay  .iii.  pens. 

Myle  heivryht. 
Gaued  howleh  glog . 
She  wylly  a  glog. 

Yeke  ke  to  tre  pyn  Iny, 

*  quiekdeek  B.        '  dewhegesnayth  B.        '  C  .iv.  back. 

CHAP.    IV.J 




IT  Whan  shal  I  go  to  slepe,  wyfe  1 

Gah  hon  rah  moyd  holowh  ? 

IT  By  an  by.  Nish  feene. 

^  God  night,  sir !  Ih  may  sor  ! 

Fare  wel,  fare  wel !  Sor  doyt^  sor  doit  t 

%  Thus  endeth  the  maner  and  speche  of  * 

•^   The  fourth^  chapter  treateth 

of  Scotland,  and  the  natural  dis- 

posycion  of  a  Scotyshe  man. 

And  of  theyr  money,  and 

of  theyr  speche.* 

I  Am  a  Scotyshe  man,  and  trew  I  am  to  Fraunce ; 
In  euery  countrey,  myselfe  I  do  auaunce ; 
I  wyll  boost  myselfe,  I  wyll  crake  and  face  ; 
I  lone  to  be  exalted,  here  and  in  euery  place, 
an  Englyshe  man  I  cannot  naturally  loue, 
Wherfore  I  ojffend  them,  and  my  lorde  aboue ; 
He  that  wyll  double  with  any  man. 
He  may  spede  wel,  but  I  cannot  tell  whan. 
I  am  a  Scotyshe  man,  and  haue  dissymbled  muche, 
and  in  my  promyse  I  haue  not  kept  touche. 

I  always  boast. 

I  can't  like 

I  dissemble,  and 
don't  keep  my 

^  of  of  AB.         2  gjgQ  J)  J  3  f^^^ij  ^ .  fourth  B. 

■•  A  note  written  here  in  Mr  Christie-Miller's  copy  says, 
"  vid.  etiam  Jo.  Bruerinuw  in  suo  lib.  de  re  Cibaria." 

136  OF   SCOTLAND    AND    ITS   POVERTY.  [CHAP.    IV. 

Great  morder  and  theft  in  tymes  past  I  haue  vsed ;    11 
I  trust  to  God  hereafter,  such  thynges  shal  be  refused, 
wheneter  I  speak  And  what  worde  I  do  speake,  be  it  in  myrth  or  in  borde, 

I  swear  by  the 

Foul  Evu  "  The  foule  euyll "  shalbe  at  the  end  of  my  worde ; 

Yet  wyl  I  not  chaunge  my  apparell  nor  aray, 
although  the  French  men  go  neuer  so  gay.  16 

Scotland  is  a  kyngdome,  the  kynge  of  the  whyche 
^hath  in  olde  tyme  come  to  the  parliament  of  the 
kyng  of  England,  and  hath  be  subiect  to  England. 
Scotland  is  deuyded  in  two  partes  ;  the  one  part,  that  is 
to  say,  nexte  England,  is  Hayden,  Edenborow,  Lythko, 
Sterlynge,  Glasco,^  saynt  Androwes,  saynt  lohns  towne, 
wyth  the  cou^^tres  anexed,  and  adiacent  to  the  aforesayd 

South  Scotland      cities  and  townes  :  [therein]  is  plenty  of  fysh  and  flesh, 

much  oat  cake,  and  cuell  ale,  excepte  Leth  ale ;  there  is  plenty  of  hauer 
cakes,  whiche  is  to  say,  oten  cakes :  this  parte  is  the 
hart  and  the  best  of  the  realme.      The  other  parte  of 

The  Highlands  Scotlande  is  a  baryn  and  a  waste  couwtrey,  full  of  mores, 
lyke  the  lande  of  the  wylde  Ireshe.  And  the  people 
of  that  parte  of  Scotland  be  very  rude  and  vnmanered 
&  vntaught ;  yet  that  part  is  somwhat  better  than  the 

The  Southern       North  parte,  but  yet  the  Sowth  parte  wvU  gnaw  a  bone, 

Scots  will  gnaw  a  ..  iti  .  mi  -n'l  i-t-.ii 

bone,  and  put  it     and  cast  it  luto  the  dish  again.    Theyr  Fyshe  and  Fleshe, 

back  in  the  dish.      ,       .,  ,     ,  ,  ,  •»  n 

be  it  rosted  or  soden,  is  serued  wyth  a  syrup  or  a  sause 

in  one  disshe  or  platter :  of  al  nacyons  they  do  sethe 

theyr    fysh  moste  beste.      The   borders   of    Scotland 

In  the  Borders      toward  England, — as  they  the  which  doeth  dwell  by 

penury,  in  huts;    ITycoU  forest,  and  SO  vpward  to  Barwyke,  by-yonde  the 

water  of  Twede, — lyueth  in  much  pouertie  and  penurye, 

hauynge  no  howses  but  suche  as  a  man  maye  buylde 

man,  wife,  and      wytliiu  .iii.  or  .iiii.  houres  :  he  and  his  wyfe  and  his 

horse  in  one  room.   .  j        i    ii        n    •  t      xi  i.  i 

horse  standeth  all  m  one  rome.     In  these  partyes  be 
many  out-lawes  and  stronge  theues,  for  muche  of  theyr 

•  D  .i.  back. 

'  Boorde  studied  and  practised  in  Glasgow.  See  the  Ivre- 
wordSy  p.  59. 


lyiiyng  standeth  by  stelyng  and  robbyng.     Also  it  is 

naturally  geuen,  or  els  it  is  of  a  deuyllyshe  dysposicion  Scotchmen  don't 

of  a  Scotysh  maw,  not  to  loue  nor  fauour  an  Englyshe 

maw.^     And  I,  beyng   there,  and  dwellynge  amonge 

them,  was  hated  ;  but  my  scyences  &  other  polyces  dyd  i  was  hated  by 

kepe  me  m  fauour,  that  I  dyd  know  theyr  secretes. ^  at  their  secrets. 

The  people  of  the  couwtrey  be  hardy  men,  and  stronge 

men,  and  well  fauored,  &  good  musycyons ;  in  these  They're  good 

.iiii.   qualytes  they  be  mooste   lyke,  ^aboue  all  other 

nacions,  to  an  Englyshe  man ;  but  of  al  nacyons  they  but  the  wggest 

wyll  face,  crake,  and  boost  themselfe,  theyr  frendes,  and  world; 

theyr  cou?itrey,  aboue  reason ;    for  many  wyll  make  they  teii  strong 

strong  lyes.     In  Scotland  a  man  shall  haue  good  chere 

— ^he  that  can  away  wyth  it  after  the  countrey  fashion —  Living  is  che.ip. 

for  litle  money.     The  most  parte  of  theyr  money  is 

bras.     In  bras  they  haue  pens,  and  halfe  plackes,  &  scotch  piacka, 


plackes  :  four  Scotish  pens  is  a  placke,  and  a  placke  is 
almost  worth  an  Englysh  peny,  for  .xviii.  Scotish  pens 
is  worthe  an  Englyshe  grote :  in  Scotland  they  haue 
Scotysh  grotes  of  syluer,  but  they  be  not  so  good,  nor  silver  grotes, 

gold  ^-face- 
so  muche  worth,  as  an  Englysh  grote.     In  golde  they  crowns,  and 


haue  halfe  face  crownes,  worth  of  our  money  .ii.  shyl- 

lynges  and  .iiii.  pens.     And  they  haue  crownes  of  .iiii. 

shillinges  &  .viii.  pens,     if  a  Scotyshe  man  do  pay  .xx. 

crownes  of  golde,  or  a  thousande  crownes  of  golde,  he 

doth  say,  "  I  haue  payde  .xx.  pound,  or  a  thousande 

pounde  "  3  for  euery  crowne  of  .iiii.  shillinges  and  .viii.  *».  sa.  is  a  scotch 

pens  is  a  pounde  in  Scotland.     In  Scotlande  they  haue 

two  sondry  speches.     In  the  northe  parte,  and  the  part  Northerners  talk 

.  1        T    1  1       ^^^^  Irishmen. 

ioynyng  to  lerland,  that  speche  is  muche  lyke  the 
Iryshe  speche.  But  the  south  parte  of  Scotland,  and 
the  vsuall  speche  of  the  Peeres  of  the  Realme,  is  lyke  southerners  like 

^  North-English- 

the  northen  speche  of  England.     Wherfore  yf  any  man  men. 

'  See  the  note  from  The  Complaynt  of  Scotland,  p.  59  above. 
'  See  Boorde's  Letter  VI,  to  Secretary  Cromwell,  in  the 
Forewords^  p.  59.  "  D  .ii.  not  signed. 



[chap.    IV. 

A  talk  in  Scotch 
and  English. 

wyl  leame  to  speake  some  Scotysh, — Englysh  &  Scotish 
doth  folow  together. 

Scotch  numerals.  ^T  One,  two,  three,  foure,  fyue,  syx,  seuyn,  eyght,  nyne, 
Ene,  twey  dre,  foore^  feue,  sax,  sauen,  awght,  neen, 
ten,  aleuen,  twelue,  thertene,  fourtene,  fyftene,  syxtene. 
tane,  alauefi,  twalue,  dertene,  fortene,  vyuetene,  saxtene. 
seuentene,  eyghtene,  nyntene,  twenty,  one  and  twentye. 
sauentene,  awghtene,  nyntene,  twante,  ene  and  twanty. 
two  &  twenty,  a  hondred. 
twe  an  twanty,  a  hondryth. 

^  God  morow,  syr !     Geiod  day,  sher  I 

Do  you  know  me,  good  fellow  1 

Ken  ye  me,  gewd  fdlowh  ? 

Ye  syr,  wel  Inough  !     Ye  sher,  in  goodfayth! 

What  countrey  man  be  you  % 

What  contryth  man  he  ye  ? 

I  am  a  good  felow  of  the  Scotyshe  hloud. 

/  es  a  gewd  falow  of  the  Scotland  blewd. 

Than  haue  you  plenty  of  sowes  and  pygges. 

Than  haue  ye  fell  many  of  sewes  and  gryces. 

A  pygge  is  good  meate.     A  gryce  is  gewd  sole.^ 

Syr,  by  my  fayth  you  be  welcome  ! 

Sher,  by  my  fayth  but  yows  wel  come  ! 

For  as  muche  as  the  Scotysh  tongue  and  the 
northen  Englyshe  be  lyke  of  speche,  I  passe  ouer  to 
wryte  anye  more  of  Scottyshe  speche. 

Scotch  is  like 
Northern  Eng' 

D  .ii.  back. 

2  soul,  flavour.     See  p.  122, 1.  16. 

CHAP.    V. 



^  The  .V.  chapytre  treateth  of 
^}    Shetland  and  of  Pryceland  & 
of  the  naturall  disposycion  of 
the  people  of  the  countrey. 

'  I  Was  borne  in  Shetland,  my  countrey  is  M  colde ; 

And  I  was  borne  in  Friceland,  where  mnche  fyeh  is  sold; 

For  corne  and  for  shoes,  our  fyshe  we  do  sell ; 

And  symple  rayment  doth  seme  us  full  well ;  4 

Wyth  dagswaynes  and  roudges  ^  we  be  content ; 

And  our  chiefe  fare,  in  the  tyme  of  Lent, 

Fyshe,  at  any  tyme  seldome  we  do  lacke.  7 

But  I  beshrew  the  louse  that  pyncheth  vs  by  the  back ! 

IT  Shotland  is  a  smale  countrey  or  Ilande,  the 
whyche  is  a  colde  countrey  and  baryn,  for  there  is 
nothinge  the  whyche  is  commodious  nor  pleasaunt,  ex- 
cept fyshe. 

IT  Fryce  is  in  maner  of  an  Ylande,  compassed 
aboute  on  the  one  syde  with  the  occyan  sea,  hauyng 
hys  begynnyng  at  the  ende  of  the  water  of  Reene,  and 
doth  end  towarde  Denmarkes  sea.  And  although  they 
be  anexed  to  Germany,  yet  they  do  dyffer,  for  they  do 
\'se  contrary  fashyons,  as  well  in  theyr  apparel  as  in 
'  D  .iii.  not  signed.  '  coarse  cloths  and  rugs. 

In  Friesland  we 
sell  fish  for  com 
and  shoes. 

We  live  on  fish. 

In  Shetland, 

nothing:  is  nice 
but  fish. 

Friesland  is 
nearly  an  island. 

The  Frisians 
differ  from  the 



[chap.    V,  VI. 

Frisians  have 
no  firewood ; 

and  no  great 
Lords,  but  only 

Friesic  is  lik« 
Low  German  or 


Frisian  coins. 

theyr  maners,  for  they  be  rurall  and  rusticall ;  they 
haue  no  wood  there,  but  turfes  and  dung  of  beastes,  to 
make  theyr  fyre.  They  wolde  not  be  subiect  to  no 
man,  although  they  be  vnder  the  Emperours  dominion: 
they  do  loue  no  war,  nor  bate,  nor  strife,  nor  they  loue 
not,  nor  wyl  not  haue  no  greate  lordes  amonge  them;  but 
there  be  admitted  certayn  Justices,  And  Justice  that 
loueth,  and  prayseth,  Chastyte.  The  countrey  is  could, 
baryn,  and  poore,  lackyng  riches ;  yet  there  is  plenty  of 
pasture :  theyr  speche  is  lyke  to  base  Germanyens  spech ; 
it  doth  dyffer  but  lyttle.  One  of  the  chiefe  townes  of 
Fryce  land  is  called  Grunnyghen.  In  golde  they  haue 
Ryders,  Gylders,  and  Clemers  gylders.  In  syluer  they 
haue  lochymdalders. 

'^  The  .vi.  Chapter  treateth  of  Norway  &  of  Islonde, 

and  of  the  natural  disposicion  of  the  people  of  the 

countrey,  and  of  theyr  money  and  speche. 

'  D  .iii.  back.     See  p.  142  for 
note  on  the  cuts. 


I  Am  a  poore  man,  borne  in  Norway ; 

Hawkes  and  fysh  of  me  marchauntes  do  by  all  daye.  in  Norway  we 

And  I  was  borne  in  Islond,  as  brute  as  a  beest ;  iish. 

Whan  I  ete  candels  ends,  I  am  at  a  feest.  4  i"  Iceland  we 

eat  candle-ends 

Talow  and  raw  stockfysh,  I  do  loue  to  ete ;  (see  Notet) 

In  my  countrey  it  is  right  good  meate  ; 

Raw  fysh  and  flesh  I  eate  whan  I  haue  nede  :  «»«*  raw  fish  and 

•^  '  flesh. 

Upon  such  meates  I  do  loue  to  feed.  8 

Lytle  I  do  care  for  matyns  or  masse,^ 
And  2  for  any  good  rayment,  I  do  neuer  passe ; 
Good  beastes  skyns  I  do  loue  for  to  were,  we  wear  wolves* 

Be  it  the  skins  of  a  wolfe  or  of  a  beare,  12 

5  IT  Norway  is  a  great  Ilond  compassed  abowt 
almost  wyth  the  See  ;  the  countre  is  very  colde,  where-  Norway  has 
fore  they  haue  lytle  come,  and  lytle  bread  and  drynke ; 
the  countre  is  wylde,  and  there  be  many  rewde  people. 
They  do  lyue  by  fysshyng  and  huntyng.  Ther  be 
many  castours  and  whyte  beares*,  &  other  mo??sterous  it  has  Beavers 

and  White  Bears, 

beastes  :  there  be  welles,  the  whyche  doth  tourne  wood  and  Petrifying 


in  to  Irone.  In  somer  there  be  many  daies  that  the 
sunne  doth  neuer  go  downe,  but  is  continuallye  daye. 
And  in  many  dayes  in  wynter  it  is  styll  nyght.     In  it's  night  aii 


Norwaye  ther  be  good  hawkes  :  ther  is  lytle  money,  for 

they  do  barter  there  fysh  and  hawkes  for  Mele,  and 

shoes,  and  other  marchaundies. 

IT  Iselond  is  beyond  Norway  :  It  is  a  great  Ilond 

compassed  about  wyth  the  Ise  See  ;  the  couwtre  is  won-  Iceland  is  very 

derful  cold,  and  in  dyuers  places  the  see  is  frosyn,  and 

full  of  Ise.     There  is  no  come  growynge  there;  nor  and  grows  no 

they  haue  lytle  bread,  or  none.     In  stede  of  bread  they 

do  eate  stockefyshe  ;  and  they  wyll  eate  rawe  fyshe  and  Icelanders  eat 

fleshe ;  they  be  beastly  creatures,  vnraanered  and  vn-  beastly  creatures. 

taughte.     They  haue  no  houses,  but  yet  doth  lye  in 

'  anye  of  gods  seniasse  B.  This  change  implies  that  Mary's 
reign  was  over.     Forewords,  p.  19. 

^  And  as  B.  '  D  .iiii,  not  signed. 

*  No  white  bears  in  Norway.—  G.  Vigf usson. 


Icelanders  lie  in 
caves  like  swine; 
give  away  tlieir 
children,  and 

are  like  the 
people  of  Calyco. 

They  barter  fish 
for  meal,  &c., 
and  use  no 

Priests,  though 
beggars,  have 

No  night  in 

I  can't  speak 


[OHAP.    VI. 

caues^  al  together,  lyke  swyne.  They  wyll  sell  there 
Iselond  curres,  &  gyue  a-way  their  chyldren.  They 
wyll  eate  talowe  candells,  and  candells  endes,  and  olde 
grece,  and  restye  tallowe,  and  other  fylthy  thinges. 
They  do  were  wylde  beastes  skinnes^  and  roudges.  They 
be  lyke  the  people  of  the  newe  founde  land  named 
Calyco.     In  Iselond  there  be  many  wylde  beastes. 

The  people  be  good  fyshers ;  muche  of  theyr  fyshe 
they  do  barter  wyth  English  men,  for  mele,  lases,  and 
shoes,  &  other  pelfery.  They  do  vse^  no  mony  in  the 
couwtre,  but  they  do  barter  or  chaunge  one  thynge  for 
another.  There  be  som  prestes  the  whych  be  beggers, 
yet  they  wyll  haue  concubynes.  In  Sommer  tyme  they 
haue,  in  maner,  no  nyghte.  And  in  wynter  tyme  they 
haue,  in  lyke  nmner,  ^  fewe  howres  of  dayelyghte.  theyr 
language  I  can  not  speke,  but  here  and  there  a  worde 
or  two,  wherfore  I  do  passe  ouer  to  wryte  of  it. 

'    In  Iceland   the   subterranean    dwelling  is  a   standing 

-G.  Vigfusson. 
'  No  wild  beasts  in  Iceland.— G.  V.   Skins  got  from  abroad. 
^  D  .iiii.  back. 

Instead  of  the  two  cuts  at  the  head  of  chap,  vi,,  of  the  Rose-Garland  edition 
(1547  or  -8),  the  Lothbury  edition  of  1562  or  -I  substitutes  the  two  below  : 




%  The  .vii.  Chapytre  shewetli  howe  the  auctor  of  thys 
boke,  how  he  had  dwelt  in  Scotland  and  other  Ilandes, 
did  go  thorowandrounde  about  Christendom,  and  oute 
of  Christendome ;  declarynge  the  properties  of  al  the 
regions,  conntreys,  and  prouynees,  the  whiche  he 
did  trauel  thorow. 

*  d^\P  noble  England,  of  Ireland  and  of  Wales, 
V_>/     And  also  of  Scotland,  I  haue  tolde  som  tales ; 

*  On  this  woodcut  the  late  Mr  Dyce  remarks  in  his  Skelton^s  Works,  i,  "  the 
portrait  on  the  title-page  of  Dyuers  Balettys  and  Byt'ies  solacyous  (evidently 
from  the  press  of  Pynson  ;  see  Appendix  II.  to  this  Memoir)  is  given  as  a  por- 
trait of  *  Doctor  Boorde '  in  the  Boke  of  Knowledge  (see  reprint,  sig.  I)." 
The  pinnacle  over  the  Doctor's  head  is  complete  in  A,  broken  in  B  as  in  our 
cut.  The  cut  that  Wyer  used  for  Boorde  is  on  the  title-page  of  Barnes's* 
Treatyse  on  Beards  below,  p..306.  ^  sign.  E  .i. 

1  0 


1  write  con- 

The'  my  metre 
is  doggrelj 

wise  men  will 
take  my  meaning. 

Our  royal  Realm 
of  England  has 
no  equal. 

Were  I  a  Jew  or 
Turk,  I  yet  must 
praise  it. 

All  nations  flow 
to  it. 

In  all  my  travels 
I  never  knew  7 
Englishmen  who 
lived  permanently 

Yet  how  many 
aliens  live  here ! 

I  shall  now  tell 
you  of  more  lands 
I've  travelled  in. 


And  of  other  Ilondes  I  haue  shewed  my  mynd  j 
He  that  wyl  trauell,  the  truthe  he  shall  fynd.  4 

After  my  conscyence  I  do  wryte  truly, 
Although  that  many  men  wyl  say  that  I  do  lye ; 
But  for  that  matter,  I  do  greatly  pas, 
But  I  am  as  I  am,  but  not  as  I  was.  8 

And  where  [as]  my  metre  is  ryme  dogrell, 
The  effect  of  the  whych  no  wyse  man  wyll  depell, 
For  he  wyll  take  the  effect  of  my  mynde, 
Although  to  make  meter  I  am  full  blynde.  12 

For  as  muche  as  the  most  regall  realme  of  England 
is  cytuated  in  an  angle  of  the  worlde,  hauing  no  region 
in  Chrystendom  nor  out  of  Chrystendom  equiualent  to 
it, — ^The  co?»modyties,  the  qualite,  &  the  qua7ityte,  wyth 
other  and  many  thynges  considered,  within  &  aboute  the 
sayd  noble  realme, — Wherefore^  yf  I  were  a  lewe,  a 
Turke,  or  a  Sarasyn,  or  any  other  infidele,  I  yet  must 
prayse  &  laud  it,  and  so  wold  euery  man,  yf  they  dyd 
know  of  other  co?itrees  as  well  as  England.  Wherfore, 
all  nacyons  aspyeng  thys  realme  to  be  so  commodyous 
and  pleasaunt,  they  haue  a  confluence  to  it  more  than 
to  anye  other  regyon.  I  haue  trauayled  rownd  about 
Chrystendom,  and  out  of  Christendom,  and  I  dyd  neuer 
se  nor  know  .vii.  Englyshe  men  dwellynge  in  any  towne 
or  cyte  in  anye  regyon  byyond  the  see,  excepte  mar- 
chauntes,  students,  &  brokers,  not  theyr  beyng  parma- 
nent  ^  nor  abydyng,  but  resorting  thyther  for  a  space. 
In  Englande  ho  we  manye  alyons  hath  and  doth  dwell 
of  all  maner  of  nacyons !  let  euery  man  ludge  the 
cause  why  and  wherfore,  yf  they  haue  reason  to  per- 
scrute  the  mater.  I  haue  also  shewed  my  mynde  of  the 
realme  of  lerlande,^  Wales,  and  Scotland,  *and  other 
londes;  pretendyng  to  shew  of  regyons,  kyngdoms, 
couwtreys,   and  prouinces,   thorow   and   round    about 

'  wherof  B. 

'  permanent  B. 
*  E  .i.  back. 

England  B. 


where  that  I  haue  traueylyd,  specyally  aboute  Europ, 

and  parte  of  AfFrycke  :  as  for  Asia,  I  was  neuer  in,  yet  I've  never  been 

I  do  wryte   of   it  by  auctours,  cronycles,  &  by  the 

wordes  of  credyble  parsons,  the  whiche  haue  trauelled 

in  those  partyes.     But  concernyng  my  purpose,  and  for 

my  trauellyng  in,  thorow,  and   round   about    Europ, 

whiche  is  all  Chrystendom,  I  dyd  wryte  a  booke  of  iwroteaffaw^- 

book  of  Europe, 

euery  region,    countre,   and  prouynce,    shewynge    the 

myles,  the  leeges,  and  the  dystaunce  from  citye  to  cytie,  with  distances 

and  descriptions 

and  from  towne  to  towne;  And  the  cyties  &  townes  of  towns; 

names,  wyth  notable  thynges  within  the  precyncte  [of], 

or  about,  the  sayd  cytyes  or  townes,  wyth  many  other 

thynges  longe  to  reherse  at  this  tyme,  the  whiche  boke 

at  Byshops-Waltam — .viii.  myle  from  Wynchester  in  butiientitto 

Hampshyre, — one  Thomas  Cromwell^  had  it  of  me.  weii  at  Bishop's- 

And  bycause  he  had  many  matters  of  [state]  to  dyspache     *  '*™' 

for  al  England,  my  boke  was  loste,*  the  which  myght  at  and  it  was  lost. 

this  presente  tyme  haue  holpen  me,  and  set  me  forward 

in  this  matter.     But  syth  that  I  do  lacke  the  aforesayde 

booke,  humbly  I  desyre  all  men,  of  what  nacyon  soeuer 

they  be  of,  not  to  be  discontent  wyth  my  playne  wryt-  do  not  be 

yng,  &  that  I  do  tell  the  trewth ;  for  I  do  not  wryte  ony  Jelling* the  truth. 

thynge  of  a  malycious  nor  of  a  peruerse  mynde,  nor  i  don't  write 

for  no  euyll  pretence,  but  to  manyfest  thinges  the  whiche 

be  openly  knowen,  And  the  thynges  that  I  dyd  se  in 

many  Regyons,  Cytyes,  and  Countryes,  openly  vsed. 

Pascall  the  playn  dyd  wryte  and  preach  manifest  paschai  [?  Pope 
thinges  that  were  opera  in  the  face  of  the  world  to  in8,A.D.]'re-  " 
rebuke  sin ;  wyth  the  which  matter  I  haue  nothyng  to  ^"^^^  ^^"" 
do,  for  I  doo  speke  of  many  countryes  &  regions,  and  of 

'  Compare  this  of  the  dead,  "  one  Thomas  Cromwell,"  with  Boorde's  letter 
to  the  living,  "Right  Honorable  Lorde  the  Lord  of  the  Pryue  Seale,"  &c. 
Forewords,  p.  62. 

^  Boorde's  Itinerary  of  England— not  Europe — was  printed  by  Hearne  in 
his  edition  of  "  Benedictus  Abbas  Petroburgensis  de  Vita  et  Gestis  Henrici  III. 
et  Ricardi  I.,"  &c.,  vol.  2,  p,  777  (before  and  after).  Hearne's  account  of 
Boorde,  from  Wood's  Athenre,  and  his  own  knowledge,  is  in  vol.  i.  of  the  same 
book,  p.  36-56.     Forewords,  p.  23. 

BOORDE.  10 



I  describe  coun- 
tries and  men. 

I  wish  to  tell 
travellers  what 
they're  to  do  j 

the  natural  dysposicyon  of  the  inhabitonrs  of  the  same, 
with  other  necessary  thynges  to  be  knowen,  specially 
for  them  the  '  whiche  doth  pretende  to  trauayle  the 
countrees,  regions,  and  prouinces,  that  they  may  be  in  a 
redines  to  knowe  what  they  should  do  whan  they  come 
and  about  foreign  there:   And  also  to  know  the  money  of  the  couTitre, 

money  and 

speech.  &  to  spckc  parte  of  the  language  or  speache  that  there 

is  vsed,  by  the  whiche^  a  msin  may  com  to  a  forder 
knowledge.  Also  I  do  not,  nor  shal  not,  dispraue  no 
man  in  this  booke  perticulerly ;  but  manifest  thinges  I 
doo  wryte  openly,  and  generally  of  coniin  vsages,  for  a 
generall  co??imodite  and  welth. 

1  went  from  f  And  in  beyng  ouer  sea  at  Calys,  I  went  first 

Calais  through 

Flanders.  thorow  Flaundcrs ;  wherefore  the  Flewmyng  confesseth 

him  selfe,  sayeng  : — 

The  .viii.  Chapiter  treateth  of  Plauiiders, 

And  of  the  naturall  disposieion  of  a 

Pleming,  and  of  their 

money  and    of 

their  speche. 

^  sign.  E  .ii. 


^  IT  I  Am  a  Flemyng,  what  for  all  that, 

Although  I  wyll  he  dronken  other  whyles  as  a  rat  ?         i  get  as  dmnk 

as  a  rat,  and  am 

"  Buttermouth  Flemyng,"  men  doth  me  call  j  caUed  "Butter- 

T^  •  1  •      1      1         -1  1  11  mouth  Fleming." 

Butter  IS  good  meate,  it  doth  relent  the  gall.  4 

To  my  butter  I  take  good  hread  and  drynke  ; 

To  quaf  to  moch  of  it,  it  maketh  me  to  wynk. 

Great  studmares  we  bryng  vp  in  Flaunders  ;  7  we  seii  our 

brood-mares  in 

We  sell  them  into  England,  wher  they  get  the  glauwders.  England. 

Out  of  England,  and  out  of  the  aforsayd  regyons  to  to  go  from 
come  thorowe  England,  to  fetche  the  course  and  cyrcuyt  Christendom. 
of  Europ  or  Chrystendom : — From  Lowdon,  that  noble 
cyte,  let  a  man  take  his  lomey  to  Rochester,  Cawn-  Go  from  London 

by  Dover  or 

terbury  and  Doner,  or  to  Sandwiche,  to  take  shyppyng  sandwich, 

to  sayle  to  the  welfauered  towne  of  Calys,  the  which  caiais 

doth  stand  commodyously  for  the  welth  and  succor  of 

all  Englande ;  In  the  whyche  towne  is  good  fare  and 

good  cheere,  and  there  is  good  order,  &  polytike  men,  (which  is  weii 


great   defence,  &  good   ordynawnce   for  warre.      The 

sayde  towne   hath  anexed  to  it  for   defence,   Gynes, 

Hammes,  and  Rysbanke,  Newman  ^  brydge,  &  a  blocke- 

howse  against  Grauelyng,  in  Flaunders.  .  From  Calys  a 

man  must  goo  thorowe   Flaunders.      Flau?iders  is   a  and  then  go 

plentyfull  countre  of   fyshe  &  fleshe  &  wyld  fowle.  (a  rich  country. 

There  shall  a  man  be  clenly  serued  at  his  table,  &  well  sandy).  *" 

ordred  and  vsed  for  meat,  and  drynke,^  &  lodgyng. 

The  countre  is  playn,  &  somwhat  sandy.     The  people 

be  gentyl,  but  the  men  be  great  drynkers ;  and  many  of  Tiie  Flemings  are 

iT-ni  great  drinlcers. 

the  women  be  vertuous  and  wel  dysposyd.     In  FlauTZ- 

ders  there  be  many  fayre  townes  :  as  Gawnt,  Burges,  &  (Ghent.  Bruges.) 

Newport,   and  other.     In  Flauwders,  and  in  Braban, 

and  other  prouinces  anexed  to  the  same,  the  people  wil  Tiiey  eat 

frogs'  loins  and 

eate  the  hynder  loynes  of  frogges,*  &  wyll  eate  tod-  toadstools. 

'  sign.  E  .ii.  back.  '  Newnam  B. 

'  meat,  drinke  B. 

*  ISee  an  old  recipe  for  cooking  them,  in  Queene  Eliza- 
betkcs  Aclcademy,  ^'c.^  Part  ii.  p.  152,  E.  E.  T.  Soc.  1869. 

1  ^.  • 



[chap.  IX. 

Flemish  speech      stooles.     As  foi  the  speche  &  the  money  of  Plaunders, 

and  money  are  -r-.  *  t 

like  Low-Gei-man  [they]  doo  not  dyffei  but  lytle  from  Base-Almayne ; 
1. 7, 8).      *     '    wherfore  loke  in  the  chapiter  of  Base-Almayn.     [Chap, 
xiii,  p.  157-8.] 

^  The  .ix.  chapiter  tretyth  of  Selond, 

and  Holond/  and  of  the  naturall 

dysposycyon    of    a    Selondder, 

and  Holawder,  &  of  their  money 

and  of  theyr^  speche. 

^  I  Am  a  Selondder,  and  was  borne  in  Selond  ; 
My  cuntre  is  good,  it  is  a  propre  Ilond. 
Hollanders  make    And  I  am  a  Holander ;  good  cloth  I  do  make ; 

To  muche  of  Englyshe  here,  dyuers  tymes  I  do  take.  4 

'  E  .iii.  not  signed.     See  the  cut  again  on  p.  155. 
^  Selande,  Holand,  B.  ^  &  their  B. 

Zealand  is  an 



We  lacke  no  butter  that  is  vnsauery  and  salt,  We  sell  batter, 

Therfore  we  quaf  the  beer ',  that  causeth  vs  to  halt. 

We  haue  haruest  heryng,  and  good  hawkes,  herrings,  hawks. 

With  ^  great  elys,  and  also  great  walkes  :  8  eeis,  and  wheiks, 

Wyth  such  thynges,  other  londes  we  help  and  fede  ;  to  other  lands. 

Suche  marchaundise  doth  helpe  vs  at  nede ; 

^  Yet  to  vs  it  shoulde  be  a  great  passyon  "^^  ^o"''  c'lange 

^  ^       ^  our  old  fashions. 

To  chaunge  our  rayment  or  our  olde  fashyon.  12 

IT  Seland.and  Holand  be  proper  and  fayre  Hands, 
and  there  is  plenty  of  barelled  butter,  the  whych  is  we  have  butter, 
resty  &  salt ;  and  there  is  cheese,  &  hering,  salmons,  cheese,  salmon, 
Elys,  &  lytle  other  fysh  that  I  did  se.     ther  be  many 
goshawkes,  and  other  hawkes,  &  wyld  foule.     Ther  be  goshawks, 
these  good  townes  in  Seland  :  Mydilborow,  and  Flossh-  Middieburgh  and 

°  .  Flushing. 

ing,  &  other  mo.     In  Holand  is  a  good  towne  called 
Amsterdame;  and  yet  right  many  of  the  men  of  the  Amsterdam, 
countres  wyll  quaf  tyl  they  ben  dronk,  &  wyl  pysse  Dutchmen  drink 
vnder  the  table  where  as  they  sit.     They  be  gentyll  of  them, 
people,   but  they  do  not  fauer  Skottysh  men.      The  They  don't  like 


women  in  the  church  be  deuout,.  &  vsyth  oft  to  be  con- 
fessed in  the  church  openly,  laying  theyr  heades  in  the  women  confess 

openly  in  church; 

prestes  lap  ;  for  prestes  there  do  sit  whan  they  do  here 
confessyons,  awd  so  they  do  in  many  other  prouynces 
anexed  to  the  same.     The  women  be  modestyouse,  &  in  they  are  modest, 

and  wear  mantles 

the  townes  &  church  they  couer  thewiself,  &  parte  of  over  their  heads, 
theyr  face  and  hed,  with  theyr  mantles  of  say,  gadryd 
and  pleted  mouch  like  after   nonnes  fashyon.    theyr 
language,  theyr  money,  theyr  maners  and  fashyons,  is  Dutch  speech  and 

,  ways  are  like 

lyke  Flaunders,  Hanaway,  and  Braban,  which  be  com-  those  of  Flanders 

and  Hainault. 

modyous  and  plentyfull  countreys. 

'  Lorde,  how  the  Flemines  bragged,  and  the  Hollanders 
craked,  that  Calice  should  be  wonne,  and  all  the  Englishemen 
slain  ;  swearyng,  and  staryng,  that  they  would  haue  it  within 
thre  dales  at  the  moste ;  thynkyng  verely  that  the  toune  of 
Calice  could  no  more  resist  their  puyssaunce  then  a  potte  of 
double  heere^  when  they  fall  to  quaffyng. — Hall's  Chronicle,  p. 
181,  ed.  1809. 

2  Whan  A  ;  with  B.  ^  E  .iii.  back. 




f  The  .X.'  Chapiter  treatyth  of 

Braban,  and  of  the  natural 

disposicion  of  a  Braband- 

er,  of  theyr^  speche 

and  of  theyr 


I  hold  marts 
often,  and  love 
good  beer. 

and  good  meat. 

*  IT  I  Was  borne  in  Braban,  that  is  both  gentil  and  free ; 

All  nacyons  at  all  tymes  be  well-come  to  mee. 

I  do  vse  martes,  dyuers  tymes  in  the  yere ; 

And  of  all  thynges,  I  do  loue  good  Englysh  beere.       4 

In  Anwarpe  and  in  Barow/  I  do  make  my  martes  ; 

There  doth  Englysh  marchauntes  cut  out  theyr  partes. 

I  haue  good  sturgyon,  and  other  good  fyshe ; 

I  loue  euer  to  haue  good  meate  in  my  dyshe ;  8 

I  haue  good  lodgyng,  and  also  good  chere, 

I  have  good  wine.  I  haue  good  wyne,  and  good  Englyshe  here  ; 

Yet  had  I  rather  to  be  drowned  in  a  beere  barell        11 

Than  I  wolde  chaunge  the  fashion  of  my  olde  apparel. 

IT  Braban  is  a  comodyous  and  a  pleasaunt  countrey, 

In  the  whyche   is   plentyfulnes  of   meat,   drynke,  & 

oorne ;  there  is  plenty  of  fysh,  and  fleshe  ;  there  is  good 

^  tenth  B.         '  the  A ;  theyr  B.         ^  E  .iiii.  not  signed. 

*  Bacow  B.  ?  Breda.  Under  '  the  .XXIII.  yere  of  Kyng 
Henry  the  .VIIL'  Hall  says  :  *In  this  yere  [a.d.  1531 J  was  an 
olde  Tolle  demaunded  in  Flaunders  of  Englyshmen,  called  the 
Tolle  of  the  Hounde,  which  is  a  Kyuer  and  a  passage  :  The 
Tolle  is  .xii.  pence  of  a  Fardell.  This  Tolle  had  been  often 
tymes  demaunded,  but  neuer  payed  :  Insomoche  that  Kyng 
Henry  the  seuenth,  for  the  demaunde  of  that  Tolle,  prohibited 
all  his  subiectes  to  Itepe  any  Marte  at  Antwerpe  or  Barow^ 
but  caused  the  Martes  to  be  kepte  at  Calyes.'— C7iro7itcZ6',  p. 
786,  ed.  1809. 

Brabant  is  a 
rich  country, 

with  plenty  of 

CHAP.    X.]      INTRODUCTION.       OF    BRABANT   AND    HATNAULT.  151 

Sturgyon,  Tnnnej,  and  many  other  good  fysh,  and  good 

chepe.     The  countrey  is  playn,  and  ful  of  fartylyte. 

God  is  well  serued  in  theyr  churches;  and  there  be  The  folk  are  de- 
vout and  loving, 
manye  good  and  deuout  people ;   and  the  people  be 

louyng  ;  &  there  be  many  good  felowes  the  whyche  wyll 
drynke   all  out  ^  :    there  be  many  good  craftes  men, 
speciall,  good  makers  of  Ares  clothe.     There  a  man  may  They  make  good 
by  all  maner  of  lynen  cloth,  &  silkes,  &  implimentes  for 
howsholde,  &  plate  and  precious  stones,  and  many  other 
thynges,  of  a  compytent  pryce.     The  speche  there  is 
Base-Douche,  and  the  money  is  the  Emperours  coine.  They  talk  Dutch, 
that  is  to  saye,  Douche  money,  of  the  whyche  I  do  wryte 
of  whan  that  I  do  speke  of  Base-Almayne.    In  Brabant 
be  many  fayre  and  goodly  townes  :  the  fyrst  is  Hand- 
warp,  a  welfauered  marchaunt  towne ;  the  spyre  of  the  Antwerp  has  a 
cliurche  is  a  curyous  and  a  ryght  goodly  lantren.     There 
is  the  fayrest  flesh  shambles  that  is  in  Chri^stendome.  »nci  shamwes. 
There  is  also  a  goodly  commyn  place  for  marchauntes  to 
stand  and  to  walke,  to  dryue  theyr  bargyns,  called  "  the  also  a  Bourse. 
Burse."     And  Englyshe  marchauntes  haue  there  a  fayre 
place.     There  is  another  towne  called  Louane,  whiche  is  Louvain, 
a  good  vnyuersyte.     There  is  also  Brusels,  and  Mawgh-  Mechiin.' 
lyn,  and  other  mo.     IT  Here  is  to  be  noted  that  there  is 
another  countre  ioynyng  to  Braban,  the  whych  is  called 
Hanawar  or  Hanago.     The  countre  is  like  Braban  and  Hainauit  is 

fertile ; 

Flaunders,  as  well  in  the  fartylyte  ^  and  plentyfulnes  of 
the  countre,  as  of  the  money  and  the  conuersacion  of  the 
people :  howbeit,  Hanaway  and  the  Hanawayes  do  dyfi"er 
somwhat  in  the  premysses ;  for  they  do  speke  in  diuers 
places,  as  well  Frenche  as  Doche ;  for  it  lyeth  betwyxt*  they  speak 

French  tliere  as 

Braban,  Flaunders,  and  Fraunce.     Theyr  money  is  the  weii  as  Dutch. 
Emperours  coyne,  as  the  money  of  Flaunders  &  Biahan 
is,  and  all  is  one  coyne:  the  chefe  town  of  Hanago  is  st Thomas; 
saynt  Thomas,  and  Bargen,  and  dyuers  other. 

'  gar  aus.  '  E  .iiii.  back.  ^  fertilitie  B. 

*  betwene  B. 



[chap.  XI. 

^  The  .xi.  Chapter  treteth 

of  Gelderlond  &  of  Cleue 

londe,  and  of  the  naturall 

disposicio^z  of  the  people 

of  those  cuntres,  &  of 

their  money  &  their 


Few  men  believe 


I  like  fighting, 

and  am  always 
poor,  and  my 
children  lack 

Cleveland  is 
richer  than 

^  IF  I  Am  of  Gelderlond,  &  brought  vp  in  the  lond  of 

Cleue ; 
In  many  thynges  few  men  wyl  me  heleue ; 
I  loue  brawlyng  and  war,  and  also  fyghtyng  ; 
Nyght  and  day  do  prouU,  to  get  me  a  lyuyng  ;  4 

Yet  for  all  that,  I  am  euer  poore  and  hare, 
Therfore  I  do  lyue  styl  in  penury  and  care  ; 
For  lack  of  meat,  my  chyldren  do  wepe, 
Wherfore  I  do  wake  whan  other  men  do  slepe.  8 

The  fashyon  of  my  rayment,  chaunge  I  wyll  not ; 
I  am  well  contented  whan  I  am  warm©  and  hot. 

Although  that  Gylderlond  and  Cleue-lond  be  two 
sondry  countrees  &  dukedoms,  yet  nowe  one  duke  hathe 
them  both^.  Cleuelond  is  better  then  Gelderlond,  for 
Gelderlond  is  sandy,  and  [has]  muche  waaste  and  baryn 
grownd.  The  Gelders  be  hardy  men,  and  vse  moche 
fyghtynge,  war,  and  robbyng.     The  countrees  be  poore, 

'  sign.  F  .i.     See  the  cut  in  B  on  the  next  page. 
*  Hhe  Duke  of  Gelders,'  Hally  p.  743,  a.d.  1527. 

CH.  XI.] 



for  Gelderlond  hath  vsed  moche  wane.     The  chyefe  chief  to -vns: 
townes  of  Gelder  lond  is  the  towne  of  Gelder^,  &  another  Geider, 
towne-  called  Nemigyn.      And    the    chefe    towne   of  J^*®™*^"m'   ,^ 

o*'  (on  the  Whaal., 

Cleuelond  is  tJie  towne  of  Cleue.   In  Gelder  londe  and  ^^^^^s. 
Cleue  lond  theyr  money  is  base  gold,  syluer,  &  brasse. 
In  gold  they  haue  Clemers  gylders,  and  golden  gilders,  ^J^j*^^^^*"'* 
and  gelders  arerys  :    a  gelder  areris  is  worth   .xxiii. 
steuers  :  .xxiii.   steuers  is  worth  .iii.  s.      There  is  an-  severs,  a 
other  peece  of  golde  called  a  home   sqnylyone:      horne-squiyone. 
a    home    squylyone    is   worthe   .xii.    steuers 
.xii.  steuers  is  worthe  .xix.  d.  ob.^  In  Syluer 
they  haue  a  snappan  ;  a  snappan  is  worth 
.vi.  steuers :  .vi.  steuers  is  worth  .ix.  d. 
ob.     In  brasse  they  haue  nor- 
kyns  and   halfe  norkyns, 
&  endewtkynge.    their 
speche  is  Base 

A  silver  Snappan. 

A  brass  Nor1<vn 
{id.  and  id.) 

'  Arnhem  is  the  chief  town  of  the  present  Guelderland, 
Gelder  is  now  in  Kleveberg,  Prussia.  '  ob  =  ^d. 

Instead  of  the  cut  of  the  first,  or 
Rose-Garland  edition  (1547  or  -8),  at 
the  head  of  this  chapter,  the  second, 
or  Lothbury  one  of  1562  or  -3,  substi- 
tutes the  cut  on  the  right  here  : 

154  OF  GULYK  (JULICH  OR  JULIERS)  AND  LEWKE  (lIEGe).       [cH.  XII. 

^  The  .xii.  chapyter  tretyth  of 

the  lond  of  Gulyk  &  of  Lewke, 

and  of  the  natural!  dysposyeion 

of  the  people  of  the  counties 

and  of  theyr  money 

and  of  theyr 


IF  I  Was  borne  in  Gulyke ;  In  Luke  I  was  brought  vp  ; 
Euer  I  loue  to  drynke  of  a  full  cup. 
I  pluck  my  geese    My  geese  ouBS  a  yere  I  do  clyp  and  pull ; 

once  a  year,  and 

sell  their  feathers.  I  do  ssll  my  fathers  as  other  men  doth  wuU;  4 

If  my  goos  go  naked,  it  is  no  great  matter, 
She  can  shyft  for  her  selfe  yf  she  haue  meat  &  water. 
The  fashyon  of  my  rayment,  be  it  hot  or  cold, 
I  wyl  not  leue  in  ony  wyse,  be  it  neuer  so  old.  8 

IT  The  lond  of  Gulyk  ^  is  a  dewkedom,  and  the  lond 
of  Lewke  is  an  Archebyshopryche,  for  Archebyshoppes 
in  Doche  lond  hathe  great  lordshyps  and  domynyons ; 
yet  they,  and  the  aforesayd  londes  rehersed,  from  Calys, 
be  vnder  the  domynyon  of  the  Emperour.  Gulyk  is 
a  fayre  countre,  not  hylly  nor  watteryshe,  but  a  playne 
countre.  ^  Euery  yeare  they  wyll  clyp  and  pull  theyr 
'  sign.  F  .1.  back.         ^  Guylk  AB.        ^  F  .ii.  not  signed. 

Julich  is  a 

and  is  a  fair 
flat  land. 


geese,  and  the  geese  shall  go  naked  ;  and  they  do  sell 
the  fethers  to  stiiffe  fether  beds.  They  hane  lytle  wyne 
growyng  in  the  connive.     The  chief  townes  of  Gulyk  is,  ciiief  towns : 

Julich,  Duren 

the  towne  of  Gmyk,  and  a  towne  named  Durynge.  the  (between  Aix  and 

people  be  poore  of  the  countre ;  townes  men  be  ryche ; 

&  a  man  for  his  money  shalbe  well  orderyd  &  intreted, 

as  well  for  meat  &  drynke  as  for  lodging.     The  lond  of 

Lewke  is  a  pleasaunt  couwtre.     The  cheefe  towne  is  the  i^i^g®  (where 

/»Ti  1  'Ti  iDiirt  velvet  and  Arras 

cytie  of  Lewke ;  there  is  Lewkcs  veluet  made,  &  cloth  of  are  made). 
Arys.     The  speche  of  Gulyk  a7?d  Lewke  is  Base-Doche.  The  speecii  is 

Dutch  (Low- 

And  theyr  money  is  the  Emperours  coyne;   but  the  German). 
Byshop  of  Lewke  doth  coyne  both  gold,  syluer,  and 
bras,  the  whiche  is  currant  there,  and  in  the  londes  or 
countres  ther  about. 

The  .xiii.  Chapiter 
doth  speake  of  base 
Almayn,  and  of  the 
disposicion  of  the 
people  of  the  coun- 
trey;  of  theyr  speche 
&  of  theyr  money. 

m  ■  m 

*  H  I  Am  a  base  Doche  man,  borne  in  the  Nether-lond ; 
'  F  .ii.  back.     The  cut  has  been  used  before,  on  p.  148. 


I  often  get  drunk, 

can't  speak  a 

and  leak. 

I  Uke  salt  butter. 

Of  Dase-Altnayne, 


the  chief  city  is 
Cologne  on  the 
Rhine,  on  the 
banks  of  which 
Rhenisli  wine 
is  made. 


The  land  is  rich, 
and  the  people 
kind,  but  they 
get  drunk,  and 
make  a  mess. 

Diuerse  times  I  am  cupshoten,^  on  my  feet  I  eawnot 

stawd ; 
Dyuers  tymes  I  do  pysse  vnderneth  the  horde ; 
My  reason  is  suche,  I  can  not  speke  a  word ;  4 

Than  am  I  tonge  tayd,  my  fete  doth  me  fayle, 
And  than  I  am  harneysed  in  a  cote  of  mayle ; 
Than  wyl  I  pysse  in  my  felowes  shoes  and  hose, 
Than  I  am  as  necessary  as  a  waspe  in  ones  nose.  8 

Now  am  I  harnest,  and  redy,  Doche  for  to  speke ; 
Vppon  the  heere  van   in  the  cruse  my  anger  I  wyl 

A  lomp  of  salt  hutter  for  me  is  good  meat ; 
My  knees  shall  go  hare  to  kepe  me  out  of  heat ;  12 
Yet  my  olde  cote  I  wyl  not  leaue  of. 
For  if  I  should  go  naked,  I  may  catche  the  cof.  14 
IF  Base  Almayne,  or  hase  Doche  londe,  rechyth 
from  the  hydermost  place  of  Flaunders  and  Hennago, 
to  the  cite  of  Mense,  and  to  Argentyne,  as  some  Doche 
men  holdeth  opynyon.  The  cheef  Cyte  of  Doche  land 
or  Almayne  is  the  nohle  cyty  of  Colyn,  to  the  whyche 
cometh  the  fayre  water  of  Reene ;  on  bothe  sydes  of  the 
whyche  water  of  Reene  doth  growe  the  grapes  of  the 
whyche  the  good  Renysh  wyne  is  made  of.  There  is  a 
vyne  of  grapes  at  a  towne  called  Bune,  of  the  whyche 
reed  Renysh  wine  is  made  of.  al  Base-Almayne  is  a 
ple/itiful  countre  of  corne  and  Renysh  wyne,  and  of 
meat  and  honest  fare,  and  good  lodgyng.  The  people 
be  gentyll  and  kynd  harted.  The  worst  fawt  that  they 
haue :  many  wyl  be  dronken ;  and  whan  they  fall  to 
quafFyng,  they  wyll  haue  in  dyuerse  places  a  tub  or  a 
great  vessell  standyng  vnder  the  boord,  to  pysse  in,  or 
else  they  wyl  defyle  al  the  howse,  for  they  wyl  pysse  as 

'  Yvre :  com.  Drunken,  cujJsJtottcn,  tipsie,  whitled,  flusht, 
mellow,  ouerseene,  whose  cap  is  set,  that  hath  taken  n  pot  too 
much,  that  hath  scene  the  diuell.  Forheu  .  . .  mellow,  line,  cup- 
taken,  pot-fihotten,  whose  fudling  or  barley  Caji  is  ou. —  Cot- 


they  doo  syt,  and  other  whyle  the  one   wyll  pis  in 

a  nother*   shoes.     They  do  loue  sault  butter  that  is  They  love  salt 

resty,  and  bareled  butter.    In  Base  Doche  land  be  many 

2  vertuous  people,  and  full  of  almes  dedes.     In  Base 

Almayn  or  Doche  lond  theyr  money  is  gold,  tyn,  and 

brasse.     In  gold  they  haue  crownes,  worth  four  .s.  viii. 

d.  of  sterlyng  money.     They  haue  styuers  of  tyn  and  Their  money  is 

bras:    two  styuers  and  a  halfe  is  worth  an  Englysh 

grote.  they  haue  crocherdes  :  .iii.  crocherds  is  les  worth  crocherds 

°  '^  '  (kreutzers?) 

than  a  styuer.  they  haue  mytes ;  .xxvi.  mytes  is  worthe  mytes, 
an  Englyshe  peny.     They  haue  Negyn  manykens ;  a  manykens, 
manyken  is  worth  a  fardyng ;  a  Norkyng  is  worthe  a  norkyns, 
halfpeny.      They  haue  bras  pens  ;  a  bras  peny  is  .ii.  d.  and  pence, 
fardynge  of  theyr  money.     "Who  so  that  wyl  lerne  to 
speke  some  Base  Doche, — Englysh  fyrst,  and  Doche, 
doth  folowe. 

One.  two.  thre.  foure.  fyue.  syx.  seuyn.  eyght.  nyne.        Dutch  numerals. 

JEne.  twe.   drie.  vier.    vie.    ses.    seuen.  adit,    nuglien. 

ten.     aleuyn.  twelue.    thyrtene.  fowrtene.  fyftene. 

teene.  elue.       twaelue.  dertyene.  merteene.  viefteene. 

syxtene.    seuentene.    eyghtene.  nyntene.      twenty. 

sestyene.   seuentyene.   achtyene.  negentyene.  twengtith, 

one  and  twenty,  two  and  twenty,  thre  and  twenty. 

en  an  twentyth.    twe  an  twentyth.  dre  an  twentith. 

thyrty.  forty,     fyfty.      syxty.  seuenty.  eyghty. 

derteh.   vierteh.  vyntith.  sesteh.  zeuenteh.  achtenteh. 

nynte.        a  hondred.  a  thowsand. 

negenteth.  Iwndret.       dowsent. 

God  morow,  brother  !     Morgen,  brore  i  a  talk  in  Dutcii 

Syr  !  God  gyue  you  good  day  ! 

Heer  1  God  geue  v  goeden  dah  1 

Syr  !  how  do  you  fare  1     Heer  !  hoe  faerd  ghy  ? 

Ryght  well,  blessyd  be  God  ! 

Seer  well,  God  sy  ghehenedyt  f 

*  another's.  '  F  .iii.  not  signed. 

158  A    TALK    IN    DUTCH    AND    ENGLISH.  [cHAP.    XIII. 

A  talk  in  Dutch     Frend,  whyche  is  the  ryght  way  from  hens  to  Colyn  ? 
Vrijent,  welk  is  den  rethten  weh  van  hoer  te  Colyn  ? 
*  Syr,  hold  the  way  on  the  ryght  hand. 
HeeVf  holden  den  weh  aye  drechlt  J:  and. 
Wyfe,  God  saue  you  !         Vrow,  God  gruet  v  ! 
My  syr,  yon  be  welcome ! 
Myn  heer,  yh  Met  you  welecome  ! 
Hane  you  any  good  lodgyng  % 
Hah  V  eneh  good  herherk  ? 
Ye,  syr,  I  haue  good  lodgyng. 
yOy  myn  heevy  I  hah  goed  harherh. 
Wyfe  of  the  house,  gyue  me  some  bread  \^ 
Vroio  3  van  de  hewse,  ghewfft  ^  me  hroot  1 
Mayd,  gyue  me  one  pot  of  beare  ! 
Meskyn,  ghewfft  me  en  pot  heere  ! 
Brother,  gyue  me  some  egges  ! 
Brore,  ghewfft  me  eyeren  ! 
Gyue  me  fyshe  and  fleshe  ! 
Ghewft  me  fis  an  flees  I 
What  shall  I  pay,  ostes,  for  my  supper  ? 
How  veele  is  to  be  talen,  warden,  for  meell  tyd  '{ 
My  syr,  .vi.  d.      Myn  heer,  ses  phenys. 
Hoste,  God  thanke  you  !     Warden,  God  dank  ye  I 
God  gyue  you  good  nyght  and  good  rest ! 
God  ghewfft  v  goeden  naght  an  goed  rust ! 
God  be  wyth  you !     God  sy  met  v  I 
Sonday,  Sondah.  Monday,  Maendah, 

Tewsday,  Dysdah.  Wensday,  Wensdah. 

Thursday,  donnersdah.     Fryday,  Vrydah. 
Saterday,  Saterdah. 

Can  you  speke  Doche?     Can  ye  Doch  sprek  ? 
T  can  not  speke  Doche ;  I  do  vnderstond  it. 
Ik  can  net  Doch  spreke  ;  He.  for  stow. 

'  F  .iii.  back.  "^  drynke  A ;  bread  B. 

3  Brow  A  :  Vrow  B.  "  geflft  B. 



^  The  .xiiii.  Chapter  treateth  of  hyghe  Almayne  or 

hyghe  Doch  lond,  and  of  the  dysposycyon  of 

the  people,  and  of  theyr  speche 

and  of  theyr  money. 

I  Am  a  hygh  Almayne,  sturdy  and  stout, 

I  laboure  but  ly tie  in  the  world  about ; 

I  am  a  yonker  ^ ;  a  fether  I  wyll  were ; 

Be  it  of  gose  or  capon,  it  is  ryght  good  gere. 

Wyth  symple  thynges  I  am  well  content ; 

I  lacke  good  meat,  specyally  in  Lent. 

My  rayment  is  wouyn  moche  lyke  a  sacke  ; 

Whan  I  were  it,  it  hangeth  lyke  a  lack. 

Euery  man  doth  knowe  my  symple  intencyon, 

That  I  wyll  not  chaunge  my  olde  fathers  fashyon*. 

'  F  .iiii.  not  signed. 

*  Instead  of  the  3  cuts  above,  from  the  Rose-Garland  edition,  the  Lothbury 
edition  of  1562-3  gives  only  the  centre  one,  which  it  has  used  before  for  the 
Norwegian,  p.  142  at  foot,  and  which  both  editions  have  used  before  for  the 
Fleming,  p.  146  above. 

^  G.  ein  juncker,  a  younker,  younkster  or  youngster. — lAidwig.  Dutch 
eeii  lonck-heer  or  loncker^  A  young  Gentleman,  or  a  Joncker. — Hexham,. 

''  In  1510,  Henry  VIII  made  some  'yong  Gentelmen  '  of  his  court  fight  to- 
gether with  battle-axes  in  Greenwich  Park,  and  then  gave  them  200  marks  to 
have  a  banquet  together  :  "  The  whiche  banket  was  made  at  the  Fishemongers 
Halle  in  Teames  strete,  where  they  all  met,  to  the  number  of  .xxiii,  all  ap- 

I'm  a  yonker 
.  when  I  wear  a 
*    feather. 

My  coat's  like  a 

1    1 



[chap.    XIV. 

goes  from  Maintz 
to  Trente  in  the 

High  and  Low- 
Germans  differ 

The  High-Ger- 
mans are  rude, 
and  badly  drest. 

One  sticks  a  fox- 
tail or  feather  in 
his  cap,  and  is 
called  a  Yonker. 

IT  Hyghe  Almayne,  or  hyghe  Dochelond,  begynneth 
at  Mens,  and  some  say  it  begynneth  at  Wormes,  &  con- 
tayneth  Swauerlond  or  Swechlond,  and  Barslond,  and 
the  hylles  or  mouwtayns  of  the  most  part  of  Alpes, 
stretching  in  length  to  a  town  called  Trent  by-yowde  the 
mouwtayns :  half  the  ^  towne  is  Doche,  &  the  other 
halfe  is  Lombardy.  ^  There  is  a  greate  dyfference  be- 
twyxt  Hyghe  Almayne  and  Base  Almayne,  not  only  in 
theyr  speche  and  maners,  but  also  in  theyr  lodgynge,  in 
theyr  fare,  and  in  theyr  apparell.  The  people  of  Hygh 
Almayne,  they  be  rude  and  rustycall,  and  very  boystous 
in  theyr  speche,  and  humbly  in  their  apparell ;  yet  yf 
some  of  them  can  get  a  fox  tale  or  two,  or  thre  fox 
tayles,  standyng  vp  ryght  vpon  theyr  cappe,  set  vp  with 
styckes,  or  that  he  maye  haue  a  capons  feder,  or  a 
goose  feder,  or  any  long  feder  on  his  cap,  than  he  is 
called  a  "  yonker."  they  do  fede  grosly,  and  they  wyll 
eate  magots  as  fast  as  we  wyll  eate  comfets.  They 
haue  a  way  to  brede  them  in  chese.  Maydews  there  in 
certayne  places  shall  drynke  no  other  drynke  but  water, 
vnto  the  tyme  she  be  maryed  ;  yf  she  do,  she  is  taken 
for  a  comyn  woman.  Saruants  also  do  drynke  water 
to  theyr  meat,  the  countre  is  plentyfull  of  apples  and 
walnuts ;  the  mountayns  is  very  baryn  of  al  maner  of 
vytels  ',  howbeit  the  good  townes  be  prouyded  of  vitels. 
Snowe  dothe  ly  on  the  mountaynes,  wynter  and  somer ; 
wherfore,  the  hotter   the   daye  is,   the  greater  is  the 

pareyled  in  one  sute  or  liuery,  after  Almmn  fashion,  that  is  to  say,  their  vtter 
gannentes  all  of  yealow  Satyne,  yealow  hosen,  yealow  shoes,  gyrdels,  scaberdes, 
and  bonettes  with  yealow  fathers,  their  garmentes  &  hosen  all  cutte  and  lyned 
with  whyte  Satyn,  and  their  scaberdes  wounde  abought  with  satyne  .  .  After 
their  banket  ended,  they  went  by  torche  light  to  the  Towre,  presentinge  them 
selfes  before  the  kynge,  who  toke  pleasure  to  beholde  them." — HalVs  Chroni- 
cle, p.  516.  "the  kynge,  with  .xv.  other,  apparelled  in  Almayne  lackettes  of 
Crymosyne  &  purple  Satyne,  with  lowg  quartered  sleues "  .  .  .  "  and  then 
folowed  .xiiii.  persones,  Gentelmen,  all  appareyled  in  yealow  Satyne,  cut  like 
Alinaynes,  bearyng  torches."     ib.,  ed.  1809. 

The  third  daie  of  Maie  [1512]  a  gentleman  of  Flaunders,  called  Guyot  of 
Guy,  came  to  the  kyng  [Henry  VIII]  with  .v.C.  Almaines  all  in  white,  whiche 
was  cutte  so  small  that  it  could  scace  hold  together. — il.,  p.  527. 

*  F  .iiii.  back. 

Girls  drink  only 

Snow  lies  on  the 
mountains  all 
the  year. 


flods,  that  they  renne  so  ewyft  that  no  man  can  passe 

for   .V.    or  .vi.  howres,   and   than  it  is  drye  agayne. 

Certayn  mountaynes  be  so  hygh  that  you  shal  se  the  On  the  mountains 

hyll  tops  aboue  the  cloudes.     In  the  valy  it  is  euer 

colde.     I  haue  seen  snowe  in  somer  on  saynct  Peters  I've  seen  snow  on 

day  and  the  Vysytacion  of  our  Ladye.     A  man  may  see  j^^^  ^^ 

the  mouwtaynes  fyftene  myle  of,  at  a  cyte  called  Ulmes,  uima,  wiiere 

'holmes'  is  made. 

where  fustyan  vlmes  is  made,  that  we  cal  holmes.     In 

Hyghe  Almayn  be  good  cities  and  townes,  as  Oxburdg,  German  towns, 

Wormes,  Spyres,  Gyppyng,  Gestynge,  and  Memmyng. 

In  Hygh  Almayne  theyr  money  is  golde,  alkemy,  and  bras. 

In  gold  they  haue  crownes  of  .iiii.  s.  & .  viii.  d.  In  alkemy  ^  High-German 

and  bras  they  haue  rader  Wyesephenyngs  worthe  ^  al-  white'-pennies. 

most  a  styuer;  they  haue  Morkyns^,  Halardes,  Phenyngs'*, 

Crocherds,  Stiuers^,  and  halfe  styuers.     Who  so  wyl 

leme  Hygh-Doch, — Englysh  fyrst,  &  Doche,  followeth. 

One.    two.    thre.  foure.  fyue.  syx.  seuyn.  eyght.  High-Dutch  or 

T-»  T  /.  /•  -I  .  German 

Eyne.  sway.  are.  jeer.    vof.    sys.   zeuen.   awght.  numeraUj. 

nyne.  ten.  aleuyn.  twelue.  thyrtene.    fowrtene. 

neegh.  zen.  elue.       zwelue.  dersheene.  feersheene. 

fyftene.     syxtene.    seuentene.  eyghtene.      nyntene. 

fiftsheene.  sissheene.  zeulsli  eene  f.  aughtsJieene.  neeghsh  eene.  [t  for  zeebtkeene] 

twenty,  one  &  twenty,  two  and  twenty,  thre  and  twenty. 

zwense.  eyne  en  zwense.  sway  en  zwense.  ^dre  en  zioense^  Sfc. 

thyrty.  forty.      fyfty.    syxty.  seuenty.  eyghty. 

dreshe.  feertshe.  vof  she.  sysshe.  zeuenshe.  aughtslie. 

nynte.     a  hondred.  a  thowsand.  two  thowsand,  &c. 

neegshe.  a  liownder.  a  dowsand.    sicay  dowsand,  ^c. 

IT  God  morow,  my  master  !    Goed  morgeuy  myh  §  hern  !  a  talk  in  German 

■»«-  I  ii'i-i  ..1  1.  n  *"d  English. 

My  master,  whyche  is  the  way  to  the  next  towne  ? 
Mih  lezier  hern,  wets  me  de  reighten  weg  to  de  awnderstot? 
My  brother,  gyue  me  whyt  bread  and  wyne  ! 
my  leuer  broder,  geue  meh  wyse  hrod  en  wayne  ! 

'  ?  tin.  '  sign.  G  .1.  '  read  'Norkyns,'  hapence  :  p.  157,  153. 

^  Pfenning,  the  12th  part  of  a  groschen  and  of  a  Sterling,  Flemish  and 
Liibish  shilling,  a  penny  or  denier. — Ludrvig. 

*  Stive?',  a  Dutch  coin  worth  li  Penny  English,  of  which  20  make  a 
Guilder,  and  G  a  Flemish  Shilling. — Kersei/s  Phillips.  ^  ore  AB. 

BOOUDE.  11 



A  talk  in  High- 
German  and 

Hostes,  haue  you  good  meate  1 

Wertyn^  hah  ye  god  eften  ? 

ye,  I  haue  enough.     yOy  Ik  hah  gonowgh. 

Hostes,  gyue  me  egges,  chese,  and  walnots  ! 

Wertyn,  geue  meh  ayer^  caase,  en  walshe  nots  ! 

mouch  good  do  it  you  !     Goot  go  seken  eyh  esseu  ! 

I  thank  yo[u],  my  mayster  ! 

Ih  dank  ze,  myJi^  leuer  hern  ! 

What  tyme  is  it  of  the  day  ?     What  hast  is  gosloken  ? 

Hostes,  God  be  with  you,  wyth  al  my  hert ! 

Wartyn,  Goot  go  seJien  for  harteon  ! 

my  master,  wyl  ye  drynk  a  pot  of  wyHe  ? 

myh  leuer  hem,  wylter  drenke  a  mose  wayiie  ? 

The  .XV.  chapter 
treateth  of  Den- 
mark  and  of  the 
natural  dysposy- 
cion  of  the  people, 
and  of  theyr  mo- 
ny  and  speche. 

IT  I  Am  a  Dane,  and  do  dwell  in  Denmarke, 
Seldom  I  do  vse  to  set  my  selfe  to^  warke 

"  ?  viyn.         ^  sign.  G  .i.  back.     B  puts  the  cuts  on  the  right.         ^  a  B. 


I  lyue  at  ese,  and  therfore  I  am  content ; 

Of  al  tymes  in  the  yere  I  fare  best  in  Lent ;  4 

I  wyl  ete  beenes,  and  good  stock  fysh —  i  eat  beans  and 

.  BtOCk-fish, 

How  say  you,  is  not  that  a  good  dysh  ? — 
In  my  apparel  I  was  neuer  nyce, 

I  am  content  to  were  rough  fryce ;  8  and  wear  rough 

I  care  not  if  euery  man  I  do  tel, 
Symple  rayment  shal  serue  me  ful  wel ; 
My  old  fashion  I  do  vse  to  kepe, 

And  in  my  clothes  dyuers  tymes  I  slepe  ;  12  i  often  sleep  m 

Thus  I  do  passe  the  dayes  of  my  lyfe, 
^  Other  whyle  in  bate,  and  other  whyle  in  stryfe ; 
Wysdome  it  war  to  lyue  in  peace  and  rest ; 
They  that  can  so  do,  shal  fynd  it  most  best.  16 

IT  By  cause  I  do  pretend  to  writ  fyrst  of  all  Europ 
and  Christendome,  &  to  fetch  the  cyrcuyte  about  Chris- 
tendome,  I  must  returne  from  Hygh  Almayn,  &  speke  of 
De/imarke,  the  whiche  is  a  very  poore  couTztre,  bare,  &  Denmark's  a  very 

poor  country, 

ful  of  penurite  ^ ;  yet  ther  doth  grow  goodly  trees,  of  the  but  has  fine  trees, 
which  be  mastes  for  shyps  made,  &  the  marchauwtes  of 
the  couwtre  do  sell  many  masts,  ores,  &  bowe  staues. 
The  Danes  hath  bene  good  warryers  ;   but  for  theyr  The  Danes 
pouerte  I  do  marueyle  how  they  dyd  get  ones  Eng- 
londe  ;  they  be  subtyll  wytted,  &  they  do  proll  muche  p^owi  about 
about  to  get  a  pray.   They  haue  fysh  and  wyldfoule  suffi- 
cient.    Theyr  lodgyng  and  theyr  apparel  is  very  symple 
&  bare.     These  be  the  best  townes  in  Denmark  :  Ryp,  Ribe  and  wiborg. 
&  By  borge.     In  Denmark,  their  mony  is  gold,  and 
alkemy,^  and  bras.     In  gold  they  haue  crownes ;  &  al 
other  good  gold  doth  go  there.      In  alkemy  and  bras 
they  haue  Dansk  whyten.     Theyr  speche  is  Douche.       Danish  is  Dutch. 

'  G  .ii.  not  signed. 

'  Yet  in  the  great  Dearth  of  wheat  in  England  in  1527,  wheat  was  im- 
ported from  Denmark,  among  other  places  :  "  the  gentle  marchauwtes  of  t?i,e 
Styliard  brought  from  Danske,  Breme,  Hamborough,  and  other  places,  great 
plewtie  ;  &  so  did  other  marchau/ites  from  Flau?iders,  Holand,  and  Frisland, 
so  that  wheat  was  better  chepe  in  London  then  in  all  England  ouer." — HalVs 
Chronicle^  p.  736,  ed.  1809.       ^  Alkani,  tin.   Howel  (in  Halliwell's  Glossary). 

1  :  • 



[chap.    XVI. 

^  The  .xvi.  Chapter  treateth  of 
Saxsony,  and  of  the  natu- 
ral disposicion^  of  the  Sax- 
sons,  and  of  their  mo- 
ny,  and  of  theyr 

I'm  a  heretic. 

Romans  cry 
vengeance  on  me. 
and  curse  me. 

IT  I  am  a  Saxson,  serching  out  new  thynges^ ; 
Of  me  many  be  glad  to  here  new  tidinges. 
I  do  persist  in  my  matters  and  opinions  dayly, 
The  which  maketh  th^  Romayns  vengians  on  me  to  cry; 
Yet  my  opinions  I  wyl  neuer^  leue ;  5 

The  cursyng  that  they  gyne  me,  to  them  I  do  bequeue  j 
The  fashion  of  my  rayment  I  wyl  euer^  vse, 
And  the  Romayns  fashion  I  vtterly  refuse.  8 

IT  Out  of  Denmarke  a  man  may  go  in  to  Saxsony. 
Saxsony  is  [a]^  Dukedom-shyp,  And  holdeth  of  hym 
I  wonder  how  the  selfe.     I  do  maruel  greatly  how  the  Saxsons  should 

Saxons  conquered  -r-.T-./,.., 

England.  couquere  Englonde,  for  it  is  but  a  smalle  countre  to  be 

compared  to  Englond ;  for  I  think,  if  al  the  world  were 
set  against  Englond,  it  might  neuer  be  conquerid,  they 
beyng  treue  within  them  selfe.  And  they  that  would 
be  false,  I  praye  God  too  manyfest  them  what  they  be. 

Siixonyfa fertile;   The  countre  of  Saxsony  is  a  plentyful^  countre,  and  a 

dispocion  A  ;  disposicion  B,       '^  G  .ii.  back. 
*  euer  A  ;  neuer  B.       *  euer  A  ;  neuer  B. 
^  plentyfill  A  ;  plentyful  B. 

^  thynkes  A. 
^  A  omits  'a.' 





fartyll ;    yet   there   is   many  greate   mountaynes   and 

woddes,  in  the  whyche  be  Buckes  and  Does,  Hartes,  but  has  many 

and  Hyndes,  and  Wylde  Boores,  Beares,  and  Wolfes,  wUd  leasts,' 

and  other  wylde  beastes.     In  Saxsony  is  a  greate  ryuer 

called  Weser ;  And  there  be  salte  wels  of  the  water,  of  the  weser  nvei, 

the  whyche  is  made  whyte  salt.     In  the  sayd  countre 

doth  grow  copper.     The  people  of  the  countre  be  bold  and  copper  mines. 

and  strong,  and  be  good  warriers.    They  do  not  regarde 

the  byshoppe  of  Rome  ^  nor  the  Romayns,  for  certaine  The  saxons  don't 

,.  ,-.  T  n         1  P-iPi  •      mind  the  Pope. 

abusions.     Martyn  Leuter  &  other  oi  hys  lactours,  m 
certayne  thynges  dyd  take  synistrall  opinions,  as  con-  Martin  Luther 
cernynge  prestes  to  haue  wyues,  wyth  such  like  matters,  opinions. 
The  chefe  cyte  or  town  of  Saxsony  is  called  Witzeburg,  wittenburg 

1  •   1      .  .  •  T       ri  1  •      University. 

which  IS   a   vniuersite.     In  Saxsony  theyr  monye  is 

golde  and  brasse.     In   golde  they  haue  crownes,  In  saxon  money. 

brasse  thei  haue  manye  smal  peces.     There  speche  is 

Doch  speche. 

'  Andrew  Boorde  speaks,  I  suppose,  as  a  Saxon  heretic  iiere  (Pope  =  Bp 
of  Rome),  Romanist  though  he  had  been,  and  condemning  Luther  as  he  does 
in  the  next  lines. 

The  Lothbury  edition,  1562-3,  substitutes  the  cut  below  for  the  one  at  the 
head  of  this  chapter.  The  Rose-Garland  edition  uses  it  for  the  man  of 
Bayonne,  p.  165,  below,  and  both  editions  use  it  for  the  Egyptian,  p.  217. 



^  The  .xvii.  cha- 
pter treateth  of 
the  kyngdom  of 
Boeme,  and  of  the 
dysposycion  of 
the  people  of  the 
countre,  of  theyr 
monye,  and 

I  haven't  cared 
for  the  Pope's 
curse  since 
Wj-clirs  time. 

I'm  content 
with  frieze. 

Bohemia  is 
circled  with 

IT  I  Am  of  the  kyngdome  of  Boeme, 

I  do  not  tel  al  men  what  I  do  meane ; 

For  the  popes  curse  I  do  lytle  care ; 

The  more  the  fox  is  cursed,  the  hetter  he  doth  fare.     4 

Euer  sens  Wyclif  dyd  dwel  wyth  me, 

I  dyd  neuer  set  hy  the  popes  auctorite. 

In  certayn  articles  Wyclif  dyd  not  wel, 

To  reherse  them  now  I  nede  not  to  tell, 

For  of  other  matters  I  do  speke  of  nowe ; 

Yf  we  do  not  wel,  God  spede  the  plow ! 

Of  our  apparrel  we  were  neuer  nyce ; 

We  be  content  yf  our  cotes  be  of  fryce. 

^  The  kyngdome  of  Boeme  is  compassed  aboute 
wyth  great  hygh  mountaynes  and  great  thycke  wods. 
In  the  ^whyche  wods  be  many  wylde  beastes;  amonges 



G  .iii.  not  signed. 

G  .iii.  back. 

CHAP.    XVII.] 



al  other  "beastes  there  be  Bugles,  that  be  as  bigge  as  an  Bugles, 
oxe ;  and  there  is  a  beast  called  a  Bouy,  lyke  a  Bugle,  Bovy. 
whyche   is   a   vengeable   beast.     In  dyuers  places  of 
Boeme  there  is  good  fartyl  grownd,  the  whyche  doth 
bryng  forth  good  come,  herbes,  frutes,  and  metals.  The 
people  of  Boeme  be  opinionatyue,  standyng  much  in  The  Bohemians 
theyr  owne  conceits.     And  many  of  them  do  erre  con- 
trary to  vs  in  the  ministracion  of  the  .vii.  sacraments,  &  ond  err  from 

"^  '         Holy  Church. 

other  approbated  thynges,  the  which  we  do  vse  in  holy 
churche.  In  Boeme  is  indifferent  lodging,  and  com- 
petent  of  vitels,  but   they  do   loue   no  Duckes   nor  They  don't  like 


malardes.  theyr  condicions  and  maners  be  much  lyke 
to  the  Hygh  Almayns,  &  they  do  speke  Duch.  In  Boeme 
is  a  goodly  cyte  called  Prage,  wher  the  king  of  Boeme  Their  chief  city 

is  Prague. 

doth  ly  much  whan  he  is  in  the  countre.  In  Boeme 
theyr  monye  is  Golde,  Tyn,  and  Bras.  In  Golde  they 
haue  crownes ;  In  Bras  they  haue  smal  peces  as  in  Doch 
lond  ;  theyr  speche  is  Doch. 

Instead  of  the  right-hand  cut 
of  the  Rose-Garland  edition,  at  the 
head  of  this  chapter,  the  Lothbury 
one  has  another,  of  a  woman  with- 
out a  flower,  and  with  differences 
in  her  skirt.  It  is  given  on  the 
right  here. 



[chap.   XVIIL 

The  .xviii.  chapter  treateth  of  the 

kyngdome  of  Poll,  and  of  the 

naturall  dysposicion^  of  the 

people,  and  of  theyr 

mony  and 


I  like  bees ; 
I  sell  honey, 
pitch,  and  tar. 

In  Poland  are 
woods  and  wild 

pitch,  tar,  and 

Cracow  is  their 
chief  town. 

They're  crafty 
dealers ; 
but  badly  off; 

*  I  Am  a  power  man  of  the  kyngdom  of  Pol ; 

Pyuers  tymes  I  am  troubled  wytli  a  heuy  nol. 

Bees  I  do  loue  to  haue  in  enery  place. 

The  wex  and  the  hony  I  do  sel  a  pace ;  4 

I  do  sel  flex,  and  also  pyche  and  tar, 

Marehaunts  cometh  to  me,  fetchyng  it  a  far. 

My  rayment  is  not  gorgious,  but  I  am  content 

To  were  such  thynges  as  God  hath  me  sent.  8 

IT  The  kyngdome  of  Poll  is  on  the  Northe  syde  of 
the  kyngdom  of  Boeme,  strechynge  Estwarde  to  the 
kyngdom  of  Hungary.  In  Pol  be  great  wods  and 
wyldernes,  in  the  whych  be  many  bees,  and  wylde 
beastes  of  diuers  sortes.  In  manye  places  the  countre 
is  full  of  fartillite,  and  there  is  much  pych,  and  Tar,  and 
Flex.  There  be  many  good  townes ;  the  best  towne 
named  ^  Cracoue.  The  people  of  the  countre  of  Poll  be 
rewde,  and  homlye  in  theyr  maners  and  fashions,  and 
many  of  them  haue  learned  craftines  in  theyr  byeng  and 
sellyng ;  and  in  the  countve  is  much  pouerte  and  euyll 

*  dysposion  A  ;  dyspocicion  B.  '  G  .iiii, 

^  anmed  A  ;  named  B. 



fare  in  certayne  places.     The  people  do  eat  much  hony 

in  those  parties,  they  be  peasible  men ;  they  loue  no 

warre,  but  louyth  to  ^  rest  in  a  hole  skin.     Theyr 

payment   and   apparel  is   made   after  the 

High  Doche  fashion  wyth  two  wrynck- 

kles  and  a  plyght ;  theyr  spech  is 

corrupt  Doche ;  the  mony  of 

Poll   is   goulde   and 

bras  j  all  maner 

of  gold  goth 



The  Poles  don't 
like  war, 

and  they  speak 
bad  Oerman. 

'  too  A  ;  to  B. 

The  Lothbury  edition  of  1562  or  1563  gives  this  woodcut  of  the  Pole,  or 
'  power  man  of  the  kyngdom  of  Pol,'  or  rather  the  personage  who  does  duty 
for  him. 



^  The  .xix.  chapter  treateth  of  the  kyngdome 

of  Hungary,  and  of  the  natural  dysposision  ^ 

of  the  people,  and  of  theyr  mony  &  spech. 

I  do  dwel  in  the  kyngdome  of  Hungary ; 
I  hate  the  Turks ;  Bytwyxt  the  Tuikes  and  me  is  ly tie  marcy ; 

And  although  they  be  strong,  proud,  and  stout, 
Other  whyle  I  rap  them  on  the  snowt ; 
Yet  haue  they  gotten  many  of  our  towns, 
And  haue  won  of  our  londs  and  of  our  bowns ; 
If  we  of  other  nacions  might  haue  any  helpe, 
We  wold  make  them  to  fle  lyke  a  dog  or  a  whelp. 
Out  of  my  countre  I  do  syldome  randge ; 
The  fashion  of  my  apparel  I  do  ncuer  chaunge. 

they've  won 
much  of  our 


'  G  .iiii.  back.  The  right-hand  cut  is  from  B,  and  differs  a 
little  from  that  in  A,  which  is  the  cut  of  Boorde  on  the  title- 
page  of  Barnes,  p.  305  below,  with  a  different  riband  over  tho 
head.  *  dysposion  A  ;  dysposision  B. 


J  71 

Great  Hunpari' 
and  Less. 

Gold  is  found 

Many  aliens 
dwell  there. 

^  The  kyngdom  of  Hungary  is  beyond  the  kyngdome 
of  Poll,  estward.  The  lond  is  deuided  into  two  partes, 
the  whych  be  called  "great  Hungary,"  and  the  "lesse^ 
Hungary."  The  counties  be  large  &  wyde;  there  is 
gret  mountayns  and  wildernes,  the  whych  be  repleted 
with  manye  wylde  beeastes.  Ther  is  salte  digged  out  of 
hyllea.  And  there  is  found  certayne  vaynes  of  gold. 
In  Hungary  ther  be  many  Aliens  of  dyuers  nacions,  and 
they  be  of  dyuerce  fashions,  as  wel  of  maners  as  of  lyu- 
yng,  for  the  lond  doth  loyne  to  the  lond  of  Grece  at  the 
south  syde.  The  great  Turke  hath  got  much  of  Hungary, 
and  hath  it  in  peasable  possession.  And  for  as  much 
as  there  is  dyuerce  people  of  diuerce  nacions,  ther  is  vsed 
diuerce  speches,  &  ther  is  currant  diuerce  sortes  of 
mony.  ther  be  many  good  cytyes  &  townes  the  which  be 
called  "vouenj"  Sculwelyng,^  Warden,  Scamemanger, 
and  a  noble  cytie  called  Cliprow,  and  a  regal  castyl  called 
Neselburgh,  And  a  gret  citie  called  Malla  vina,  the 
whych  is  almost  the  vttermost  cytie  of  Hungary,  by  the 
whych  cite  doth  roune  the  regall  flod  of  Danuby.^  The 
spech  of  Hungary  is  corrupt  Italien,  corrupt  Greke,  & 
Turkysh.  Theyr  mony  is  gold  [&]  bras^ :  in  gold  thei 
haue  duccates  &  sarafes.  In  bras  thei  haue  myttes, 
duccates,  &  soldes,  and  other  smal  peses  of  brasse  which 
I  haue  for-got. 

The  .XX.  chapter  treateth  of  the 
lond  of  Grece,  &  of  Constantine- 
nople,   and   of  the  naturall 
disposicion  of  the  peo- 
ple, and  of  theyr 
mony  and 

The  chief  town* 
of  Hungary : 

By  Mostalarina 
runs  the  Danube. 

Hungarian  speech 
and  money. 

*  sign.  H  .i. 
'  Sculwelrng  A  ;  SculwelyDg  B. 

'  lessee  A  ;  lesse  B. 

*  daunby  AB.         *  good  bras  B. 



The  seven  pro- 
vinces of  Greece. 

belongs  to  the 

St  Sophia's  is  the 
fairest  cathedral 
in  the  world. 

is  built  with  two 
Bides  to  the  6ea. 

By  it  is  St 
George's  Ann,  or 
the  Hellespont. 

'  I  Am  a  Greke,  of  noble  spech  and  bloud, 

Yet  the  Romayns  with  me  be  mervellows  wood ; 

For  theyr  wodnes  and  cursyng  I  do  not  care ; 

The  more  that  I  am  cursyd,  the  better  I  do  fare.  4 

Al  nacions  vnder  them,  they  woulde  fayne  haue ; 

Yf  they  so  had,  yet  would  they  more  craue  j 

Vnder  their  subiection  I  would  not  lyue, 

For  all  the  pardons  of  Rome  if  they  wold  me  geue.^     8 

IT  The  lond  of  Grece^  is  by-yonde  Hungary ;  it  is  a 

greate  region  and  a  large  countre.     For  they  haue  .vii. 

prouinces,  whyche  be  to  saye :  Dalmacye,  Epirs,  Eladas, 

Tessaly,  Macydony,  Acayra,  Candy,  and  Ciclades.    The 

lond  of  Grece  is  a  ryche  countre  &  a  fartyll,  and  plenty  of 

wine,  breade,  and  other  vytels.    The  chefe  cyte  of  Grece 

is  called  Constantinople  :  in  old  time  it  was  an  Empyre, 

and  ther  was  good  lawes  and  trwe  lustyce  keepe*  :  but 

nowe  the  Turke  hath  it  vnder  his  dominion,  howbeit 

they  be  styl  Chrysten  men,  and  christened ;  and  there 

is  at  Constantinople^  a  patriarke :  And  in  Constantinople 

they  haue  the  fairist  cathedral  churche  in  the  Worlde : 

the  church  is  called  Saynte  Sophyes  Churche,  in  the 

whyche  be  a  wonder-full  syght  of  preistes :  they  say 

that  there  is  a  thowsande  prestes  that  doth  belowg  to 

the  church :  before  the  funt  of  the  church  is  a  pycture 

of  copper  and  gylt,  of  lustinian,  that  sytteth  vpon  a 

horse  of  coper.     Constantinople  is  one  of  the  greatyst 

cytes  of®  the  world :  the  cyte  is  built  lyke  a  triangle ; 

two  partes  stondeth  and  abutteth  to  the  watter,  and 

the  other  parte''  hath  a  respect  of  ^  the  londe :  the  cyte  is 

well  walled,  and  there  commeth  to  it  an  arme  of  the  See, 

called  Saynct   Georges  arme  or   Hellysponte,   or   the 

myghte  of  Constantinople :  saynt  Luke  and  saynt  lohan 

'  H  .i.  back.  '  geue  A  ;  gyue  B. 

'  Hidroforbia  in  englyshe  is  "  abhorrynge  of  water,"  as  I 
lemed  in  the  partes  of  grece.  Breuiary,  fol.  cxxii.  Foreivords 
p.  74.        *  kepte  B.        ^  Constanople  A  ;  Constantinople  B. 

citie  in,  B. 

'  partet  A  ;  parte  B. 


CHAP.    XX.]  INTRODUCTION.      OF   GREECE,    ETC.  173 

Erisemon  lyeth  there :  and  they  say  that  there  is  the  ReUcs. 

holy  crosse,  and  lesu  Chrystes  cote  that  had  no  seeme. 

The  v^niuersitie^  of  Salerne,  where  physick  [is]  practysed  university  of 


is  not  far  from  Constantinople,  the  Greciens  do  erre  & 
swere   in  mani    articles    concerning   our    fayth,   The  Greek  church 
whyche  I  do  thinke  better  to  obmyt,  and  to  leue  vn- 
wryten,  than  to  wryte  it.     In  Constantinople  theyr 
money  is  gold,  syluer,  &  Brasse :  in  gold  they  haue  Greek  money : 
sarafes  ;  a  saraf  is  worth  .v.s.  sterlynge ;  in  syluer  they  sarafes, 
haue  aspers ;  an  asper  is  worth  an  Englysh  peny ;  in  aspers, 
Bras  they  haue  soldes ;  .v.  sold  is  worth  an  Asper.  they  Boides, 
haue  myttes ;  .iiii.  myttes  is  worth  a  sold.  myites. 

a  letter  whiche  the  Greciens  sent  to  the  byshop  of  Grecians*  letter 

•^  ^  to  the  Bp  of 

Rome  : Rome. 

Parotenciam  tuam  summam  ci[r]ca^  tups  subiectos 
lirmiter  aredimus ;  superbiam  tuam  summa?^*  tollerare 
noil  possumus ;  Auariciam^  tuam  saciare  now  intendimus. 
dominus  tecum  !  quia  dominus  nobiscum  est. 

If  any  man  wil  learne  to  speke  Greke,  such  Greke 
as  they  do  speke  at  Constantynople  and  other  places  in 
Grece, — Englysh  and  Greke  doth  folow. 
One.  two.  thre.  foure.    fyue.   syx.  seuyn.  eyght.  Modem-oreek 


£na.  dua.  trea.  tessera,  penfe.  exi.  esta.      oucto. 
nyne.  ten.    aleuyn.      twelue.      thyrtene.  fowrtene. 
enea^.  deca.  edecaena.  edecadna.  decatrea.  decatessera. 
fyftene.      syxtene.  seuentene.  eyghtene.   nyntene. 
decapente.  decaexi.    decaesta.     decaoucfo.  deca&nea. 
twenty,  one  and  twenty,  two  and  twenty,  &c. 
coclii.      ecocMena.  ecochiduaj  Sfc. 

thyrty.  forty.      fyfty.       syxty.       seuenty.     eyghty. 
tnenda.  serenda.  penenda.  exinmda.  estiminda.  outoinda. 
nynte.         a  hondred. 
eniminda.^  ekatlwi. 

*  H  .11.  not  signed.         ^  vnluesitie  A.     A  leaves  out  too  the  next  'is  '  of  B. 

*  wiinam  cica  AB.         *  smna  AB.         '  Anriciam  AB.         •*  enca  AB. 

'  dna  AB.         '  enlmida  AB. 


A  talk  in  Modern-  God  spede  you,  Sei !     Colaspes,  of-ende  ! 
English.  Ser,  you  be  welcome  !     Ofendey  calasurtis  ! 

Syr,  from  whens  do  you  come  ]    Offende^  apopoarkistis, 

I  did  come  horn  England. 

Ego  napurpasse  apo  to  anglia. 

How  far  is  it  to  Co?istawtinople  ] 

Post  strat  apo  to  Constantion, 

Ser,  ye  haue  .xxti.  myle.     Ofende^  ekes  ecochi  mila. 

Mastres,  good  morow  !     Chirac  cala  mera  ! 

Mastres,  haue  you  any  good  meate  ? 

Chira^  ekes  kepotes  calonofy. 

Ser,  I  haue  enough.     Ofende,  ego  expolla. 

Mastres,  geue  me  bread,  wyne,  and  water ! 

Chira,  moo  dosso  me  psome,  cresse  apo  to  nero  1 

Com  hyder,  and  geue  me  some  flesh. 

Eila  do  dosso  moo  creas. 

Bryng  hyder  to  me  that  dish  of  flesh  ! 

Ferto  to  tut  obsaria.  creas. 

Good  nyght !     Cale  spira  ! 

The  trewe  Grek  foloweth. 
Another  talk  in     Good  morow !     Call  Mm&ra  I 
Greek.  '   Good  spede  !     Calos  echois  I 

Good  euyn  !     Call  hespera  ! 

You  be  welcome  !     Cocharitomenos  hikis  / 

Syr,  whych  is  the  way  to  Oxford  1 

Oton  poi  to  Oxonionde  ? 

Syr,  you  be  in  the  right  way.     0  outtos  orthodromeis. 

Hostiler,  set  vp  my  horse,  and  gyue  him  meate  ! 

Ze7ie^,  age  ton  hippon  apon  apothes,  kae  sitison  avion. 

Mayd,  haue  you  any  good  meate?    Eta^  echis  ti  sition? 

Ye,  master,  enowgh.     Echo  dapsilos. 

Geue  me  some  bread,  drynke,  and  meate. 

Dos  mi  ton  arton,  poton,  kae  siton. 

What  is  it  a  clok  ?     Po  sapi  hi  hora  tis  himeras  ? 
»  Zeue  AB. 



Wyfe  or  woman,  geue  me  a  reckenyng  ! 

Gyny\  eijpe  moi  ton  Analogismon. 

I  ame  contentyd  or  plesed.     Arescy  moy. 

hostes,  fare  wel !     Zene  2,  chere  /  or  els,  Errosa  I 

Syr,  you  be  hertely  welcome  ! 

^Kyrie,  mala  cocharitomenos  ilthes. 

"Woulde  to  God  that  you  woulde  tary  here  styl ! 

EitJie  ge  to  entautha  men  aei  para  hymas  menois.* 

0  wyfe,  I  can  not  speake  no  Greke  ! 

Ohe  gyny^,  ov  dyname  calos  elinisci  legin. 

Syr,  by  a  lytel  and  a  lytyle  you  shal  lerne  more. 

0  outes  dia  microu  mafhois  an  ahlinisci  lalein. 

0  hostes,  there  is  no  remidy  but  I  must  depart. 

Zeney  anagaeos  apieton  esci  moy  I 

Syr,  than  God  be  your  sped  in  your  iorney ! 

Deosjyota,  theos  soi  dixios  esto  metaxi  procias  ! 

Fare  wel  to  you  al !     Cherete  apapapantes  I 

God  be  with  you  !     Thos  meth  ymon  t 

A  talk  in  true- 
Greek  and 

The  .xxi.  chapter  treateth  of 

the  kyngdome  of  Sicell, 

and  of  Calabre,  And  of 

the  naturall  disposi- 

cion  of  the  people, 

and  of  theyr 

mony  and 


I  was  borne  in  the  kyngdome  of  Sycel ; 
I  care  for  no  man,  so  that  I  do  wel. 
And  I  was  borne  in  Calabry, 
Where  they  do  pynche^  vs  many  a  fly. 

In  Calabria, 
fliee  bite  as. 

Gyuy  AB.        =^  Zeue  AB. 
*  meuois  AB. 

^  H  .iii.  not  signed.     Kyrle  AB. 
*  theyr  doth  bynche  B 

1  2 


We  be  nayboures  to  the  Italyons, 
Wherfore  we  loue  no  newe  fashions ; 
For  wyth  vs,  except  he  be  a  lord  or  a  Grecyon,  7 

*  Hys  rayment  he  wyl  not  tourne  from  the  old  fashyon. 
I  shall  now  come         IT  I  haue  spokyn  of  Grece,  one  of  the  endes  or 

back  from  Greece,  ,  ^ 

towards  Calais,  poynts  of  Euro]j ;  wherfore  I  pretend  to  returne,  and  to 
come  rouTid  about,  &  thorow  other  regyons  of  Europ 
vnto  the  tyme  I  do  come  to  Galas  agayne, — where  that  I 
dyd  take  my  first  iorney  poynt  out  of  Englond, — &  other 
lawdes  anexed  to  the  same ;  wherfore  in  my  returnyng 

and  speak  first  of  I  wyl  speke  fyrst  of  Sicel  &  Calabry.     Sycel  is  an 

Sicily  and  ti-i/.'* 

Calabria.  llond,  for  it  IS  compased  wyth  water  oi  the  see.  ther  be 

In  Sicily  are         many  flyes,  the  whych  wyl  styng  or  byte  lyke  the  flyes 

mosquitoes  (?),  ^ti 

like  our  English  of  Italy ;  and  loke,  where  that  they  do  stynge,  they  wyll 
bryng  the  bloud  after ;  and  they  be  such  flyes  as  do  set 
on  our  table  &  cup  here  in  England.  But  they  be  so 
eger  and  so  vewgeable  that  a  man  can  not  kepe  hym  selfe 
from  them,  specially  if  he  slepe  the  day  tyme.    in  Sycel 

and  great  storms,  is  much  thondoryng  and  lyghtnyng,  and  great  impiet- 
ouse^  wyndes.     The  countrey  is  fartyl,  and  there  is 

Syracuse.  much  gold.     The  chefe  towne  is  Ciracus.  &  there  is  a 

The  river  goodly  ryucr  called  Artuse,  where  is  found  whyt  corall. 


Calabria.  IT  Calabrc  is  a  prouince  ioyned  to  Italy ;  &  they  do 

vse  the  Italion  fashion ;  and  theyr  mony  and  spech  is 
muche  lyke  Italy  money  and  speche. 

The   .xxii.'  chapter  treateth   of  the  kingdome   of 

Naples,  and  of  the  naturall  dysposicion  of  the  people 

and  of  theyr  speche  and  of  there  money. 

IT  In  the  kyngdome  of  Naples  I  do  dwel  j 
I  can  nod*  with  my  hed,  thynkyng  euel  or  well. 
I  keep  my  own      Whan  other  men  do  stond  in  great  dout, 

counseL  i     n       i  t         t  a 

I  know^  how  my  matters  shalbe  brought  about ;  4 

H  .iii.  back.         '  iupietouse  A  (impetuous)  ;  iupirtouse  B. 
^  .XX.  A.  ■*  not  A  ;  nod  B.  *  knew  AB. 



The  fashyon  of  my  rayment  I  wyl  neuer  leue  ; 
Al  new  fashyons,  to  Englond  I  do  bequeue ; 
I  am  content  with  my  meane  aray, 
'  Although  other  nacions  go  neuer  so  gay.  4 

I  must  nedes  go  out  of  the  cyrcuyt,  and  not  dy- 
rectlye  go  round  about  Europ  &  Chrystendom ;  for  if- 
I  should,  I  shold  leue  out  kyngdomes,  couwtres  &  pro- 
uinces;  wherfor,  as  I  went  forward,  so  I  wyl  come 
bakeward,  and  wyll  speke  of  the  kyngdom  of  Naples.^ 
The  cou?itre,  &  specially  the  citye  of  Naples,  is  a 
populus  cytye  &  couwtre ;  yet  I  dyd  not  se  nor  know 
that  they  were  men  of  gret  actiuite,  for  they  do  Hue  in 
peace  without  warre.  The  couwtrey  is  ful  of  fartylite, 
&  plentiful  of  oyle,  wine,  bread,  come,  fruit,  and  money. 
The  Napulions  do  vse  great  ^  marchaundyse;  &  Naples  is 
ioyned  to  Italy,  wherfore  they  do  vse  the  fashions  and 
maner  of  Italyons  and  Romayns;  and  marchauntes 
passeth  from  both  parties  by  the  watter  of  Tiber,  in 
Naples  ther  be  welles  of  water  the  whych  be  euer  hot, 
and  they  be  mediscenable*  for  sycke  people,  the  chefe 
cathedral  churche  of  Naples  is  called  Brunduse.  Theyr 
spech  is  Italyan  corrupted.  In  Naples  theyr  money  is 
gold  and  brasse,  lyke  money  of  Italy  and  Lumberdy ; 
and  they  do  vse  the  fashyons  of  the  Italyans. 

I  keep  old 
fashions,  and 
leave  new  ones 
to  England. 

I  (A.  Boorde) 
can't  go  direct 
to  Calais,  but 
must  turn  off  to 

Naples  has  many 
people,  wlio  are 
not  active ; 

but  they're  great 

Hot  wells  in 


The  .xxiii.  chapter  treateth  of 

Italy  and  Rome,  and  of  the 

naturall   dysposycyon 

of  the  people,  and  of 

theyr  money  & 


'  H  .iiii.  not  signed.  '  Napls  AB.  '  gerat  A  ;  great  B. 

*  mediscenaple  A  ;  mediscenable  B. 

BOORDE.  12 


My  country  is 

I  waTit  the  world 
to  be  subject  to 

I've  let  my 
clmrch  fall  down. 


[chap.    XXIII. 



St  Peter's 

Little  virtue, 
and  abominable 
vices  in  Rome. 

The  Italians,  &c,, 
reckon  from  one 
to  24  o'clock, 
which  is  mid- 

IT  I  am  a  Eomayne,  in  Italy  I  was  borne ; 
I  lacke  no  vytayles,  nor  wyne,  breade,  nor  come ; 
All  thynges  I  haue  at  pleasure  and  at  wyll ; 
Yf  I  were  wyse,  I  wolde  kepe  me  so  styl ;  4 

Yet  all  tbe  worlde  I  wolde  haue  subiecte  to  me, 
'  But  I  am  a-frayd  it  wyll  neuer  be. 
Euery  nacion  haue  spyed  my  fashions  out ; 
To  set  nowght  by  me  now  they  haue  no  dout.  8 

My  church  I  do  let  fall ;  prophanes  your[?]  is  vsed  j 
Vertu  in  my  countre  is  greatly  abused ; 
Yet  in  my  apparel  I  am  not  mutable, 
Althowh  in  other  theynges  T  am  founde  variable.  12 
IT  Italy  is  a  noble  champion  couTitre,  plesaunt,  & 
plentyfull  of  breade,  wyne,  and  come.  There  be  many 
good  pastures  &  vinyerdes.^  The  noble  ^  water  of  Tyber 
doth  make  the  countre  rych.  The  people  of  the  countie 
be  homly  and  rude.  The  chefe  cytye  of  Italy  is  called 
Kome,  the  whych  is  an  old  cyte,  &  is  greatly  decaide  ; 
&  saint  Peters  churche,  whych  is  tlieyr  head  church  & 
cathedral  churche,  is  fal  downe  to  the  grounde,  and  so 
hath  lyen  many  yeres  wythout  reedyfiyng.'*  I  dyd  se 
lytle  vertue  in  Rome,  and  much  abhominable  vyces, 
wherfore  I  dyde  not  lyke  the  fashion  of  the  people ; 
such  matters  I  do  passe  ouer.  who  so  wyl  se  more  of 
Rome  and  Italy,  let  hym  loke  in  the  second  boke,  the 
.Ixvii.  chapter.^  The  Latyns  or  the  Italiows,  the  Lom- 
berdes  &  the^  Veneciens,  wyth  other  prouynces  anexed 
to  the  same,  doth  vary  in  dyuers  numbriiige  or  rekan- 
ynge  of  theyr  cloke.'''  At  mydnyght  they  doth^  be- 
gyn,  and  do  reken  vnto  .xxiiii.  a  cloke,'^  &  than^  it  is 

'  H  .iiii.  back.  '  vniyerdes  A  j  vinyardes  B. 

*  nople  A  ;  noble  B.  *  redyfiyng  A  ;  reedifiyng  B. 

*  See  I7ie  Extrmiagantes^  or  second  Part  of  The  Brevyary^ 
fol.  V.  back,  and  vi,,  extracted  in  the  Forewords  above,  p.  77-8, 
On  'the  second  boke,'  see  p.  21.  ^  that  A  ;  the  B. 

'  clocke  B.  After  *  cloke,'  A  wrongly  inserts  "  and  than  it 
is  mydnyghte  and  at  one  a  cloke,"  which  it  repeats  a  line 
further  on.  ®  doo  B.  ^  then  B. 


mydnyght ;  and  at  one  a  clok^  thei  do  begyn  agayne. 
also  theyr  myles  be  no  longer  ^  than^  our  miles  be,  and 
they  be  called  Latten  miles.     Doch  myles  and  French  i^atin  mUes  are 

the  same  as  ours. 

leges ^  maketh  .iii.  of  our  myles,  and  of  ^  Latyn  myles.  In 
Rome  and  Italy  theyr  monye  is  gold,  syluer,  &  bras. 
In  gold  thei  haue  duccates,  in  syluer  they  haue  lulys, —  Ducats,  juies 


a  luly  is  worthe  .v.d.  sterlynge, — in  bras  they  haue 
kateryns,  and  byokes,  and  denares.  who  that  wyl  learne  kateryns, 

*'  "^  ''  baiocchi,  denari. 

some  Italien,^ — Englyshe  and  Italy  en  doth  folow. 

'  One.  two.  thre.  foure.   fyue.   syx.  seuyn.  eyghte.  nyne.  Italian  numerals. 

Una.  Uoo.  tre.    qvxxt&r.  siiwo.  si.     serto  f .  octo.    none,      tt  for  >etto. 
ten.  aleuyn.  twelue.  thyrtene.  fowrtene.  fyftene.  syxtene. 
dees.  vnse.     duose.    trese.       quaterse.  kynse.    sese. 
seuentyne.  eyghtene.  nyntene.  twenty,  one  and  twenty. 
dessetto.       desotto.      desnono.  vincto.    vinto  vno. 
two  and  twenty,  thre  and  twenty,  foure  and  twenty. 
vincto  duo.  vincto  tre.  vincto  quater. 

therty.  forty.         fyuete.         sexte.         seuente. 
trento.  quaranto.  sinquanto.    sessento.     settanto. 
eyghte.  nynte.      a  honderd,  a  thowsande. 
octento.  nonanto.  cento.  milya. 

Good  morow,  my  syr !    Boniis  dies,  nusirt  a  talk  in  itauan 

and  English. 

Good  lyfe  be  to  you,  mastres !     Bona  vita,  ma  dona  I 

Ys  thys,  or  that,  the  ryght  way  to  go  to  Rome? 

Est  kelaf  vel  kesta,  via  recta  pre  andare  Borne  9 

(The  true  wry  ting  is  thus  :  JEst  quela  vel  questa  via  ; 

But,  and  8  I  shoulde  so  write  as  an  Italy  an  doth,  an  i  write  phoneti- 

cally,  to  enable 

Englyshman,  without  teachyng,  can  not  speake  nor  pre-  EngUshmen  to 
late  the  wordes  of  an  Italyau.)  itaUan. 

IT  How  farre  is  Rome  hens  1    Sancta  de  ke  est  Boma  ? 
Hit  is  .xl.  myles  hence.     Est  karenta  milia.^ 
Brother,  how  farre  is  it  to  the  nexte  lodgyng  ? 
Fradelf  kanta  de  ke  ad  altera  ostelaria  ? 

*  clocke  B.         '  long  or  A.         '  then  B.         "  leages  B. 

^  or  AB.         "  Italien  and  AB.         '^  sign.  I  .i. 

"  an'  if.        *  nulla  A  ;  milia  B. 

1  2  • 


ITALY.       A   TALK    IN    ITALIAN. 

[chap.   XXIII. 

A  talk  in  Italian 
and  English. 

[♦  vn,  uri] 

[t  nome2 

r§  k^mto»^ 

Hit  is  .iiii.  myle.     Sunt  hater^  milia. 

May  we  haue  there  this  nyght  good  lodgyng  1 

Podemus  auere  honissima  loga  pro  reposar  ? 

My  serre,  there  is  good  lodgyng. 

My  ser,  se  aueryte  honissima. 

You  be  welcome  to  thiscoiint[r]ye !  can  youspeke  Italian? 

Vene'^  venuta  kesta  terra!  se parlare  Italionna  ? 

'Ye  ser,  I  can  speke  a  lytle.     My  ser,  se  vin*  pauh 

I  do  thanke*  you  wyth  al  my  hart !  JRegracia,  ion  corf 

"What  tydynges  is  in  your  countre  ? 

Auete  nessona  noua  de  vostra  terra  ? 

There  is  nothing  but  good,  blessed  be  God  ! 

Nessona  nouaf  salua  tota  bona,  gracia  none  Deo  I 

How  do  you  fare  1     Quomodo  stat  cum  vostro  corps  ? 

I  do  fare  wel.         Ge  sta  beene. 

Wyl  you  go  eate  some  meate  1    volite  mangare  ?  ^ 

What  is  it  a  cloke,  brother?     Tcantar^  horas,  fardell ? 

Hyt  is  thre  and  twenty  a  clock,     sunt  vinccitres  horas. 

Wyfe,  geue  me  a  pot  of  wyne  ! 

Ma  dona,  dona^  me  vn  buccal  de  vyne  I 

Much  good  do  hit^  you  I     Mantingat  vos  Deus  I 

Bryng  vs  a  reckenyng,  wyfe  ! 

Far  tu  la  counta,  madona  1 

Hostes,  pay  to  this  man  .iii.  kateryng. 

Hostessa,  paga  kesto  hominy  tres  katerinos. 

God  be  wyth  you  !     Va  cum  De  ! 

'  katet  AB.     'It  is  Vene,  not  Bene  in  AB.     ^  sign.  I  .1.  back. 

*  tanke  A ;  thanke  B.  *  maugare  A  ;  mangare  B. 

•  dona  A.  '  good  hit  A  ;  good  do  hit  B. 

CHAP.    XXIV.] 



The  .xxiiii.  chapter  treateth  of  Venys,  and  of  the 

natural!  dysposicyon  of  the  people  of  the 

country,  of  ther  mony  and  of  theyr  spech.^ 

2 1  am  a  Venesien  both  sober  and  sage  ; 

In  all  myne  actes  and  doynges  I  do  not  outrage  ; 

Granite  shal  be  founde  euer  in  me, 

I  am  always 

Mjr  dress  is  rich. 

I  have  money  to 
pacify  my  foee. 

SpeciaUy  yf  I  be  out  of  my  countrey. 

My  apparell  is  ryche,  very  good  and  fyue. 

All  my  possessyon  is  not  fully  myne, 

For  part  of  my  possession,  I  am  come  tributor  ^  to  the  i  pay  tribute 

_,     ,  to  the  Turk. 

To  lyue  in  rest  and  peace,  in  my  cytye  I  do  lourke.     8 
Some  men  do  saye  I  do  smell  of  the  smoke ; 
I  passe  not  for  that,  I  haue  money  in  my  pooke 
To  pacyfye  the  Pope,  the  Turke,  and  the  lue : 
I  say  no  more,  good  felow,  now  adew  I  12 

Yf  I  should  not  bryng  in  &  speke  of  Venes  here,  I 
sholde  not  kepe  the  circuit  of  Europe,  whosoeuer  that 
hath  not  seene  the  noble  citie  of  Venis,*  he  hath  not  Venice  is  the 

beauty  of  the 

sene  the  bewtye  &  ryches  of  thys  worlde.*     iher  be  world. 

'  of  theyr  speche  and  of  there  money  B.         ^  sign.  I  .ii. 

'  tribut  B.  *  venus  A  ;  venis  B. 

*  A  rare  poem  in  a  paper  MS  of  Mr  Henry  Huth's,  about 
1500  A.D., — a  poem  of  which  part  is  printed  in  Wey's  Pilgrimages 
for  the  lloxburghe  Club — praises  Venice  as  strongly  as  Andrew 
Boorde  does : 


Merchants  flow 
to  Venice. 

I  started  from 
Venice  to 

Venice  is  the 
king  of  all  cities. 

Saints'  corpses 

St  George, 

John  the  Bap* 
tist's  father. 

1000  Innocents, 

He  who  visits  it 
twice  in  a  year 
gets  remission  of 
his  sins. 

The  Isles  of  the 
sea  belong  to 

In  Rhodes  are 
many  relics : 

a  thorn  of 
Christ's  crown, 

St  Loye's  body, 
St  Katherine's 
arm,  &c. 

VENICE   IS   THE   KING   OP   ALL   CITIES.         [cHAP.    XXIV. 

ryche  marcliauence  and^  marchauntes ;  for  to  Venys  is  a 

Here  begynnyth  the  Pilgrymage  and  the 
wayes  of  Jerusalem. 

GOd  pat  made  bothe  heuen  &  helle, 
To  the,  lorde,  I  make  my  mone, 
And  geue  me  grace  Jjb  sothe  to  telle 
Of  jje  pylgrymage  pat  I  haue  to  gone. 
I  toke  my  leue  at  Veynes  towne, — 
And  bade  felowes  for  me  to  praye, — 
That  is  a  cyte  of  grete  Eenowne, 
And  to  lerusaleiD.  I  toke  my  waye ; 
But  of  alle  pe  Cetys  pat  I  haue  seyne, 
That  maye  Ueynes  kynge  been, 
That  stondith  in  pe  Grikys  see  alone  : 
Hit  is  so  stronge  alle  abowte, 
Of  enemyes  dare  hit  not  drede ; 
Corsayntes  lyen  in  pe  touwe  abowte  ; 
Who  so  wylle  hym  seke,  he  ^hal  haue  mede. 
Saynt  Marke,  Saynt  Nicholas, 
Thes  two  sayntes  they  loue  &  drede  ; 
Saynt  El3nie  pat  fonde  pe  Crosse, 
And  Saynt  lorge,  oure  ladyes  knyghte, 
Amonge  hem  beryth  grete  voyis, 
And  ly the  in  golde  &  syluere  I-dyght ; 
Saynt  Powle,  pe  fyrst  Eremyght. 
And  Saynt  Symone  iust,  also 
Zachare,  pe  fadre  of  Ioh«n  baptiste, 
Lyeth  thense  but  a  lytel  therfro  ; 
Saynt  Luce  and  saynt  Barbera 
That  holy  were,  bothe  olde  &  younge  ; 
A  M'  Innocentys  and  moo 
Lythe  there  closyd ; 
Saynt  Cristofer  lythe  in  pe  Cyte : 
Twyes  in  pe  lere,  who  so  theder  wyll  come, 
He  shal  haue  playne  Remysciou» 
Also  wel  as  in  the  sere  of  grace. 
Than  passyd  we  to  pe  lies  of  pe  see, 
Corfe,  Medon,  and  Candye  ; 
And  some  of  pe  lies  of  pe  see  witA-owten  dowte 
Ben  sevyn  houwdred  myle  abowte, 
And  al  longyth  vnto  Venes  towne, 
Whiche  is  a  Cyte  of  grete  renowne. 
And  in  pe  yle  of  Rodys,  as  we  gone. 
We  fynde  Relikis  many  one  : 
A  Crosse  made  of  a  Basyn  swete 
That  Crist  wysshe  in  his  Aposteles  feete, 
And  A  thome  off  pe  Crowne 
That  stake  in  his  hede  abouyn, 
That  blowyth  euery  good  Frydaye, 
A  fajnre  myracle  hit  is  to  saye. 
Ther  is  Saynt  Loye,  &  seint  Blase  ; 
Ther  is  pe  hande  &  pe  Arme 
Of  saint  Kateryn,  pe  blessyd  virgyn.  .  .  . 

»  of  B. 


great  confluence  of  marchanntes,  as  well  Christians,  as 
all  sortes  of  infydels.  The  citie  of  Venis  doth  stande 
.vii.  myle  wythin  the  sea :  the  sea  is  called  the  gulf;  it 
doth  not  eb  nor  flow.     Thorow  the  stretes  of  Venys  water  in  every 


ronnyth  the  water ;  and  euery  marchaunt  hath  a  fayre 
lytle  barge  standynge  at  his  stayers  to  rowe  thorow  and  Gondolas, 
aboute  the  citie ;  and  at  bothe  sydes  of  the  water  in 
euery  strete  a  man  maye  go  whyther  he  wyll  in  Venys ; 
but  he  must  passe  ouer  many  bredges.  The  mar- 
channtes of  Venys  goeth  in  longe  gownes  lyke  preestes.  Merchants  wear 

long  gowns. 

with  close  sleues.     The  Venyscyows  wyll  not  haue  no 

lordes  nor   knyghtes   a-monges   theym,  but   only  the  Venetians  won't 

,  have  Lords. 

Duke.     The  Duke  of  Venys  is  chosen  for  terme  of  hys 
lyfe ;  he  shall  not  mary,  by  cause  his  sonne  shall  not  The  Duke  of 
clayme  no  inheritaunce  of  the  dukedomshyp,  ^  the  Duke  mSly,  buTmay 
may  haue  lemons  &  concubyns'^  as  manye  as  he  wyl.  *^^^«  <'0"*^^">«8. 

'  sign.  I  .ii.  back. 

^  Thomas  does  not  notice  this  custom  ;  though  he  says  that 
younger  brothers  in  Venice  do  not  marry.  Of  the  Venetian 
young  man  he  says  : — 

"  his  greatest  exercise  is  to  go,  amongest  his  companyons,  to 
this  good  womans  house  and  that.     Of  whiche  in  Venice  are  Many  thousand 
many  thousandes  of  ordinarye,  lesse  than   honest.     And  no  courtesans  in 
meruaile  of  the  multitude  of  theyr  common  women  ;  for  amonge  ^«'"C6' 
the  gentilmen  is  a  certeine  vse,  that  if  there  be  diuers  brethern, 
lightlye  but  one  of  theim  doeth  marie  :  because  the  number  of  Only  one  brotbet 
gentilmen  should  not  so  encrease,  that  at  length  their  common  of  a  family 
wealth  might  waxe  vile :  wherfore  the  reste  of  the  brethern  doe  [^^^"gf  j^gg 
kepe  Courtisanes,  to  the  entent  they  may  haue  no  lawful  chil-  courtesans, 
dren.   And  the  bastardes  that  they  begette,  become  most  com-  and  make  their 
monly  monkes,  friers,  or  nunnes,  who  by  theyr  friendes  meanes  dastards  monks 
are  preferred  to  the  offices  of  most  profite,  as  abbottes,  priours,  °^'  """^' 
and  so  forth.     But  specially  the  Courtisanes  are  so  riche,  that 
in  a  maske,  or  at  the  feast  of  a  mariage,  or  in  the  shrouynge 
tyme,  you  shal  see  theim  decked  with  iewelles,  as  they  were  The  courtesans 
Queenes.     So  that  it  is  thought  no  one  citee  againe  hable  to  a^e  deckt  out 
compare  with  Venice,  for  the  number  of  gorgeouse  dames.     As  ^'^®  Queens, 
for  theyr  beaultie  of  face ;  though  they  be  fayre  in  deede,  I 
woull  not  highlye  commend  theim,  because  there  is  maner  none,  but  they  paint 
old  or  yong,  vnpeincted.    In  deede  of  theyr  stature,  they  are  of  tlieir  faces, 
the  most  parte  veraie  goodly  and  bigge  women,  wel  made  and  They're  well- 
stronge."— Thomas's  History e  of  Italy e,  fol.  84,  back  (1549  n^at^e* 
A.D.,  edit.  1561). 

In  an  earlier  part  of  his  book,  Thomas  speaks  as  follows  of 
the  Venetian  women  : — 


THE   DUKE    OR   DOGE   OF   VENICE.  [cHAP.    XXIV. 

The  Doge  mayn't  the  Duke  shall  neuei  ryd,  nor  go,  nor  sayle  out  of  the  cyte 

IficiVG  Vfinic© 

L_     as  longe  as  he  dothe  lyue.*     The  Duke  shall  rule  the 

The  Venetian 
women  are  very 

Some  Venetian 
women  beguile 
their  husbands. 

All  dress  more 
gorgeously  than 
any  other  women, 

Cliurchmen  keep 
fine  courtesans. 

The  Venetian 
Doge  seems 
grand,  but 
is  really  an 
Iionourable  slave. 

He  can't  go  out 
without  leave. 

But  he  can  make 
the  Council  take 
a  ballot  on  his 

"  As  for  the  women, 

Some  be  wonders  gaie, 

And  some  goe  as  they  maye. 

Some  at  libertee  dooe  swymme  a  flotc, 

And  some  woulde  faine,  but  they  cannot. 

Some  be  meerie,  I  wote  wel  why, 

And  some  begyle  the  housbande,  with  finger  in  the  eie. 

Some  be  maryed  agaynst  theyr  will, 

And  therfore  some  abyde  Maydens  styll. 

In  effect,  they  are  women  all, 

Euer  haue  been,  and  euer  shall, 
— But  in  good  earnest,  the  gentilwomen  generally,  for  gorgeouse 
atyre,  apparayle  and  lewelles,  excede  (I  thynke)  all  other 
women  of  oure  knowen  worlde,  I  meane  as  well  the  courtisanes 
as  the  maryed  women.  For  in  some  places  of  Italye,  speciallie 
where  churchemen  doe  reigne,  you  shall  fynde  of  that  sorte  of 
women  in  riche  apparaile,  in  furniture  of  household,  in  seruice, 
in  horse  and  hackeney,  and  in  all  thinges  that  apperteyne  to  a 
delycate  Lady,  so  well  fumysshed,  that  to  see  one  of  theim  vn- 
knowynglye,  she  should  seeme  rather  of  the  qualitee  of  a  prin- 
cesse,  than  of  a  common  woman.  But  because  I  haue  to  speake 
hereafter  in  perticuler,  I  woull  forbeare  to  treate  anye  further  of 
theym  in  thys  place." — Fol.  6.  The  History e  of  Italy e^  by  W. 
Thomas,  1549,  edit.  1561. 

'  "  They  haue  a  duke  called  after  theyr  maner  doge,  who  onely 
(amongest  al  the  rest  of  the  nobilitee)  hath  his  office  immutable 
for  terme  of  Hfe,  with  a  certaine  yerely  prouision  of  .4000. 
duckates,  or  theraboutes.  But  that  is  so  appoincted  vnto  him 
for  certaine  ordinarie  feastes,  &  other  lyke  charges,  that  hys 
owne  aduauntage  therof  can  be  but  sraal.  And  though  in 
apparaunce  he  seemeth  of  great  astate,  yet  in  veray  deede  his 
power  is  but  small.  He  kepeth  no  house,  lyueth  priuately,  & 
is  in  so  muche  seruitude,  that  I  haue  hearde  some  of  the  Vene- 
tians theim  selfes  cal  him  an  honourable  slaue :  For  he  cannot 
goe  a  mile  out  of  the  towne  without  the  counsails  licence,  nor 
in  the  towne  depart  extraordinarily  out  of  the  palaice,  but 
priuately  and  secretely :  And  in  his  apparaile  he  is  prescribed 
an  ordre  :  so  that,  in  effect,  he  hath  no  maner  of  preeminence 
but  the  bare  honour,  the  gift  of  a  few  smal  offices,  and  the 
libertee  Bi  mettere  vna  porta,  which  is  no  more  but  to  pro- 
pound vnto  any  of  tJiQ  counsailes  his  opinion,  touching  the 
ordre,  reformacion,  or  correcion  of  anye  thyng :  and  that 
opinion  euery  counsaile  is  bound  taccept  into  a  trial  of  theyr 
sentences  by  Ballot :  (the  maner  of  the  whych  ballotting  shal 
hereafter  appeare;)  and  this  priuilege,  to  haue  his  onely  oppin- 
ion  ballotted,  no  man  hath  but  he.  And  wheras  many  haue  re- 
ported, that  the  Duke  in  ballottyng  should  haue  two  voices,  it 
is  nothinge  so ;  for  in  geuyng  his  voice,  he  hath  but  one  ballot, 
as  all  others  haue." — Thomas's  Historye  of  Italye,  fol.  77 
(1549,  edit.  15G1). 


senyorite,  and  the  seniorite  shall  gouerne  and  rule  the 
comynalte^,  and  depose  and  put  to  deth  the  Duke  if 
thei   do  fynd  a  lawful  cause.     The  Duke  weryth   a  The  Doge  wears 

a  coronet  over  his 

coronet  ouer  a  cap  of  sylke,  the  whych  stondeth  vp  lyke  cap  of  suk. 
a  podynge  or  a  cokes  come,  bekyng  forward,  of  .iii. 
handfoll  longe.     The  Duke  do  not  come  to  the  butyful 
church  of  saint  Marke  but  [on]  certen  hygh  feastes  in  st  Mark's, 
the  yere,  &  the  fyrst  eyght  daies  after  that  he  is  made 
Duke,  to  shew  hym  selfe.  I  dyd  neer^  se  within  the  cyte  No  poverty  in 
of  Venis  no  pouerte,  but  al  riches,  ther  be  none  in- 
habitours  in  the  cite  that  is  nede  &  pour,  vitelles  there  victuals  dear 

^  there, 

is  dere.  Venys  is  one  of  the  chefest  portes  of  all  the 

world,  the  Venyscions  hath  great  prouision  of  warre,  for  Great  stores  for 

war.    (See  Ifote$ 

they  haue  euer  in  a  redynes  tymber  readye  made  to  at  the  end.) 
make  a  hondred  gales  or  more  at  [a]  tyme.^  they  haue 
all  maner  of  artilery  in  a  redynes.     They  haue  gi-eate 
possessions  ;  and  Candy,  and  Scio,*  with  other  lies  and  ^^"fj^^i^'jlj  „ 
portes,  cites  &  landes,  be  vnder  ther  dominion.    Whan  ^  Venice, 
they  do  heare  masse,  &  se  the  sacrament,  they  do  in-  ?"*;«  Venetians* 

•^  '  'J  behaviour  at 

clyne,  &  doth  clap  theyr  hand  on  theyr  mouth,  and  do  Mass 
not  knock  them  self  on  the  brest.  at  hygh  masse  they 
do  vse  prycksong  &  playnsonge,  the  orgins  &  the  trum- 

As  our  rulers  are  getting  honest  enough  to  give  poor  and 
squeezeable  voters  the  protection  of  the  Ballot,  I  add  Thomas's 
further  account  of  the  Venetian  system  : 

"This  maner  of  geuyng  theyr  [the  great  Council's]  voices  by  The  Venetian 
ballotte,  is  one  of  the  laudablest  thinges  vsed  amongest  theim.  Ba^ot. 
For  there  is  no  man  can  know  what  an  other  dooeth. — The 
boxes  are  made  with  an  holow  place  at  the  top,  that  a  man  may  How  the  vote  by 
put  in  his  hand  ;  and  at  the  ende  of  that  place  hange  .ii.  or  .iii.   Fallot  is  taken 
boxes,  into  whiche,  if  he  wyll,  he  may  let  fall  his  ballot,  that  no  c^,u^^|*"*"'"' 
man  can  perceiue  hym.  If  there  be  but  two  boxes  (as  commonly 
it  is  in  election)  the  one  saieth  yea,  and  the  other  sayeth  naye  : 
And  if  there  be  .iii.  boxes  (whiche  for  the  most  parte  hapneth 
in  cases  of  iudgement)  the  one  saieth  yea,  thother  sayth  naye, 
and  the  thyrde  saieth  nothynge:  and  they  are  all  well  enough 
knowen  by  theyr  dyuers  colours.     By  this  order  of  ballottyng, 
they  procede  in  iudgement  thorough  al  offices,  vpon  all  maner 
of  causes :  beynge  reputed  a  soueraigne  preseruation  of  iustice."   It's  a  sovereign 
— iJiU  fol.  79.  jScT'"^ 

'  coymnalte  A  ;  comenalte  B.  ^  neuer  B. 

^  at  tyme  A  ;  at  a  tim  B.  *  sco  AB. 



and  when  St 
Mark  is  named. 

The  Venetians 
poll  their  heads. 


pates,  if  ther  be  any  gospel  red,  or  song  of  saynt  Marke, 
they  wyl  say  "sequencia  santy  euangely  secundum 
istum,"  poyntyng  theyr  fynger  to  s.  Mark,  the  whych 
do  ly  in  the  church,  the  people  do  pol  their  heades, 
and  do  let  ther  berdes  grow.  Theyr  spech  is  Italion, 
ther  money  is  gold,  that  is  to  say,  duccates ;  &  bagar^tins 
is  brasse ;  .xii.  bagantyns  is  worth  a  galy  halpeny ;  & 
there  is  galy  halpens. 

The.  XXV.  Chapter  treateth  of  Lom- 
bardye,  and  of  the  natural 
dysposicion  of  the  peo- 
ple, and  of  theyr 
speche  and  of 
theyr  mo- 

I  am  cratty,  I  am  a  Lombort,  and  subtyl  crafft  I  haue, 

To  deceyue  a  gentyl  man,  a  yeman,  or  a  knaue ; 
I  werke  by  polyse,^  subtylyte,  and  craught,  [craft] 
The  whych,  other  whyle,  doth  bryng  me  to  nought. 
I  am  the  next  neyghbour  to  the  Italion ; 
We  do  bryng  many  thynges  out  of  al  fashyon  ; 

and  oare  lor  na     We  care  for  uo  man,  &  no  man  caryth  for  vs ; 


Our  proud  hartes  maketh  vs  to  fare  the  worse. 
'  I  .iii.  not  signed.  '^  poplyse  AB. 

CHAP.  XXV.]  INTRODUCTION.       OF   LOMBi»ilDY.  187 

In  our  countre  we  eate  Adders,  snayles,^  and  frogges,      i  eat  snakes, 
And  above  al  thyng  we  be  sure  of  kur  dogges ;  Lombards  have  * 

_^  many  cun 

For  mens  shyns  they  wyl  ly  in  wayte ; 
It  is  a  good  sport  to  se  them  so  to  bayte.  12 

2  f  Lombardy  is  a  champion  countrey  &  a  fartyl, 
plentye  of  wyne  and  come.   The  Lomberd  doe  ^  set  muche  are  proud  of  their 


by  his  herd,  &  he  is  scorneful  of  hys  speche ;  he  wyl 
geue  an  aunswer  wyth  wryeng  his  hed  at  the  one  side, 
displaysynge  his  handes  abrode :  yf  he  cast  hys  head 
at  the  one  syde,  and  do^  shroge  vp  hys  shoulders,  speake  shrug  their 


no  more  to  hym,  for  you  be  answered.  The  Italyons, 
and  some  of  the  Venecyons,  be  of  lyke  dysposicion.  In 
Lomberdy  ther  be  many  vengable  cur  dogges,  the 
whyche  wyll  byte  a  man  by  the  legges  or  he  be  ware, 
they^  wyll  ete  frogges,  guttes  and  all.  Adders^,  snayles,  eat  frogs  whole; 

and  put  rosemary 

and  musheroms,  be  good  meate  there.    In  dyuerse  places  in  wine. 

of  Italy  and  Lombardy  they  wyll  put  rose-mary  into 

theyr  vessels  of  wine.     Florance  is  the  chefe  towne  of  Florence. 

Lomberdy ;  it  is  a  pleasaunt  towne,  and  a  commodiouse , 

it  standeth  betwext  two  hylles.    the  Lomberdes  be  so 

crafty,  that  one  of  them  in  a  countrey  is  enough  (as  I  on®  Lombard  is 

^  enough  to  mar  a 

haue  heard  many  olde  &  wyse  men  say)  to  mar  a  whole  whole  country, 
countrey.    the  maner  of  the  people  and  the  speche  be 
lyke  the  Italyons ;  the  people  of  the  countrey  be  very 
rewde.     In  Lomberdy  and  Italy  they  go  to  plow  but  They  cover  oxen 
wyth   two  oxsone,    and   they  be   couered   with 
canuas  that  the  flyes  shall  not  byte  them,  there 

money  is  brasse,  called  katerins  and  Lombord  money  i 

bagantyns ;  in  syluer  they  haue 
marketes  :  a  market  is  a  galy  markets  (mar- 

11  •  n     1  cAeUi). 

halpeny  :  in  gold  they 
haue  duccates. 

'  See  the  recipe  for  dressing  them  in  Q.  Eliz.  Acliademy^ 
^v.,  Part  II.  p.  153.  M  .iii.  back.  ^  j^th  B. 

*  to  AB.     (The  prefix  to  is  hardly  applicable  to  shrug ^ 

*  That  is,  the  Lombards,  not  their  curs. 
«  See  p.  273,  1.  13. 



The   .xxvi.    chapter    treateth'    of 
lene  and  of  the  lanuayes,  and  of 
theyr  spech,  and  of  their 

[B  puts  this  printer's  ornament  here.] 


I  make  Treacle 
and  Fustian : 

and  (?)  take-in 
my  customers. 

H  I  am  a  marchaunt ;  borne  I  was  in  lene ; 
Whan  I  sell  my  ware,  fewe  men  knoweth  what  I  mene ; 
I  make  good  treacle,  and  also  fustyan ;  3 

Wyth  such  thynges  I  crauft  wyth  many  a  poer  man ; 
Other  of  my  marchaundes  *  I  do  set  at  a  great  pryce  ; 
I  counsel  them  be  ware  lest  on  them  I  set  the  dyce ; 
I  do  hyt  dyuerce  tymes ;  som  men  on  the  thomes.       7 
Wher  soeuer  I  ryde  or  go,  I  wyl  not  lese  my  cromes. 
I  stick  to  my  old    In  mv  appercl,  the  old  fashyon  I  do  kepe: 

fashions  in  dress,  J      x  r         ?  j  i      ^ 

Yf  I  should  do  other  wyse,  it  would  cause  me  to  wepe. 
Better  it  is  for  a  man  to  haue  Ids  rayment  tore,  1 1 

Than  to  runne  by-hynd-hande,  and  not  to  be  before. 

'  This  cut  is  from  B.  A  has  the  canopy  complete,  except 
a  third  of  the  top  line,  and  the  cape  on  the  right  shoulder  is 
complete,  as  is  the  cut  of  Boorde  on  the  title-page  of  Barnes's 
Treaty se  below. 

^  I  .iiii.  not  signed.  '  trateth  A  ;  tretcth  B. 

*  marchauntes  A  ;  marchaundes  B :  merchandise. 


Gorgyouse  apparell  maketh  a  bare  purse ; 
It  bringeth  a  maw  by-hynd,  &  maketh  him  worse  & 
Worse.  14 

^ir  The  noble  cyte  of  lene  is  a  plesant  and  a  com-  Genoa  is  a  weii- 

vlctualled  city, 

modyose  cyte,  And  well  serued  of  all  maner  of  vyttells,  and  makes  velvet, 

«.  11  1  1^1-  11  1    '*'''^»  fustian,  &c. 

for  it  stondeth  on  the  see  syd.  there  is  made  veluet  and 
other  sylkes ;  and  ther  is  fustyane  of  lene  mad[e],  and 
triacle  of  lene. 

lene,  Prouince,  and  Langwadock,  lyeth  on  the  cost  it's  opposite 

Barbary,  where 

of  Barbary,  where  the  whyte  and  the  blacke''  mores  be^,  the  white  and 
&  so  doth  Catalony,*  Aragon,  and  Cyuel,  and  parte  of 
Portyngale;  of  the^  whych  countres  I  wyl  speke  of  after 
in  this  boke.  the  lanewayes  be  sutyl  and  crafty  men  in  The  Genoese  are 

crafty  dealers. 

theyr  marchaundes  ^ ;  they  lone  clenlynes ;  they  be  hyghe      (See  Notet.) 

in  the  instep,  and  stondeth  in  theyr  owne  consayte.  to 

the  fayre  and  commodiouse  citie  of  lene  be- 

longeth  gret  possessions,  the  whyche  is 

ful  of  fartilite,  and  plentiful  of  fysh 

and  frut.  whan  they  do  make  theyr 

treacle,  a  man  wyll  take  and 

eate  poysen  and  than  he  Genoese  treacle 

i*  an  antidote 

wyl  swel  redy  to  to  poison, 

brost^  and  to 
dye,  and 

sone  as  he  hath  takyn  trakle,  he  is  hole 

agene.  theyr  spech  is  Italyon  and 

French ;  theyr  mony  is  much 

lyke^  the  Italy ons. 

'  1 .1111.  back.  '  placke  B. 

'  Who  come  over  and  rob  the  Genoese,  &c.  :  see  p.  213, 

*  See  Boorde's  letter  in  the  Forewords,  p.  56. 

*  of  it  of  the  AB.  ^  merchandise,  dealing. 
'  borst  B.  "  lyke  to  B. 



The  .xxvii.  Chapter  treateth  of  Eraunce,  and  of  our 
prouences  the  whyche  be  vnder  Fraunce,  and  of 
the  natural  dysposicyon  of  the  peo- 
ple, and  of  ther  money  and 
of   theyr 

I  am  a  French  man,  lusty  and  stout ; 
My  payment  is  lagged,  and  kut  round  a-bout ; 
I  am  ful  of  new  inuencions,  3 

And  dayly  I  do  make  new  toyes  and  fashions ; 
All  nations  follow  Al  nacious  of  me  example  do  take, 

Whan  any  garment  they  go  about  to  make.  6 

2  Fraunce  is  a  noble  countre,  and  plentiful  of  wyne, 
bread,  corne,  fysh,  flesh,  &  whyld^  foule.  there  a  maw 
'  sign.  K  .i.  ^  sign.  K  .i.  back.  ^  wild  B. 

I  jag  and  cut 
my  clothes. 

my  fashions. 


shalbe  honestly  orderyd  for  his  mony,  and  shal  haue 

good  chere  and  good  lodging.  Fraunce  is  a  rych  countre 

&  a  plesaunt.    in  Fraunce  is  many  goodly  tonnes,  as ' 

Granople,  Lyons,  and  Parys ;  the  which  Panes ^  is  de-  Grenoble,  Lyons, 

uyded  in  thre  partes  : — Fyrste  is  the^  towne ;  the  citie,  & 

the  vniuersite.    in  Fraunce  is  also'*  Orlyance,  and  Put-  Orleans,  Poitiers, 

tyors,  Tolose,  and  Mount  Pylor,  the  which  .iiii.  townes  be  Montpeiier,  &c 

vniuercites.  beyond  Fraunce  be  these  great  priuces,  fyrst 

is  Priuinces  and  Sauoy,  Dolphemy  &  Burgundy:  then  is  Provence, 


the  fayer  prouynces  of  Langwhadock  &  good  Aquytany.  Languedoc,  &c. 

The  other  prouynces  I  wil  speke  of  whan  I  shal  wryt 

in  retornyng  home  to  Calys,  where  that  I  toke  my  first 

iorny  or  vyage.   the  people  of  Fraunce  doo  delyte  in  New  fashions 

gorgious   apparell,  and  wyll  haue  euery  daye   a   new 

fashion.     They  haue  no  greate  fantasy  to  Englyshmen  ;  Dislike  EngUsh- 

they  do  loue  syngyng  and  dansyng,  and  musicall  in- 

strumentes;   and  they  be  hyghe  mynded   and  statly 

people.     The  money  of  Fraunce  is  gold,  syluer,  and  French  money: 

brasse.  In  gold  they  haue  French  crownes  of  .iiii.  s.  viiLd. ;  gold  crowns, 

in  syluer  they  haue  testons,  which  be  worth  halfe  a  silver  testons, 

Frenche  crowne ;  it  is  worth  .ii.  s.  iiii.  d.  sterlyng.    in 

bras  they  haue  mietes,  halfe  pens,  pens,  dobles,  lierdes, 

halfe  karalles  &  karales,^  halfe  sowses  &  sowses ;  a  brass  caroiuses, 

sowse  is  worth  .xii.  bras  pens^;  a  karoll  is  worth  .x.  sous  =  12  brass 

bras  pens,  a  lier  is  worth  three  brasse  pens,  a  double  is  iiers,  doubles; 

worthe  two  brasse  pens    .xxiiii.  Brasse  halpens  ys  a  24  brass  ha'pence 

sowese,  [and]  is  almooste  worthe  thre  halpens  of  our  ITearfyMri^Eng- 

mony ;  myttes  be  brasse  fardinges :  if  any  man  wyll  myites. 

lerne  Fraunce^  and  Englyshe, — Englyshe  and  Fraunce' 

doth  folowe. 

One.  two.    thre.   foure.  fyue.  syx.  seuen.  eyghte.  nyne.  French  numerals. 

One.  deus.  trous.  cater,  cynk.  sys.  set.       huyt.      neyf. 

ten.  aleuyn.  twelue.  thyrtene.  fowrtene.  fyftene.  sixtene. 

^dix.vngse.    deuse.    treise.       katorse.     kynse.    seise. 

'  as  a  A.  ^  partes  A  ;  parres  B.  ^  that  AB. 

*  fraunce  also  AB.     *  from  Upcott ;  'halfe  karalles  karalle '  AB. 
^  cp.  *  eyght  shyllynges,  huyt  sous,'  p.  193.         '  frenche  B. 

^  K  .ii.  not  signed. 
1  5 

192  A   TALK   IN    FRENCH    AND   IINGLISH.  [CHAP.    XXVII. 

French  numerals,  seuentyne.  eyghteiie.  nyntene.  twenty,  one  and  twenty. 

desett.  deshuit     desneuf.    vind.      vinct^  ung. 

therty.  forty.        fyuete.        sexte.     seuente.  eyghte. 

trente.   katrente.  cynkante?  sesante.  sejptante.  hytante, 

nynte.     a  honderd.   a  thowsand.  x.  thowsand. 

notante.  Cent.  mille.  dix  mille. 

A  talk  in  French    Good  morow,  mv  svr !     hon  iour.  mon  ser  ! 

and  English.  '       ^     ^ 

God  gene  you  a  good  day  !    Dieu  voiis  dint  oon  tore  /  * 

God  spede  you,  my  brother !  Dieu  voits  gard,  monfrerl* 

frend,  God  saue  you  !     Amyy  Dieu  vous  salue  ! 

Of  whens  be  you  ?  Vnde  etaf  vou  9 

I  am  of  England.  Je  sites  \  de  Angliater. 

You  be  welcome,  gentyl  companyon ! 

Vous  etes  Hen  venu,  gentyl  companyon  / 

Syr,  how  do  you  fare  ]     Sijrj  comment  vous  portes  f  f 

I  fare  wel.  Je  porta  bene-f. 

Howe  doth  my  father  and  mother  1 

comment  se  porte  mon  peer  et  me  mater  jf  ? 

Ryght  wel,  blessed  be  God !  Treshien,  benoyst  soyt  Dieu  1  * 

I  praye  you  that  ye  commend  me  to  my  father  and  to 

all  my  good  frendes. 
le  vous  prie  que  me  commendes  a  mon  pere  et  a  tovs  mes 

hons  amys.* 
Whyche  is  the  right  way  for  to  go  from  hens  to  Parys  1 
Quele  est  la  droyt\  voye  pour  alier  dicy  a  Paris  ? 
Syr,  you  must  hold  the  way  on  the  ryght  hand. 
Syr,  il  vos  fault  teriyr  le  cliymin  a  la  droits  mayn. 
Tel  me  yf  ther  be  any  good  lodgyng. 
Dictes  sil  y  a  poynt  de  bon  logis. 
There  is  ryght  good  lodgyng. 
Hi  en  y a  vng  tresbon  logis.-f 

My  frend,  God  thanke  you !     ^Mon  amy,  Dieu  marces, 
Syr,  God  be  wyth  you  !  I  must  depart. 

*  ▼inci  AB  ;  1  for  vingt  et.       *  onkante  AB.        ^  K  .ii.  back. 

*  These  seem  to  me  genuine  French  of  Rabelais'  time. — 
C.  Cassal. 

f  These  must  be  by  a  travelling  Brown,  Jones,  or  Robin- 
son.— C.  Casaal. 

CHAP.    XXVII.]       INTRODUCTION.      FRENCH.       AQUITAINE.  193 

Syre,  Dieu  soit  auecques  vous,  car  me  fault  departer.*     a  talk  in  French 

fare  wel !     adewe  ! 

dame,  God  saue^  you  !    Dame,  Dieu  vous  salu! 

You  be  welcome  !     Vov^  estes  Men  veneul* 

Dame,  shall  I  be  here  wel  logyd  1 

Dame,  seray  ie  icy  hien  loge  ? 

ye,  syr,  ryght  wel.     Ouy,  syr,  tresbien. 

Now  geue  me  som  wyne.     Or  done  may  def  uyru 

Geue  me  bred,     done  moy  dej- pane. 

Dame,  is  al  redy  to  supper  ? 

[Dame,  est  tout  pret  a  souper  -f?]  ^ 

Ye,  syr,  whan  it  pleaseth  you. 

Ouy,  syr,  quant  il  vov^  plaira. 

Syr,  much  good  do  it  you  !     Syr,  bon  preu  vous  face  /  * 

I  pray  you,  mak  good  chere  ! 

Ie  vous  prye,  fades  bon  chere  / 

Now  tell  me  what  I  shall  pay. 

Or  me  dictes  combien  Ie  ^  ^^ayera.f 

Ye  haue  in  all  eyght  shyllynges. 

Vous  aues  en  tout  huyt  sous.* 

Syr,  God  geue  you  a  good  i^yght,  and  good  rest  I 

Syr,  Dieu  vous  doynt  bon  nuy  et  bon  repose  I  * 

My  frend,  if  you  do  speke,  take  hede  to  thy  selfe  ! 

Man  amy,  si  tu  paries,  gard  a  toy  I 

To  speke  to  much  is  a  dangerous  *  thynge. 

Le  trop  parler  est  danger eus.^  Aquitaine 

IT  Here  is  to  be  noted,  that  I,  in  al  the  countres  that 
euer  I  dyd  trauyl  in,  Aquitany, — the  whyche  is  wyth-in 
the  precynt  of  Fraunce,  and  on  of  the  vttermost  prouinces 
of  ^Fraunce,  Langadok  except,  the  which  Aquytany  isthemostpienti- 
pertainth  by  ryght  to  the  crowne  of  Englond,  as  Gas-  country  for  bread 
cony  and  Bion  and  Normandy  doth, — whych  is  the  most  *°  ^"*** 
plentifuUist  couTitry  for  good  bred  &  wyne,  consideiyng 

*  f  See  notes  on  last  page. 
'  same  A.  *  not  in  A,  but  in  B.  '  ye  AB. 

*  dargerous  A  ;  dangerous  B.        '  daugereus  A ;  dangereus  B. 
**  K  .ill.  not  signed. 
BOORDE.  13 



A  pen'orth  of 
cakes  lasted  me  9 
days  in  Aquitaine. 

Languedoc  is  : 
noble  country. 


is  the  noblest 
Medical  Uni- 
versity in  the 

The  Emperor  of 
Austria  dwells 
in  Catalonia. 

the  good  chep,^  that  I  was  euer  in ;  ^  a  peny  worth  of 
whyte  bread  in  Aquitany  ^  may  serue  an  honest  man  a 
hoole  weke ;  for  he  shall'*  haue,  whan  I  was  ther,  .ix. 
kakyg  for  a  peny  ;  and  a  kake  serued  me  a  daye,  &  so 
it  wyll  any  man,  excepte  he  be  a  rauenner.  the  bred  is 
not  so  good^  chepe,  but  the  wyne  &  other  vittels  is  in 
lyke  maner  good  chepe.  Aquytany  ioynetli  to  Langwa- 
dock,  the  whych  Langwadock  is  a  noble  country,  and 
plentyful,  as  Aquytany  is :  ther  is  muche  wode  grow- 
yng,  specially  from  Tolose  to  Mount-piliour.  Tolose  & 
Mount-pyliour  be  vniuersites.  in  Tolose  regneth  treue 
lustyce  &  equitie  :  of  al  the  places  that  euer  I  dyd  com 
in,  MuTipilior  is  the  most  nobilist  vniuersite  of  the 
world  for  phisicions  and  surgions.  I  can  not  geue  to 
greate  a  prayse  to  Aquitane  and  Langwadock,^  to  Tolose 
and  Mountpiliour. 

The  xxviii.  chapter  treateth  of 

Catalony  and  of  the  kyngedome 

of  Aragon,  and  of  the  natu- 

rall  dysi30sycyon  of  the 

people,  and  of  theyr 

money   and^ 

of  theyr 


IF  I  am  borne  in  Catalony  ;    the  Emproure  dwelleth 

wy  th  mee ;  ^ 
Why  he  so  doth,  I  can  not  tel  the. 

'  chepe  B  (bargain,  cheapness). 

'  Compare  the  end  of  Chapter  xxxii.  p.  206,  "  Aquitany 
hath  no  felow  for  good  wj'ne  &  bred." 

^  Aquiany  A  ;  aquiani  B.  *  for  "  should." 

^  god  A  ;  good  B.  ^  langadwoen  AB. 

'  B  has  for  this  cut,  the  king's  head  on  p.  175. 
*  and  of  A.  ^  "  mee  "  is  not  in  A,  but  is  in  B. 


^  Whan  I  fayght^  with  the  Mors,  I  set  al  at  sixt  or  seuyn; 
He  that  is  in  hel  thynketh  no  other  heuen.  4 

And  I  -was  borne  '  in  Aragon,  where  that  I  do  dwel. 
Masyl*  baken,  and  sardyns,  I  do  eate  and  sel,  in  Aragon  we  eat 

The  whych  doth  make  Englyshe  mens  chykes  lene,         sardines,  to 
That  neuer  after  to  me  they  wyll  come  agene  :  8  disgust!™^"  ^ 

Thus  may  you  know  howe  that  we  do  fare, 
The  countres  next  vs  al  be  very  bare ; 
We  haue  no  chere  but  by  the  se  syd, 
Although  our  countres  be  both  large  and  wyde.  12 

Castyll,  and  Spane,  and  we,  kepe  on  vse  ;  we're  like  castiiie 

They  that  leke  not  vs,  let  them  vs  refuce^ ; 
And  playnly  now  I  tell  you  my  intencyon, 
My  rayment  I  chaunge  not  from  the  olde  fashion.      16 
IT  Catalony,  whych  is  a  prouince,  and  Aragon  whych 
is  a  kyngdome,  be  anexed  to  gider.®    the  Emproure  doth  The  Emperor 
ly  much  in  Catalony,  for  in  those  partes  he  hath  not 
only  Catalony  vnder  hys  dominion,  but  also  he  hath  the 
kyngdom  of  Aragon,  the  kyngdom  of  Spayne,  the  kyng- 
dome of  Castil,  and  Biscay,  and  part  of  the  kingdom  of 
Nauer.     The  countres  of  Catalony  and  Aragon,  except  it  and  Aragon 
it  be  by  the  see  syde  and  great  townes,  is  poer  &  euyl  muci»  fruit, 
fare,  &  worse  lodgyng ;  yet  ther  is  plenty  of  fruit,  as  ^'"«8''*"*'«»' 
fygges,  Poudganades,^  Orenges,  &  such  lyke.     the  chefe 
townes  of  Catalony  is  called  Barsalone,  and  Tarragon,  Barcelona, 
and  Newe  Cartage,    in  Aragon  the  chefe  towne  is  called  cartage^niu 
Cesor  Augusta^;  nowe  it  is  called  Sarragose.     thorowe  sarragossa. 
Aragon  doth  rone  a  noble  ryuer  called  Iber.     the  spech  Ebro  nver. 
of  Catalony  &  Aragon  is  Castilion;  how  be  it  they  dyffer 
in  certene  wordes,  theyr  vsage,  theyr  maner  &  fashyons, 
is  much  after  the  Spainierdes  fashions ;  theyr  mony  is  Folks'  ways  like 
diuerce  coynes  of  the  Emperour,  for  all  maner  coynes  of 
the  Emperour  goeth  ther. 

'  K  .ii.  back.  '  faught  B. 

'  brone  A  ;  borne  B.  *  Mesyl  B.  *  refuse  B. 

•  gither  B,        '  pomgranates.         *  angusta  A. 

1   ^  # 





The  xxix.  Chapter  treateth  of  Andalase,  of  Cyuel, 

and  of  the  kyngedome  of  Portyngale,  and  of  the 

natural  dysposicyon  of  the  people,  and  of 

ther  speche,  and  of  theyr  money. 



Portugal  sells 
fipices  and  wine. 

I  was  borne  in  Andalase 

Wher  many  marchantes  commeth  to  me, 

Some  to  bay,2  and  some  to  sel ; 

In  our  marchantes  ^  we  sped  ful  wel. 

And  I  was  borne  in  Cyuel,  lackyng  nothyng ; 

Al  nacions,  marchauntes  to  me  doth  bryng. 

And  I  was  borne  in  the  kyngdome  of  Portyngale ; 

Of  spices  &  of  Wyne  I  do  make  great  sale. 

By  marchauntes,  al  my  country  doth  stond 

Or  els  had  I  *  very  poer  land. 

Yf  any  man  for  marchauntes  ^  wyl  come  to  vs. 

Let  hym  bryng  with  hym  a  good  fat  purse, 

Than  shal  they  haue  of  vs  theyr  full  intencion. 


•  K  .iiii.  not  signed.  ^  bey  B. 

*  I  a  B.  *  merchaundices  B. 

'  marchandes  B. 




^  And  know  that  in  our  payment  we  kepe  the  olde 


Portyngale  is  a  rych  angle,  specially  by  the  See  side, 

for  the  comon  corse  of   marchaunte   straungers.     the 

kyng  of  Portyngale  is  a  marchaunte,  &  doth  vse  mar- 

chauntes.2      Lustborne  and   Acobrynge  be   the  chefe 

townes  of  Portyngale.     The  countre  stondeth  much  by 

spyces,  fruites,  and  wyne.   The  Portingales  seketh  theyr 

lyuynge  fare  by  the  see,  theyr  money  is  brasse  and  fyne 

golde.  In  bras  theyhaue  marinades  ^  and  myttesand  other 

smale  peces  ;  in  gold  they  haue  cursados  worth 

.V.   s.   a  pece;    they  haue   also   portingalus, 

the  whych  be  worth  .x.  crownes  a  pece.  the 

spech  of  Portingale  is  Castilyone ;  how 

be  it  in  some  certen  wordes  they 

doth  swerue  from  the  true  Cas- 

tilion  speche.     The  men 

and  the  women  and 

the  maydens 

doth  vse 


rament  after  the  fashion  of  the  Spainierdes,  the 

men  hauyng  pold  hedes,  or  els  her  handgyng 

one  there*  shoulders;  and  the^  maydens 

be  poled,  hauynge  a^  gar- 

lond  about  the  lower 

part  lyke  a 



Portugal  is  used 
by  merchants. 

Lisbon  and 
Alcoutrin  (?V 

money : 

gold  crusados, 

and  portingales. 

speecli  is  nearly 

The  folk  dress 
like  Spaniards. 

Girls  crop  their 
crowns,  and  leave 
a  rim  like  a 

'  K  .iiii.  back.         '  marchauwdes  B.         '  marmades  AB. 
*  out  that  A  ;  one  there  B.  *  that  A ;  ther  B. 

•  at  A  ;  a  B. 



[chap.    XXX. 

The  .XXX.  chapter  treateth  of  the 

natural  disposicion  ^  of  Spanyardes, 

of  the  countrey,  of  the  money, 

and  of  the  speche. 

I  wander  about, 
to  pick  up  a  poor 

I  have  very 
I)oor  fare. 

Spain  inland  is 
very  poor. 

Biscay  and  Cas- 
tille  are  very 


I  am  a  Spaynyard,  and  Castylyon  T  can  speke ; 

In  dyuers  conntreys  I  do  wander  and  peke ; 

I  do  take  great  labour,  and  also  great  payne ; 

To  get  a  poore  lyuyng  I  am  glad  and  fayne  ;  4 

In  my  countrey  I  haue  very  poore  fare, 

And  my  house  and  my  lodgyng  is  very  bare. 

A  Spanyshe  cloke  I  do  vse  for  to  were,  8 

To  hyde  mine  olde  cote  and  myn  other  broken  gere. 

IT  Spayne  is  a  very  poore  countrey  within  the 
realme,  &  plewtyful  by  the  sea  syde  ;  for  al  theyr  riches 
&  marchauntes  ^  they  bryng  to  the  sea  syde.  I  know 
nothing,  wit/iin  the  countre,  of  ryches,  but  come.  Bys- 
kay  &  Castyle  is  vnder  Spayne;  these  countreys  be 
baryn  of  wine  and  come,  and  skarse  of  vitels ;  a  ma/i 
shall  not  get  mete  in  many  places  for  no  mony  ;  other 
whyle  you  shall  get  kyd,  and  mesell  bakyn,  and  salt 
sardyns,  which  is  a  lytle  fyshe  as  bydg^  as  a  pylcherd, 

*  sign.  L  .i. 
^  merchandise. 

'  dispocion  A  ;  disposicion  B. 
*  bydge  B. 


Wine  kept  in 
goat  skins. 


&  they  be  rosty.  al  your  wyne  shalbe  kepte  ^and 
caryed  in  gote  skyns,  &  the  here  syde  shalbe  inwarde, 
and  you  shall  draw  your  wyne^  out  of  one  of  the  legges 
of  the  skyne.  whan  you  go  to  dyner  &  to  supper,  you 
must  fetch  your  bread  in  one  place,  and  your  wyne  in  a 
nother  place,  and  your  meate  in  a  nother  place;  & 
hogges  in  many  places  shalbe  vnder  your  feete  at  the 
table,  and  lice  in  your  bed.  The  cheife  cities  and 
townes  in  Spayne  is  Burges  &  Compostel.  many  of  the 
people  doth  go  barlegged.  the  maydens  be  polyd  lyke 
freers  ;  the  women  haue  siluer  ringes  on  theyr  eres,  & 
coppyd  thinges  standeth  vpon  theyr  hed,  within  ther 
kerchers,  lyke  a  codpece  or  a  gose  podynge.^  In  Spayne 
there  money  is  brasse,  siluer,  &  gold ;  in  brasse  they 
haue  marivades  *;  .xxv.  marivades  *  is  worth  an  Eng- 
lyshe  grote :  they  haue  there  styuers.  In  siluer  they 
haue  ryals  &  halfe  ryalles ;  a  ryal  is  worth  .v.d.ob.  in 
golde  they  haue  duccates  and  doble  duccates.  there 
speche  is  Castylyon. 

The  .xxxi.  chapter  tretyth  of  the 
kyngdome  of  Castyle,  &  of  Bys- 
cay^and  of  the  natural  disposicion 
of  the  people,  and  of  there  money 
&  of  theyr  speche. 

Hogs  under  the 
table,  and  lice 
ill  beds. 


Women's  liead- 

Spanish  money  ; 
reals,  5^(7. 

IF  In  the  kyngdome  of  Castell  borne  I  was, 
And  though  I  be  poer,  on  it  I  do  not  passe ; 

'  L  .i.  back.  *  wynde  A  ;  wyne  B. 

'  Cp  p.  185,  and  in  chap,  xxxiii.  p.  207.         *  marmades  AB. 
*  B  has  for  this  cut,  the  king's  head  on  p.  175.     See  too  p. 
194.  «  by  scat  AB. 

1  am  pfwir. 


Where  so  euer  I  do  goe  or  ryde, 
but  wear  a  skean.  My  cloke  I  wyl  haue,  and  my  skayne  by  my  syde.      4 
Biscay  is  a  poor     And  I  was  borno  in  the  prouince  of  Byscay  ^ ; 
My  countrey  is  poer ;  who  can  say  nay  1 
And  though  we  haue  no  pastor  nor  grandge, 
Yet  our  olde  fashyon  we  do  not  chaunge.  8 

CastiUe  is  very  2  ^  Qastyle  is  a  kyngdome  lyinge  by twyxte  Spayne 

barren.  ,     . 

and  iiyscay  ;  it  is  a  very  baron  couwtrey,  ful  of  pouerte. 

Castles;  there   be   many   fayre   and  proper  Castels,  plenty  of 

mills  to  forge        aples  &  of  sJder,  and  there  be  great  water  mylles  to 

forge  yrone,  &  theyr  be  great  mountaynes  &  hilles,  and 

euill  fare,  [and]  lodgyng;   the  best  fare  is  in  prestes 

Priests  keep         houses,  for  they  do  kepe  typlynge  houses,     and  loke, 

tippling  houses. 

how  you  be  serued  in  Spayne  and  Neuer,  shal  you  be 
serued  in  Castyle.     the  chief  towne  of  Castile  is  called 

Toledo.  Tolet.     Palphans  made  the  tables  of  astronimye.     In 

all  these  countreys,  yf  any  man,  or  woman,  or  chylde. 

When  any  one      do  dye  j  at  thcyr  burying,  and  many  other  tymes  after 

dies,  others  cry 

out.  that  they  be  buryed,  they  wyl  make  an  exclamacyon^ 

Why  did  you      saving,  "  why  dvdest  thou  dye  1  haddest  not  thou  good 

die?    Youhad  ^      '^'  ^    /  ^*^,  i-,i-,,T 

friends  and  gold.'  frecndes  ]  myghtyst  not  thou  haue  had  gold  and  syluer, 
&  ryches  and  good  clothynge?  for  why  diddest  thou 
die  ]  "  crying  and  clatryng  many  suche  folysh  wordes  ; 
and  commonly  euery  day  they  wyll  bryng  to  church  a 

They  put  a  cloth    cloth,  or  a  pilo  carpit,  and  cast  ouer  the  graue,  and  set 

and  food  over  the  .        ,  •,  o  i    n      i  i  i    x-l         j-t. 

grave,  and  cry       oucr  it,   bread,  wyue  &  candyllyght ;  and  than  tney 

wyll  pray,  and  make  suche  a  folyshe  exclamacion,  as  I 

sayd  afore,  that  al  the  churche  shall  rynge ;  this  wyll 

they  doe  although  theyr  freendes  dyed  .vii.  y ere  before; 

&  thys  folysh  vse  is  vsyd  in  Bisca,  Castyle,  Spayne, 

castiiian  money :   Aragou  &  Naucrrc.    their  moncy  is  goldc  and  brassc  I  in 

ducats,  golde  they  haue   single  and  duble  duccates ;  and  all 

maravediea,  good  gold  gocth  there,    in  brasse  they  haue  marivades,* 

stivers.  and  stiuers,  &  other  brasse  money  of  the  Emperours 

*  vyscay  A  ;  byscay  B.  '  L  .ii.  not  signed. 
»  Compare  the  Welsh,  p.  126. 

*  marmades  or  marinades  A  ;  marmades  B. 


coyne.     who  so  that  will  leame  to  speake  some  Casti- 
lion, — Englishe  and  Castilion  doth  folowe. 

One.  two.  thre.  foure.     fyue.  syx.  seuen.  eyght.  nyne.  castiuan  (or 

vna.   das.  tros.  quarter,  since,  sisse.  saeto.  echo,    naive,  numerals. 

tene.  aleuen.  twelue.  thertene.  fouertene.  fyftene. 

diece.  onze.      dose.      treerse.     qaartorse.  quynse. 

syxtene.  seuentene.  eyghtene.  nyntene.  twenty. 

dezisys.    dezisyeto.    desyocho.  desinoiie.  veynto. 

therty.    forty.        fyfty.  syxte.       seuente. 

*  trenta.  quarenta.  cynquenta.  sesenta.    setenta, 

eyghte.    nynte.      a  hondred.  a  thousand. 

ochenta.  noventa.  cyento.        mylyes. 

Syr,  God  geue  you  a  good  day  ! 

senyor,  Dies  as  be^  bonas  diasl 

God  saue  you,  syr  !     Dies  vos  salue,  senyor  t  a  talk  m  cas- 

How  do  you  fare  1     quomodo  stat  cum  vostro  corps^  ?      ana  Engiwu. 

I  do  well,  thankes  he  to  God  ! 

le  sta*  ben,  gracyas  a  Deos  I 

What  wold  you^  haue,  syr  ?    he  heris,  senyor  t 

I  would  haue  some  meate.     kero  comer. 

Come  wyth  me,  I  am  hungre. 

Veni  connigo^y  tengo  appetito  de  comer. 

Much  good  do  it  you  !     bona  pro  os  haga. 

you  be  welcome,  wyth  all  my  harte 

Seas  been  venedo,  com  todo  el  corason. 

Wyll  you  drynke,  syr  ?     kerys  beuer,  senyor  ? 

It  pleaseth  me  well,     byen  me  pleze. 

Speke  that  I  may  vnderstand  you.    halla  ke  tu  entende"^. 

I  do  not  vnderstand  you,  syr !     non  entiende,  senyor. 

I  do  vnderstande  Castylion,  but  I  cannot  speke  it. 

lo  lo  entendo  Castyliona  ;  lo  no  saue  hablar. 

I  do  thank  you  !    mochos  mecedo  1 

'  L  .11.  back.  *  de.—E.  H.  Gibbs. 

'  Dog- Latin,  not  Spanish. — F.  W.  Cosens. 

*  For  lo  sto.—B.  H.  Gibbs.  »  ye  B. 

^  For  Ven  or  ben  conmigo. — F.  W.  C. 

'  For  *  hahla  que  tu  entiende.'— F.  W.  C. 



We  eat  Sardines 
aud  Bacon. 

We're  now  friends 
with  our  old  foes 
tlie  French. 

The  people  of 
Navarre  are  poor 
and  thievish. 


St  Domingo 
has  a  church  with 
a  white  cock  and 

The  .xxxii.  chapter  treteth  of  the 
kiwgdome  of  Nauer,  and  of  the 
naturall  disposicyow  of  the  peo- 
ple, and  of  theyr  mone^' 
and  of  theyr 

2  In  the  kyn[g]dome  of  Nauer  I  was  brought  vp, 
Where  there  is  lytle  meate  to  dyne  or  suppe  ; 
Sardyns  and  bacon  shall  fynde  the  Spanyard  and  me, 
Wyth  suche  meate  we  be  contente  in  all  our  countre ; 
What  wolde  other  men,  other  meate  craue  1 
Such  meate  as  we  do  eate,  such  shall  they  haue. 
In  my  apparell  I  do  kepe  the  olde  raate  ; 
The  Fraunch  ^  men  with  me  preforse  be  at  baate, 
Not  now,  but  in  olde  tymes  past ; 
For  now  our  amyte  is  full  fast. 

The  kyndome*  of  Nauer  is  ioynynge^  to  Spayne 
and  to  Fraunce,  &  to  Catalony,  and  to  Castyle,  for  it 
dothe  stand  in  the  midle  of  these  ^  iiii.  countres.  The 
people  be  rude  and  poore,  and  many  theues,  and  they 
dothe  Hue  in  much  pouerte  and  penury  ;  the  countrey 
is  barayn,  for  it  is  ful  of  mountayns  And  weldernes ; 
yet  haue  they  much  corne.  The  chiefe  towne  is  Pam- 
pilona,  and  there  is  a  nother  towne  called  saynt  Do- 
myngo,  in  the  whyche  towne  there  is  a  churche,  in  the 
whyche  is  kept  a  whit  cock  and  a  bene.  And  euery 
pilgreme  that  goeth  or  commyth  that  way  to  saynct 

'  The  corner  is  not  broken  in  A.         '  L  .iii.  not  signed. 
'^  frenche  B.         *  kingdome  B.       *  iunynge  AB.         **  the  B. 

CH.    XXXII.]       INTRODUCTION.      ST   DOMINGO    IN   NAVARRE.  203 

lames  in  Compostell,  hath  a  whit  feder  to  set  on  hys  hat. 

The  cocke  and  the  hen  is  kepte  there  for  this  intent  ;^ —  The  story  of  the 

white  Cock  and 

There  was  a  yonge  man  hanged  in  that  towne  that  Henotst 

wolde  haue  gone  to  saynct  lames  in  Co?7ipostell ;  he  was 

hanged  vniustlv ;  for  ther  ^  was  a  wenche  the  whych  ^  ^ench  wanted 

o  •'   '  *^  to  have  a  young 

wolde  haue  had  hym  to  medyll  with  her  carnally  ;  the  pilgrim, 
yonge  man  refraynyng  from  hyr  desyre,  and  the  whenche  He  refused  her. 
repletyd  with  malyce  for  the  sayd  cause,  of  an  euyll 
pretence  conueyed  a  syluer  peece  into  the  bottom  of  the  she  put  a  silver 

■^  o  t  ^  coin  m  his  scrip, 

yonge  mans  skrip.  he,  wyth  his  father  &  mother,  & 
other  pylgrems,  going  forthe  in  theyr  lurney,  the  sayde 
whenche  raysed  offycers  of  the  towne  to  pei'sew  after  and  sent  officers 

•^  "^  ^  after  him. 

3  the  pylgryms,'*  and  toke  them,  fyndynge  the  aforesayd 
peace  in  the  younge  mannes  scryp :  Wherfore  they 
brought  to  the  towne  the  yong  man ;  and  [he]  was  con- 
demned to  be  hawged,  and  was  hanged  vppon  a  payre  of  The  piignm  was 

hanged  for 

galowes, — Whosoeuer  that  is  hanged  by-yonde  see,  shall  robbery, 

neuer  be  cutte  nor  pulled  downe,  but  shall  hange  styll 

on  the  galowes  or  lebet. — the  father  and  the  mother  of 

the  younge  manne,  with  other  of  the  pylgryms,  went 

forthe  in  theyr  pilgrymage.     And  whan  they  returned 

agayne,  they  went  to  the  sayd  galows  to  pray  for  the  ^^^'  though  on 

yong  mans  soule.      whaw  they  dyd  come  to  the  place, 

The  yonge  man  did  speke,  &  sayd  "  I  am  not  ded  :  God  st  james  kept 

"^       °  r        >  J  }  him  alive,  and 

and  his  seruaunte  saynt  lames  hathe  here^  preserued  me  he  sent  for  tiie 

.        .  Justice  to  let  him 

a  lyue.     Therfore  go  you  to  the  lustis  of  the  towne,  &  down. 

byd  him  come  liyther  and  let  me  down."    vpow  the 

which  wordes  they  went  to  the  Justice,  he  syttyng  at 

supper,  hauyng  in  his  dyshe  two  greate  chykens  ;  the 

one  was  a  hen  chik,  and  the  other  a  cock  chyk.     the  The  justice,  on 

hearing  the 

messcTigers  shewyng   him   this    wonder,    &   what   he  story,  said, 
should  do,  the  iustice  sayd  to  them,  "This  tale  that  you  'it's  as  true  as 

'  J  '  -^         thatmy2cookt 

haue  shewed  me  is  as  treue  as  these  two  chekenes  before 

'  intentent  A ;  intent  B.     '  that  A ;  ther  B.     '  L  .lii.  back. 

*  A  wrongly  repeats  *'  goyonge  forthe  in  theyr  lorney,  the 
sayde  Wenche  raysed  offycers  of  the  towne  to  persue  after  the 
pylgryms."  ^  ther  A  ;  here  B. 



chickens  will 

On  which  the 
chickens  did 
crow ;  and  the 
hanged  pilgrim 
was  taken  off  the 

This  is  why  the 
white  cock  and 
hen  &re  kept. 

I  dwelt  in  Com- 
postella  to  get  at 
the  truth  of 

and  there's  no 
hair  or  bone  of 
St  James,  in 

I  was  shriven  by 
an  old  blear-eyed 
Doctor  of 
Divinity  there. 

and  he  told  me 
how  the  clergy 
deceived  the 
people,  as  none 
of  St  James's 
hairs  or  bones 
were  there. 

mee  in  thys  dysshe  doth  stonde  vp  and  crowe."  &  as 
sone  as  the  wordes  ware  spoken,  they  stode  in  the 
platter,  &  dyd  crowe;  wher  vpon  the  lustyce,  wyth 
processyon,  dyd  fetche  in,  a  lyue  frome  the  galows,  that 
sayd  yong  man.  &  for  a  remenibraunce  of  this  stiipen- 
dyouse  thynges,  the  prestes  and  other  credyble  persons 
shewed  me  that  they  do  kepe  styl  in  a  kaig  ^  in  the 
churche  a  white  cocke  and  a  hen.  I  did  se  a  cock  and 
a  hen  ther  in  the  churche,  and  do  tell  the  fable  as  it 
was  tolde  me,  not  of  three  or  .iiii.  parsons,  hut  of 
many ;  but  for  ^  all  this,  take  thys  tale  folowyng  for  a 
suerte.  I  dyd  dwel  in  Compostell,  as  I  did  dwell  in 
many  partes  of  the  world,  to  se  &  to  know  the  trewth 
of  many  thynges,  &  I  assure  you  that  there  is  not  one 
heare  nor  one  bone  of  saint  lames  in  Spayne  in  Com- 
postell, but  only,  as  they  say,  his  stafe,  and  the  chayne 
the  whyche  he  was  bounde  wyth  all  in  prison,  and  the 
syckel  or  hooke,^  the  whyche  doth  lye  vpow  the  myddell 
of  the  hyghe  aulter,  the  whych  (they  sayd)  dyd  saw  and 
cutte  of  the  head  of  saint  lames  the  more,  for  whome 
the  confluence  of  pylgrims  resorteth  to  the  said  place. 
I,  beynge  longe  there,  and  illudyd,  was  shreuen  of  an 
auncyent  doctor  of  dyuynite,  the  which  was  blear  yed, — 
and,  whether  it  was  to  haue  my  counsell  in  physycke  or 
no,  I  passe  ouer,  but  I  was  shreuen  of  hym, — and  after 
my  absolucion  he  sayd  to  me,  **  I  do  maruaile  greatly 
that  our  nation,  specially  our  clergy  and  they,  and  the 
cardynalles  of  Compostell "  (they  be  called  ^cardynalles' 
there,  the  whyche  be  head  prestes ;  and  there  they  haue 
a  cardjmall  that  is  called  "  cardinal[i]s  maior,"  the  great 
cardynal,  and  he  but  a  prest,  and  goeth  lyke  a  prest, 
and  not  lyke  the  cardinalles  of  Rome,)  "  doth  illude, 
mocke,  and  skorne,  the  people,  to  do  Idolatry,  making 
ygnorant  people  to  worship  the  thyng  that  is  not  here, 
we  haue  not  one  heare  nor  bone  of  saynct  lames ;  for 
'  kaige  B.         ^  L  .iiii.  not  signed.         ^  booke  A  ;  hooke  B. 


Baynct  lames  the  more,  and  saynct  lames  the  lesse, 
sainct  Bartilmew,  &  '  sainct  Philyp,  saynt  Symond  and 
lude,  saynt  Barnarde  &  sanct  George,  with  dyuerse  other 
saynctes,   Carolus   magnus  brought  theym  to   Tolose,  P'^'"'^??^*^® 
prete7iding  to  haue  had  al  tlie  appostels  bodies  or  bones  to  Toiouse, 
to  be  co?2gregated  &  brought  together  into  one  place  in 
saynt  Seuerins  church  in  Tolose,  a  citie  in  Lawgawdocke."  to  st  severin's 
therefor  I  did  go  to  the  citie  &  vniuersite  of  Tolose,  &  i  went  there  to 

know  the  truth, 

2  there  dwelt  to  knowe  the  trueth  ;  &  there  it  is  known  and  saw  the 
by  olde  autentyck  wryttinges  &  scales,  the  premyses  to 
be  of  treuth  ;  but  thes  words  can  not  be  beleued  of  in- 
cipient parsons,^  specially  of  some  Englyshe  men  and 
Skotyshe  men;  for  whan  I  dyd  dwell  in  the  vniuersite  when  i  was  at 

.  1        T        1         .  -I        Orleans,  I  met  9 

of  Orlyawce,  casually  going  ouer  the  bredge  into  the  English  and 

towne,  I  dyd  mete  with  .ix.  Englyshe  and  Skotyshe  to  com^stefia!"^ 

parsons  goyng  to  saynt  Compostell,  a  pylgrymage  to 

saynt  lames.     I,  knowyng  theyr  pretence,  aduertysed 

them  to  returne  home  to  England,  saying  that  "  I  had  i  toid  them  how 

hard  a  journey 

rather  to  goe  .v.  tymes  out  of  England  to  Rome, — and  it  was, 

so  I  had  in  dede, — thaw  ons*  to  go  from  Orlyance  to 

Compostel;"  saying  also  that  "if  I  had  byn  worthy  to 

be  of  the  kyng  of  Englandes  counsel,  such  parsons  ^  as 

wolde  take  such  iornes  ^  on  them  wythout  his  lycences, 

I  wold  set  them  by  the  fete.^      And  that  I  had  rather 

thev^  should  dye  in  England  thorowe  my  industry,  than  and  that  it  woiud 

•'  JO  J  J)  kill  them. 

they^  to  kyll  them  selfe  by  the  way  :  "  wyth  other 
wordes  I  had  to  them  of  exasperacyon.  They,  not  re- 
gardyng  my  wordes  nor  sayinges,  sayd  that  they  wolde  But  they  would 


go  forth  in  theyr  iourney,  and  wolde  dye  by  the  way 
rather  than  to  returne  home.  I,  hauynge  pitie  they 
should  be  cast  a  way,  poynted  them  to  my  hostage,  and 
went  to  dispache  my  busines  in  the  vniuersyte  of  Or- 
liaunce.     And  after  that  I  went  wyth  them  in  theyr  iur-  so  i  went  with 

>  to  AB.  *  L  .iiii.  back. 

'  insipiewt  (unwise,  foolish)  persons  B.         *  then  once  B. 
*  persons  B.         ^  iorneys  B.         '  In  the  stocks  or  prison  ? 
»  that  thei  B.  then  thei  B. 



and,  after  nearly 
starving  in 
Biscay,  we  got 
to  Compostella, 

But,  in  their 
return,  all  9 
Pilgrims  died. 

I'd  rather  go  5 
times  to  Rome 
tlian  once  to 
Compostella  l.y 

I  kist  the  ground 
lor  joy  when  I 
got  back  to 

Money  of 

ney  thorow  Fraunce,  and  so  to  Burdious  &  Byon ;  &  than 
we  entred  into  the  baryn  countrey^  of  Byskay  and  Cas- 
tyle,  wher  we  coulde  get  no  meate  for  money ;  yet  wyth 
great  honger  we  dyd  come  to  Compostell,  where  we  had 
plentye  of  meate  and  wyne  ;  but  in  the  retornyng 
thorow  Spayn,  for  all  the  crafte  of  Physycke  that  I 
coulde  do,  they  dyed,  all  by  eatynge  of  frutes  and 
drynkynge  of  water,  the  whych  I  dyd  euer  refrayne 
my  selfe.2  And  I  assure  all  the  worlde,  that  I  had 
rather  goe  .v.  times  to  Rome  oute  of  ^Englond,  than  ons 
to  Compostel :  by  water  it  is  no  pain,  but  by  land  it  is 
the  greatest  iurney  that  an  Englyshmaw  may  go.  and 
whan  I  returnyd,  and  did  come  into  Aquitany,  I  dyd 
kis  the  ground  for  ioy,  surrendring  thankes  to  God  that 
I  was  deliuered  out  of  greate  daungers,  as  well  from 
many  theues,  as  from  honger  and  colde,  and  thai  I  was 
come  into  a  plentiful  country ;  for  Aquitany  hath  no 
felow  for  good  wyne  &  bred.^  in  Nauerne  theyr  spech 
is  Castilion :  theyr  money  is  gold  and  brasse ;  in  golde 
they  haue  crownes ;  in  brasse  they  haue  Frenche  money, 
and  the  Emprours  money. 

^  The  .xxxiii.  chapter  treateth  of 

Bion,  and  of  Gascony,  and  of  Ly tie 

Briten,  and  of  the  natural  dis- 

posicion  of  the  people,^  and  of 

theyr  money  and  of 

theyr  speche. 

'  countres  B.     See  pp.  199,  200,  above. 

^  See  Boorde's  Brenyary,  ch.  C.xxii.,  extracted  in 
the  Forewords,  p.  74,  as  to  his  hydrophobia,  or  dislike 
of  water. 

^  sign.  M  .i.  *  See  chapter  xxvii.  p.  193-4. 

*  treateth  of  the  natural  disposicion  of  the  people 
of  Bion  and  of  Gascony,  and  of  lytle  briten— B. 


I  was  borne  in  Bion  :  ens '  English  I  was  :  Bayonne,  once 

°  English. 

if  I  had  be  so  styl,  I  wold  not  gretly  pas. 

And  I  was  brought  vp  in  gentyl  Gascony ;  Gascony. 

For  my  good  wyne  I  get  money.  4 

And  I  was  borne  in  Litle  Britten  ;  Brittany. 

Of  al  nacions,  I  [hate]  free  Englyshe  men  : 

Whan  they  be  angry,  lyke  bees  they  do  swarme ; 

1  be-shromp  them,  they  haue  don  me  much  harme.      8 
Although  I  iag  my  hosen  &  my  garment  rounde  aboute,  i  jag  my  clothes 

2  Yet  it  is  a  vantage  to  pick  pendiculus  owt.  10      ^^^  °"  '*^' 

IT  As  tochinge  Byon,  the  towne  is  commodiouse,  but 
the  country  is  poer  and  barin,  in  the  whiche  be  many 
theues.     ther  is  a  place  calyd  the  hyue  ;  it  is  fyuete  or  The  Hive. 
.Ix.  myle  ouer ;  there  is  nothynge  but  heth,  and  there 
is  no  place  to  haue  succour  with-in  vii.  or  eyght  myles ; 
and  than  a  man  shal  haue  but  a  typling  house.     The 
women  of  Byon  be  dysgysed  as  players  in  enterludes  women  of 
be,   with  long  raiment;   the  sayd  clokes  hath  hodes  their  cloaks  and 
sewed  ^  to  them,  and  on  the  toppe  of  the  hod  is  a  thyng 
like  a  poding  bekyng  forward.* 

Gascony  is  a  commodiouse  country,  for  ther  is  plenty  Gascony. 
of  wyne,  bred,  &  come,  and  other  vytells,  and  good 
lodgyng  and  good  chere,  and  gentle  people.     The  chefe 
towne  of  Gascony  is  Burdiouse,  and  in  the  cathedrall  Bordeaux. 
Churche  of  saint  Andreus  is  the  fairist  and  the  gretest  Grand  pair  of 
payer  of  Orgyns  in  al  Crystendome,  in  the  whyche  Andrew's  church, 
Orgins  be  many  instrumentes  and  vyces,  as   Giants^  wag thekjaws.* 
beds  and  sterres,  the  whych  doth  moue  and  wagge  with 
their  iawes  and  eyes  as  fast  as  the  player  playeth.    Lytle 
Brytane  is  a  "  proper   and  a  commodiouse  countre,  of  Brittany  is  a 
Wyne,    come,    fysh,  fleshe;   &   the   people   be    hygh    "^"^  "  c^""  ^y- 
mynded    &   stubborne.     These   .iii.    coimtres  speketh 
French,  and  vseth  euery  thyng,  as  wel  in  ther  mony  & 

*  once  (before  1451-2).         ^  sign.  M  .i.  back.         '  swed  A  :  sewed  B. 

*  Compare  the  description  of  the  Spanish  women's  heads  in  chapter  xxx. 
p.  199,  and  the  Venetian  Doge's  cap,  p.  185. 

*  Gians  A  ;  Giants  B. 

1  ^ 




fashions,  as  French  men  doth.     Rochel  &  Moiies  is 
praysed  in  Briten  to  be  the  best  townes. 

^  The  .xxxiiii.  chapter  treateth  of 

Normandy  &  Picarde,  and  of 

the  natural  disposicioTz  of 

the  people,  and  of  theyr 

spech  and  mony. 

we  wish  we  were 
furtlier  from 
Knglish  in- 

2  IT  I  was  borne  and  brougt  vp  in  gentyl  Normandy  ; 
And  I  am  a  man  dwellyng  in  Pycardy ; 
We  border  vpon  England ;  I  wolde  we  war  forder  of ; 
For  whan  warre  is,  they  maketh  vs  take  the  oof ;         4 
For  than  we  do  watche  both  nyght  and  day, 
To  prepare  ordynaunce  to  kepe  them  away. 
Yet  we  wyl  kepe  new  fashyons  of  Fraunce, 
Much  lyke  to  players  that  is  redy  to  daunce.  8 

IT  Normandy  is  a  pleasaunt  and  a  comodiouse 
coUTitrey,  in  the  whiche  be  many  good  Cities  &  townes, 
specyallye  be  these,  which  is  to  say,  Rone-^,  Cane,  and 
Seno,  withe  many  other,  in  Cane  and  Seno  is  good 
Canuis  made,  the  people  be  after  a  gentil  sort.  Nor- 
mawdy  doth  partaine  to  England,  and  so  doth  al 
Frauwce  by  right  many  wayes,  amonge  the  whyche  I 
wyll  resyte  one  thynge,  that  yf  Fraunce  ware  not  Eng- 
land, king  Henry  the  sixt  should  not  haue  ben  crowned 
kinge  of  Fraunce  in  Parys,  he  being  in  his  cunables*, 
and  an  infant.     Pycardy  is  a  good  countrey  ioynyng  to 

'  B  has  no  wood-cut.  The  one  above  is  the  upper  part  of  the  right-hand 
cut  that  Wynkyn  de  Worde  uses  for  Kobert  the  Devil  in  his  Rolcrt  the  Deuylly 
sign.  C  .ij.  back,  and  D  .iv.  back.  ^  sign.  M  .ii. 

*  Rome  AB,  for  Rouen  ;  Caen  and  Sens. 

*  tunables  B.     cunahlcs  is  cradle,  no  doubt. 


Rouen;  Caen 
and  Sens,  where 
canvas  is  made. 

All  Prance  be- 
longs to  England, 
by  rights. 




Calys.     The  countrey  is  plentyfull  of  wood,  wyne,  and  Picardy. 

corne ;     how   be   it  naturally   they  be  aduersaries  to 

Cales.     Bolyn,  in  my  mynde,  is  the  best  town  of  Py-  Boulogne  is  oaw. 

Henry  VIII  won 

cardy.     *  Boleyn  is  now   ours   by  conquest  of   Eyall  it. 
kyng  Hewry  the  eyght.^ 

IT  Here  is  to  be  noted,  that  in  thys  matter  par-  I've  now  treated 
trattyng  of  Europ,  I  shew  at  the  begynnyng  of  this 
boke :    If  a  man  wolde  go  out  of  England,  or  other 
landes  anexed  to  the  same,  he^  should  go  to  Calis;^  and  from  Calais, 
from  Calys  I  haue  set  the  cyrcuyte  or  the  cercumferens 
of  Europ,  whyche  is  al  Chrystendome,  and  am  come  to  and  back  to 


Calys  agayn,  wherfore  I  wyll  speke  no  more  of  Europe, 
but  only  a  chapter  of  Latyne,  and  than  I  wyll  speke  of 
other  countreys  of  AfFryck  and  Asya. 


This  passage  is  omitted  in  the  Lothbury  edition  of  1562  or  1563, 
Boulogne  having  been  restored  to  France  by  Edward  VI  in  1550.  See  Fore- 
words,  p.  18.  ^  AB  have  no  "he." 

•'  See  the  end  of  Chapter  vii,  and  Chapter  viii  above,  p.  146. 
*  sign.  M  .ii.  back. 

BOORDE.  14 


^  The  .XXXV.  chapter  treateth  of  the  Latyn  man  and 
'the  Englysh  maw,  &  where  Laten  is  most  vsed. 

I  can  show  my      H  I  am  a  Latjii  man,  and  do  dwel  in  euery  place ; 

Europe.  Thoiow  al  Europ  1  I  dare  shew  my  face ; 

Italy  has  cor-        Wvth  the  Romans  and  Italyon  I  haue  dwelled  longe  ; 

rupted  my  speech, 

and  I  shall  leave    I  wyl  seke  othei  nacioijs,  for  they  haue  done  wronge 

In  corruptyng  my  tonge  and  my  ryalte,  5 

Wherfore  in  other  nacyons  I  loue  to  dwel  and  be, 
And  wher  I  shalbe  dayly  accept  and  vsed, 
Regardyng  not  them  where  I  am  abused.  8 

A  responcion  of  the  Englysh  man. 
To  England  I  am    I  am  an  Englyshman ;  Latyn,  welcome  to  me  ! 


They  know  Latin   In  thy  tounge  I  am  wel  sped,  &  neuer  was  in  thy 

couwtre ; 
2  For  thou  arte  indyfferent  here  and  in  ^  euery  place, 
If  a  man  wyll  study,  and  lerne  the  bokes  a  pace  ;      12 
Wherfore  bitwixt  thee  &  me  we  wyl  haue  some  altera- 

That  vnlerned  men  may  know  parte  of  our  intencion. 

Englyshe,  and  some  Latyne,  doth  folowe. 

A  talk  in  English   f  Hclth  be  to  the,  now  and  euer  ! 
Salus  tibi,  nunc  et  in  euum  !  ^ 
I  thanke  the  hartly,  and  thou  art  welcome ! 
Immortalem  haheo  tihigraciam,  Sf  gratissimeaduenisti! 
What  countrey  man  art  thou  ^     Cuias  es  ? 
I  was  borne  in  England,  and  brought  vp  at  Oxforde. 
Natus  eram  in  Anglia,  et  educatus  Oxoni. 
Doest  not  thou  know  me  %     noscis  ne  me? 
I  know  thee  not     Minime  te  nosco.^ 
What  is  thy  name  1     Cuius  nominis  es  ? 
My  name  is  Andrew  Borde. 
Andreas  parforatus  est  meum  nomen, 

*  Erop  AB.        '  M  .iii.  not  signed.        ^  A  leaves  out  B's  "in." 

*  enum  A  ;  et  enum  B.  '  nosca  AB. 

CHAP.    XXXV.,]  INTRODUCTION.       A   LATIN    TALK.  211 

How  haue  you  fared  many  a  day  1  a  talk  in  Latin 

Qita  valitvdine  fuisti  longo  iam  tempore?  "^  ^  " 

I  haue  faryd  very  wel,  thankes  be  to  God  ! 

Optime  me  hahui;   graciarum  acciones  sunt  Deo . 

I  am  very  glad  of  it.     Plurimum  gaudio  inde. 

Whyther  dost  thou  go  now  ?     Quoits  tendis  mjodo  f 

I  go  towerd  London.     Versus  Londinum  lustro. 

What  hast  thou  to  do  ther  1     Quid  illic  tihi  negoci  est? 

I  shal  ease  my  mynd  ther  % 

Animx)  meo  morem  gessero  illic.^ 

Helth  be  to  you  al  !    Salv^  sit  omnibus  ! 

Thou  art  welcome  !     Saluum  te  aduenisse^  gaudeo  I 

*  I  thanke  you.     Haheo  vobis  graciam.* 

Hostes,  how  do  you  fare  ?     Hospica,  vt  tecum  est  ? 

I  haue  fared  wel,  yf  you  haue  bene  welL 

Multa  melius  me  haheo  si  bene  vale. 

Hostes,  haue  you  good  meato  ? 

Hospitaj  est  ne  hie  cibus  tantus  ? 

Ye,  I  haue  many  good  dyshes  of  meate. 

Etiam,  sana  ^  multa  que  sunt  mihi  fercidcu 

Geue  me  drynke,  and  also  bread. 

Potum  da  mihi,  Insuper  et  panem. 

I  drynke  to  you  all !    propino  vobis  omnibus  ! 

Much  good  do  it  you !    prosit  vobis  I 

Farewel,  &  God  be  vrith  you  al  I 

Valetote,  et  Deu8  vobiscum  ! 

Go[o]d  night  !     Optata  requies  I 

Farewel,  &  let  them  go  thai  wolde  any  stryfe  be-twyxt  vs ! 

Vale  I  et  valeant  qui  inter  nos  dissidium  volant ! 

'  illis  AB.  '  aduinesse  AB.  ^  M  .iii.  back. 

*  Habio  vobis  graoia  A  ;  Habo  vobis  gracia  B.       *  santa  AB. 

1  ^  • 



^  The  .xxxvi.  chapter  treteth  of 

the  Mores  whyche  do 

dwel  in  Barbary. 

Christian  men 
bay  me  as  a 

I  gather  figs. 

White  Moors  and 
Black  Moors: 

are  bought  as 

some  cheaper 
than  others : 

are  not  buried 
when  they  die. 

unless  they  are 

I  Am  a  blake  More  "borne  in  Barbary ;  ^ 
Chrysten  men  for  money  oft  doth  me  bye ; 
Yf  I  be  vnchristend,  marchauntes  do  not  care, 
They  by  me  in  markets,  be  I  neuer  so  bare.  4 

Yet  wyll  I  be  a  good  dylygent  slaue, 
Although  I  do  stand  in  sted  of  a  knaue; 
I  do  gather  fygges,  and  with  some  I  whype  my  tayle  : 
To  be  angry  wyth  me,  what  shal  it  a-vayle  1  8 

IT  Barbary  is  a  great  countrey,  and  plentyfull  of 
fnite,  wine,  &  come.  The  inhabytours  be  Called  the 
Mores  :  ther  be  whyte  mores  and  black  moors ;  they  be 
Infydels  and  vnchristened.  There  be  manye  Moores 
brought  into  ^Christendome,  in  to  great  cytes  &  townes, 
to  be  sold;  and  Christenmen  do  by  them,  and  they 
wilbe  diligent,  and  wyll  do  al  maner  of  seruice;  but 
thei  be  set  most  comonli  to  vile  thynges.  they  be  called 
slaues;  they  do  gader^  grapes  and  fygges,  and  with 
some  of  the  fygges  they  wyl  wyp  ther  tayle,  &  put 
them  in  the  frayle.  they  haue  gret  lyppes,  and  nottyd  * 
heare,^  black  and  curled ;  there  ^  skyn  is  soft ;  and 
ther  is  nothing  white  but  their  teth  and  the  white  of 
the  eye.  Whan  a  Marchaunt  or  anye  other  man  do  by 
them,  they  be  not  al  of  one  pryce,  for  some  bee  better 
cheepe  then  some;  they  be  soldo  after  as  they  can 
werke  and  do  there  busines.  whan  they  do  dye,  they 
be  caste  in  to  the  watter,  or  on  a  dounge  hyll,  that 
dogges  and  pyes  and  crowes  may  eate  them,  except 
some  of  them  that  be  christened ;  they  be  buried,    they 

'  Barby  A  ;  Barbary  B. 
'  gader  do  A ;  do  gader  B. 
*  heare  is  AB. 

'  M  .iiii.  not  signed. 

*  polled,  dipt. 

^  the  there  A  ;  there  B. 

OHAP.  XXXVI.]      INTRODUCTION.      A   TALK   IN    MOORISH.  213 

do  kepe  muche  of  Macomites  ^  lawe,  as  the  Turkes  do.  are  Mahometans; 

they  haue  now  a  gret   captyn   called   Barbarerouse,^  areiedbyBar- 

whiche  is  a  great  warrier.     thei  doth  harme,  diuerce 

tyiues,  to  the  lanues,  &  to  Prouynce  and  Langewa-  plunder  the 

docke,  and  other  couwtres  that  do  border  on  them,  &  for      (See  p.  i89.) 

they  wyl  come  ouer  the  straytes,  &  ^  stele  pygges,  and 

gese,  and  other  thynges. 

IT  Who  so  wyl  speke  any  Moryshe,  Englyshe 
and  Morysh*  doth  folow. 
One.      two.         thre.     foure.  fyue.       syx.  seuen.  Moorish 


Wada.  attenmn.  talate.  arha.  camata.  sette.  saha. 

eyght.    nyne.  tene.       aleuyn.      twelue.       thertene. 

tamene.  tessa.  asshera.  hadasshe.  atanasshe.  telatasshe. 

fortene.        fyuetene.      syxtene.      seuenten. 

arhatasshe.  camatasshe.  setatasshe.  sahatashe. 

eyghtene.^   nyntene.      twente.   one  and  twenty,  &c. 

tematasshe.  tyssatasshe.  essherte.  wahadaesshertey  ^c. 

Good  morow  !     sahalkyr  I  a  talk  in  Moorish 

and  English. 

Geue  me  some  bread  and  mylke  and  chese. 
^Atteyne  gohhis,  lehen,  iuben. 
Geue  me  wyne,  water,  flesh,  fysh,  and  egges. 
Atteyne  nebet,  may,  Iag?ie,  seniek,  heyet. 
Much  good  do  it  you  !    aahagh! 
You  be  welcome !     Marrehahahack  ! 
I  thanke  you  !     Erthar  lake  heracke  I 
Good  nyght !     Mesalkyr! 

'  Maconites  A  (Mahomet's).     See  next  chapter. 

*  Heyradin  Barbarossa,  a  Corsair  king  of  Algiers,  born 
about  1467,  died  1547. — Hale.     See  Forewords,  p.  56. 

^  A  has  not  B's  "  &." 

*  This  '  Moiysh '  is  undoubted  Arabic,  but  in  a  very  corrupt 
state.  .  .  For  instance,  *  one '  in  Arabic  is  aliad  or  wahid :  what 
are  we  to  do  with  Boorde's  wada?  'Five'  is  khavisa  or 
khamsat :  how  correct  Boorde's  camata  ?  I  shall  therefore 
correct  only  a  few  glaring  errors,  where  one  letter  has  been 
mistaken  for  another,  attennin,  arba,  tmnetie,  hadassfie, 
sabaXkyVy  for  Boorde's,  or  his  printer's  wrong  m,  a,  c,  b,  s,  iu 
these  words. —  Ch.  Rieu. 

*  eyghtent  A.  ^  M  .iiii.  back. 


OF    THE    TURKS    AIsD    TURKEY.  [cHAP.    XXXVII. 

^  The  .xxxvii.  Chapter  tretyth  of  the  natural  dispo- 

sicion  of  the  Turkes,  and  of  Turkey,  and  of 

theyr  money  and  theyr  spech. 

II  I  am  a  Turk,  and  Machamytes  law  do  kepe  ; 
I  do  proll  for  my  pray  whan  other  be  a  slepe ; 
My  law  wyllith  me  no  swynes  flesh  to  eate ; 
It  shal  not  greatly  forse,  for  I  haue  other  meate. 
In  vsyng  my  rayment'  I  am  not  varyable, 
"Not  of  promis  I  am  not  mutable. 

IT  In  Turky  be  many  regions  &  prouynces,  for  the 
great  Turke,  whyche  is  an  Emproure,  hath,  besyd  hys 
owne  ^possessyons,  conqueryd  the  Sarsons  londe,  and 
hath  obtayned  the  Sophyes  lond,  and  the  ylond  of  the 
Iloodes,^  with  many  other  preuynces,  hauyng  it  in  pes- 

'  On  Shrove  Sunday  in  Henry  VIII's  first  year,  1509-10,  at  his  banquet  in 
the  Parliament  Chamber  at  Westminster,  "  his  grace,  with  the  Erie  of  Essex, 
came  in  appareled  after  Turliey  fasskion,  in  long  robes  of  Bawdkin,  powdered 
with  gold,  hattes  on  their  heddes  of  Crimosyn  Veluet,  with  greate  rolles  of  Gold, 
girded  with  two  swordes  called  Cimeteries  [scimetars],  hangyng  by  greate 
bawderikes  of  gold." — ffalVs  Chronicle,  p.  513,  ed.  1809.  *  sign.  N  .i. 

'  See  Hall's  account  of  its  siege  and  capture  in  1522. — Chronicle,  ed.  1809, 
p.  653-5. 

I  keep  Mahomet's 

and  don't  eat 

The  Great  Turk 
has  conquered 
many  lands. 


able  possession,  he  doth  conquere  and  snbdue,  as  wel 
by  polyce  and  gentylnes,  as  by  hys  fettes  of  ware,  in 
Turkey  is  cheppe  of  vittyls,  &  plenty  of  wyne  &  come.  Turkey  is  a 

•^  ^^  J      »        r  J  J  cheap  and  fertile 

The  Turkes  hath  a  law  called  Macomites  law,  and  the  country. 

booke  that  there  lawe  is  wrytten  in,  is  called  the  Al- 

karon.     Macomyt,  a  false  felow,  made  it  ^ ;  he  sedused  Aicoran. 

the  people  vnder  thys  maner  :  he  dydbryng  vp  a  done,  Mahomet  and  wa 

and   would  put  .ii.    or  thre  pesen  in  his  eare,  &  she  his  Dove, 

would  euery  day  come  to  his  eare  and  eate  the  peason, 

and  then  the  people  would  thynke  the  holy  goost,  or  an 

Angell,  did  come  &  teache  him  what  the  people  should 

do.     And  then  he  made  hys  booke,  and  vsyd  to  feede  a  bis  Koran  and 

his  Camel. 

tame  Camel  in  his  lappe ;  and  euery  daye  he  wolde  feede 
the  Camel,  the  which  he  taught  to  set  downe  on  his 
knees  when  he  did  eate  his  meate.     And  whan  he  had  He  taught  his 

_  Camel  to  kneel 

broken   the   Camel  to  thys  vsage,  he  monisshed  the  and  feed  out  of 
people,  saying,  that  God  wolde  sende  them  a  law  written  the  people  ood 

,,  111  .I'll  -I  11    would  send  their 

m  a  booke,  and  to  whome  soeuer  the  booke  was  brought  Law  to  their 

vnto,  he  should  be  the  prophit  of  God,  &  conductor  of  ruS"'''"^ 

the  people.     Then  Macomit  did  poynt  a  day.  And  did 

conuocate  the  people  together  at  a  place  where  he  was 

vsyd  to  feede  a  camel,  by  the  whych  place  was  a  greate 

wood  or  wyldernes  full  of  wylde  beastes.     The  afore-  O"  » set  day  he 

sent  his  Camel 

sayd  day  appoynted,  yerly  in  ^^e  morninge,  Macomit  with  his  book 

round  its  neck 

sent  one  of  hys  seruauwtes  to  the  wood  with  the  Camel,  to  a  wood. 

bindi^ig  the   booke  a-boute   the  Camelles   necke,   the 

whych  2  he  had  made  before,  chargyng  his  seruaunte,  that 

whan  all  the  people  war  gathered  about  him,  to  heare  «"'J  ^^^^  ^'^  ™'*" 

*■       ^  '^  to  let  it  go  when 

him  make  an  exortacion,  that  he  should  let  the  Camell  the  people  were 

round  him. 

go,  and  that  he  shoulde  preuely  thorow  the  wood  get 
himselfe  home.  Macomyte  &  the  people  beyng  gath- 
ered together  at  the  aforesayde  place  ^  appoynted,  and 
makyng  an  exortation  of  the  people,  had  his  face  to  the 

'  See  Sir  John  Mandeville's  Voiage,  ch.  xii,  on  the  Sara- 
sines  and  Machomete,  p.  131,  ed.  1839. 

^  which  book,  ^  sign.  N  .i.  back. 


Mahomet,  seeing 
the  camel, 
finisht  his  speech; 

the  Camel  came 
and  knelt  to  him, 

and  Mahomet 
took  his  book  off 
its  neck,  as  the 
people's  Law. 

The  Turks  think 
him  a  prophet. 

Turkish  money : 

Aspers,  Souldes, 


Languages  in 

The  Turkish 

Mahomet's  wiles.     Turkish  coin.        [ch.  xxxvil 

wood  to  looke  whan  the  camel  wolde  come;  and  spyeng 
the  camel,  he  dyd  fynysh  his  exhortacion,  and  dyd  couet 
of  the  prayse  of  the  people,  [and]  stoude  before  the 
people,  the  Camel,  seing  his  mayster,  did  come  to  him, 
and  kneeled  downe  to  haue  eaten  hys  prouender.  and 
Macomit  sayd  :  "  this  Camell  hath  brought  our  law 
that  we  must  keepe,  to  me ; "  and  tooke  of  the  booke 
from  the  Camels  neoke,  and  did  reede  it  to  the  people  ; 
the  whiche  they  did,  and  dothe,  take  it  for  a  law.  And 
they  do  take  Macomite  for  a  prophit.  by  thys,  euery 
man  may  perceyue  many  subtyll  and  crafty  castes  be 
played  in  certeyn  regions,  long  to  reherse  at  this  time, 
as  it  appered  by  the  mayde  of  Kent^,  &  other.  The 
money  the  which  is  in  Turke^  is  Golds  and  Siluer  and 
Brasse :  there  be  so  many  coynes,  that  it  war  long  to 
reherce.  in  brasse  they  haue  Torneys.  In  syluer  they 
haue  Aspers  and  Souldes ;  &  ther  be  som  Souldes  that 
be  brasse,  that  v.  is  worthe  an  Englishe  peny.  In  golde 
they  haue  saraffes.  A  saraf  is  worth  an  Englysh 
crowne.  In  Turky  is  vsed  diuers  speches  and  lang- 
weges :  some  dothe  speake  Greeke,  &  some  doth  speake 
corrupt  Caldy,  and  some  dothe  speake  Moryske  speche  ; 
wherfore  I  do  now  shew  but  litle  of  Turkey  speche,  the 
whych  doth  folow. 

One.  two.  three,  foure.  fyue.  syx.  seuen.  eyght.  nyne. 
hir^.   equi.  vg.      dort^.  hex.    altl.  pdi.     zaquis.  dogus. 
tenne.  aleuyne.  twelue.  thirten.  fouertene.  fyftene. 
on.        onhir^,    on  equi.  on  vg.    ovtdort^.     on  hex. 
sixtene.  seuyntene.  ayghtene.  nynetene.    twenty. 
on  alti.  on-^edi.        onzaquis.  on  dogus^.  on  ygrimi. 
One  and  twenty,  two  and  twenty,  thre  &  twenty.  &c. 
ygrimi  bir^.         ygrimi  esqui.        ygnm  vg,  ^c. 

'  Elizabeth  Barton,  the  Holy  Maid  of  Kent,  executed  April 
21,  1534.     See  Hall's  Chronicle,  p.  814,  ed.  1809. 

*  Turkye  B.         ^  bix  A.         ■•  doit  A.         *  doguc  A. 
"  big  A.  '  ?  meaning.     Both  A  and  B  have  it. 


^  The  .xxxviii.  Chapter  treteth  of 

Egypt,  and  of  theyr  mony 

and  of  theyr 


IT  Eijipt  is  a  countrey  ioyned  to  lury  :  Egypt  is  next  to 

°  ^  ^  *>        "  .  Judaea,  and  has 

The  countrey  is  plentyfuU  of  wine,  come,  and  Hony.      deserts  where 

,,  .         ,  ,.1,       ^oly  Fathers 

Ther  be  many  great  wyldernes,  in  the  which  be  uved. 
many  great  wylde  beastes.     In   the  which  wildemes 
liuid  many  holy  fathers,  as  it  apperyth  in  vitas  patrum.^ 
The  people  of  the  country  be  swarte,  and  doth  go  dis- 
gisyd  in  theyr  apparel^,  contrary  to  other  nacyons  :  they 
be  lyght  fyngerd,  and  vse  pyking*;  they  haue  litle  The  Egyptian* 
maner,  and  euyl  loggyng,  &  yet  they  be  pleas[a]unt  but  dance  well, 
daunsers.     Ther  be  few  or  none  of  the  Egipciows  thai 
doth  dwel  in  Egipt,  for  Egipt  is  repleted  now  yfith  Few  live  in 


infydele  alyons.  There  mony  is  brasse  and  golde.  yf 
there  be  any  man  thai  wyl  learne  parte  of  theyr  speche, 
Englyshe  and  Egipt  speche  foloweth. 

'  sign.  N  .ii.     See  this  cut  before,  p.  165,  206. 

'  The  great  mediaBval  storehouse  of  pious  and  lying  legends. 

'  The  other  two  ladies  [a.d.  1510]  . . .  Their  heades  roulded  in  pleasauntes 
and  typpers,  lylie  the  Egipcians,  enbroudered  with  gold.  Their  faces,  neckes, 
armes  &  handes,  couered  with  fine  pleasaunce  blacke  :  Some  call  it  Lumber- 
dynes  ;  which  is  merueylous  thine  ;  so  that  the  same  ladies  semed  to  be  nygrost 
or  blacke  Mores. — HalVs  Chronicle,  p.  514  (see  also  p.  597),  ed.  1809. 

*  cp.  '  picking  and  stealing.' 



[chap.  XXXIX. 

A  talk  in  Egyp- 
tian and  English. 

IF  Good  morow  !     Lach  ittur  ydyues  ! 

How  farre  is  it  to  the  next  towne]   Cater  myla  harforas? 

^  You  be  welcome  to  the  towne     Maysta  ves  harforaa 

Wyl  you  drynke  some  wine  ?    Mole  pis  lauena  ? 

I  wyl  go  wyth  you.  A  vauatosa 

Sit  you  downe,  and  dryncke.      Hyste  len  pee 

Drynke,  drynke  !  for  God  sake  !    pe^  pe,  deue  lasse  I 

Mayde,  geue  me  bread  and  wyne  ! 

Achaej  da  mai  manor  la  veue  ! 

Geue  me  fleshe  !     Da  mai  masse  I 

Mayde,  come  hyther,  harke  a  worde  ! 

Achaej  a  wordey  snsse  ! 

Geue  me  aples  and  peeres  !     Da  mai  paha  la  amhrell  I 

Much  good  do  it  you  !  Iche  misto  ! 

Good  nyght !  Lachira  tut  t 

The  .xxxix.  Chapter  treateth  of 

the  naturall  disposicion  of  the 

lues,  and  of  lury,  and  of 

theyr  mony  and  of 

theyr  speche. 

I  m  a  Hebrew       ^  I  am  an  Hebrycyon  ;  some  call  me  a  lew  ; 

or  Jew, 

To  lesu  Chryst  I  was  neuer  trew. 
I  should  kepe  Moyses  olde  lawe; 

I  feare  at  length  I  shall  proue  a  daw ;  4 

Many  thynges  of  Moyses  lawes  do  I  not  keepe  ; 
and  don't  believe   I  bcleue  not  the  piophetcs  :  I  lye  to  longe  a  sleepe.     6 

the  prophets.  xr     xr  j         j  o 

2  lury  is  called  the  lande  of  lude;  it  is  a  noble 

judffia  is  a  noble    countre  of  ryches,  plenty  of  wine  and  Come,  Olyues, 

*^""  ^^'  ponegarnardes,  Milke  &  Hony,  Figges  and  Raysins,  and 

all  other  fruites  :  ther  be  great  trees  of  Cipres,  palme 

'  sign.  N  .ii.  back.  ^  sign.  N  .iii. 

CH.   XXXIX.]      INTRODUCTION.       A   JOURNEY    TO    JERUSALEM.  219 

trees,  &  Ceders.  the  chief  towne  of  ^  lury  is  lerusalem, 
which  was  a  noble  citie,  but  now  it  is  destroyed,  and  there 
doth  neuer  a  lue  dwell  in  al  Jury ;  for  it  was  prophised  No  Jews  dweii 

in  Judseat 

to  theym  by  theyr  lawe,  that  yf  they  woulde  not  beleue 
in  Messias,  whych  is  Chryst,  they  should  be  expelled 
out  of  their  couwtrey  ;  &  so  they  were,  and  theyr  citie 
destroyed  by  Vaspaciow  and  Tytus  :  and  the  lewes  do  but  au  among 

/-,!     .     .  1     .       T  .  •       o  ChriBtian  folk. 

dwell  amonge  Christian  people  m  diuers  cities  &  townes, 
as  in  Rome,  Naples,  Yenis,  and  diuerce  other  places, 
and  forasmuche  as  our  Lorde  did  suffer  death  at  leru- 
salem, And  that  there  is  a  great  confluence  of  pylgrims  As  pilgrims  go  to 

Tiini  1  ^      ^  ^  ti*^*  ^^^^  Places, 

to  the  holy  Sepulcre  and  to  many  holy  places,  I  wyl  I'u  teii  you  what 
wryte  ^  somwhat  that  I  doo  know  and  haue  sene  in  that 
place.     Who  so  euer  that  dothe  pretende  to  go  to  leru- 
salem, let  him  prepare  himselfe  to  set  forth  of  England  to  make  a  pu- 
after  Ester  .vii.  or  .viii.  dayes,  and  let  him  take  his  waye  miem, 
to  London,   to  make  his  banke,  or  exchaunge  of  his 
mony,  with  some  marchaunt,  to  be  payd  at  Venis ;  and 
than  let  him  go  or  ride  to  Doner  or  Sandwich,  to  take  stftrt  from  Dover 
shypping  to  Calys ;  from  Calls  let  him  goe  to  Grauelyng, 
to   Nuporte,    to  Burges,  to  Anwarpe,  to  Mastryt,  to  go  through 


A.C092,  to  During,  to  Colyn,  to  Boune,  to  Coualence,  to  cobientz, 

Mense,  to  Wormes,  to  Spyres,  to  Gypping,  to  Geslyng,  Spiers, 

to   Memmyng,    to   Kempton,    to   the  .vii.   Kirkes,  to  Kempten, 

Trent,  to  Venis.     Whan  you  be  there,  you  must  make  to  Venice, 

your  bargen  wyth  the  patrone  of  the  Galy  that  you  shall  Get  the  gaiiey- 

•^  tj  J  r  J  J  captain  to  supply 

go  with-all,  for  your  meate  and  drinke,  &  other  costes.  you  with  food, 
you  must  bye  a  bed,  to  haue  into  the  Galy  :  you  must  buy  a  bed,  and  a 

^  J  >  J   }   J  ^       chest  to  keep 

bye  a  bygge  cheste  with  a  locke  and  kaye  to  kepe-in  wine,  &c..  in. 
wyne,   and    water,    and   spices,    and   other    necessary 
thynges.    ^  one  Corp[u]s  Christy  daye*  you  shal  be  hous-  Be  shriven  on 
elled,  and  within  two  or  three  dayes  you  shall  take  your 
shyppyng,  and  you  shaU  come  to  many  fayrer  portes,  as 

*  A  puts  "  of  "  after  "  is."       ^  wyshe  A  ;  wishe  B.       ^  sign.  N  .ill.  back. 

*  Corpus  Christi  is  a  festival  of  the  Church  of  Rome,  kept  on  the  next 
Thursday  after  Trinity  Sunday  [a  moveable  summer  feast-day]  in  honour  of  the 
eucharist. —  Webster. 



The  Holy 

is  railed  round 
with  iron. 

but  few  are 
allowed  to  go 
into  it. 

Candy,  the  Rodes,  and  dyuers  other,  longe  to  wryte ; 
Joppa.  than,  when  you  come  to  ports  laffe,  you  shal  go  a  foote 

to  lerusalem,  except  you  be  sycke,  for  at  port  laffe  you 
At  Jerusalem  the   enter  in  to  the  Holy  Land,    when  you  come  to  lerusalem, 

Cordaline  Friars 

will  lodge  you.      the  friers  which  be  called  Cordaline,^ — they  be  of  saynct 
^rau7^ces  order, — they  wyl  receaue  you  with  deuocion, 
&>  brynge  you  to  the  sepulcre.     the  holy  sepulcre  is 
wythin  the  church,  and  so  is  the  mount  of  Caluery, 
where  lesu  Chryst  did  suffer  his  passions.    The  churche 
is  rouwde,  lyke  a  temple ;  it  is  more  larger  then  anye 
temple  that  I  haue  sene  amonges  the  lues.     The  sepul- 
cre is  grated  rounde  about  Avyth  yrone,  that  no  man 
shall  graet  ^  or  pycke  out  any  stones.     The  sepulcre  is 
lyke  a  lytle  house,  tJiQ  which  by  masons  was  dydgyd  * 
out  of  a  rocke  of  stone.     There  maye  stonde  wythin 
the  sepulcre  a  .x.  or  a  .xii.  parsons  ;  but  few  or  none 
dothe  go  into  the  sepulcre,  except  they  be  singulerly 
beloued,  &  than  they  go  in  by  night,  wyth  great  feare 
and  reuerence.     And  forasmuch  as  ther  be  many  '*  that 
hath  wryttew  of  the  Holy  Lande,  of  the  stacyons,  &  of 
the  lurney  or  way,  I  doo  passe  ouer  to  speake  forther  of 
this  matter,    wh  erf  ore  yf  any  man  wyll  learne  to  speake 
some  Hebrew, — Englyshe  and  Hebrew  foloweth. 
IT  One.  two.  thre.      fouer.     fyue.  syx. 
Aleph.    hetli.  gymel.  daleth.  he.      vauf. 
seuyn.  eyght.  nyne.    tenne.  aleuyne. 
zain,     hetli.    tlietli.    lod.    lod  aleph 
twelue.       thertene.    fouertene.    fyftene.  sixtene. 
lod  beth.    lodgymcl.  lod  daleth.  lod  he.    lod  vauf. 
seuentene.  eyghtene.  nintene.   twenty,  therty. 
lod  zain.    lod  heth.  lod  teth.  Chaph.  lamed. 

'   Cordeliers,  from  the  rope  they  wore  as  a  girdle.     ^  grate  B.     '  diggyd  B. 

*  It  is  curious  how  few  early  writers  in  English  there  are  on  Jerusalem  and 
its  Stations,  &c.  Except  Sir  John  Maundevile  (  Voiage,  eh.  7—11,  p.  73—130, 
ed.  1839),  Mr  Huth's  late  MS  poem  quoted  above,  p.  182,  of  which  the  hand- 
writing is  about  1500  A.D,,  the  less  complete  copy,  &c.,  in  Wey's  Pilgrimages, 
the  old  printed  tract  reprinted  for  the  Roxburghe  Club,  and  I  do  not  know 

The  Hebrew 

OH.  XXXIX.]        INTRODUCTION.       BAD    AND    GOOD    HEBREW.  221 

forty,    fyfty.  sixte.     seuynte.  eyglite.  nynte.  a  hunderd. 
^mem.  vn.      sametli.  yami.     pee.^      phe.     zade. 

IT  The  Hebrew  the  whych  the  lues  doth  speak  now,  Modem  Hebrew 
these  dayes,  doth  alter  from  that  ^  trew  Hebrew  tongue, 
(except  the  lues  be  clerkes,)  as  barbarouse  Latin  doth 
alter  from  trew  Latins,  as  I  haue  knowen  the  trueth 
whan  thai  I  dyd  dwel  amonges  them,  as  it  shall  appere 
to  them  that  doth  vnderstande  the  tounge  or  speche 

God  speede,  god  speed,  syr  !     Hosca,  hosca,  adonai  !       a.  talk  in  corrupt 
You  be  welcome,  master  !         Bar  oh  haha^  rabbi ! 

Thys  aforesayde  Hebrew  is  corrupt,  and  not  good 
Hebrew ;  but  thys  Hebrew  that  foloweth,  is  perfyt : 
You  be  welcome,  syr  !    Eth  borachah.  adonai  I  ^  talk  in  good 

'     ''  '  Hebrew  and 

(Or  els  you  may  say)      Im  borachah^  adonai  I  EngUsh. 

Wenche,  or  gyrle,  geue  me  meate  ! 

Alma,  ten  lit  schaar  ! 

Mayde^  geue  me  drynke  !    Bethela,  ten  Hi  mashkeh  / 

Woman,  geue  me  bread  !     Nekeua,  ten  Hi  hdllechem  I 

"Woman,  geue  me*  egges  !    Ischa,  ten  Hi  baet  simi 

Man,^  geue  me  wyne  !  Isch,  ten  lii  iaiiu  I 

Master,  geue  me  flesh  !        Rauf,  ten  lii  basar  / 

Geue  me  fyshe  !  Ten  lii  daga  ! 

Fare  wel,  wife  !  Schasom  lecha  nekeua  J 

God  nyght,  syr  !  lailah  tof^  adonail 

God  be  wyth  you,  master  !   Leschalom  rauff 

lesus  of  Nazareth,  kyng  of  lues  !   The  son  of  God  haue 

mercy  on  me  !     Amen. 
lemch  Natzori,  melech  luedim.     Ben  Elohim  conueni  I 

'  M  .iiii.  not  signed. 

'  A  little  bit  of  the  last  leaf  of  A,  with  i,  pee,  and  part  of 
phe  on  it,  has  been  torn  out. 

'  ye  B.  *  mo  A.  *  Mam  A  ;  man  B. 

^  In  B,  the  colophon  follows,  and  is  :  "  ^  Imprented  at 
London  in  Lothbury  ouer  agaynste  Sainct  Margarytes  church, 
by  me  Wyllyam  Copland."  Upcott's  reprint  was  printed  by 
Kichard  and  Arthur  Taylor,  Shoe  Lane. 

222       ANDREW  boorde's  fyrst  boke  of  the  introduction 


ol  tfje  lost  (^arlattb,  ba  w^ 
^mUliam  Coplattb. 


vxmt  ox  a  tigetarg  of  ^eltlj,  mabe 

itt  il0uwt}jglliet,  compgUii  tig  ^ti* 

breiu  BoDtbt  of  ^ligsscke 

trottour,  irtbgcateb  to 

t|je  armgpotmt 

^rgttce,  anir  balgaunt  loriie 

€\}omm  ©uke  of 


1    0 

[Beside  the  Preface  of  the  first  edition  of  1542  is  set  that  of 
PowelVs  edition  of  1547,  in  order  that  readers  may  see  the  differ- 
ences between  the  two,  and  Judge  whether  any  one  hut  Andrew  Booi^de 
himself  could  have  made  the  alterations,'] 

DYETARY:  THE   PREFACES   OF    1542   AND    1547. 


[ed.  1547.] 
IT  The  preface  or  the  proheme. 
J):^  To  the  armypotent  Prynce 
and  valyent  lorde  Thomas  Duke 
of  Northfolke  Andre  we  Boorde 
of  physy eke  doctor:  dothe  sur- 
render humyle  commendacyon 
with  immortall  thankes. 

AFter  the  tyme  that  I 
had  trauelled  for  to 
haue  the  notycyon& 
practes  of  Physy  eke 
in  diuers  regyons  & 
countres,  &  returned  into  Eng- 
lande,  and  [was]  requyred  to 
tary  and  to  remayne  and  to 
contynue  with  syr  Robert 
Drewry,  knyght,  for  many 
vvgent  causes,  Your  grace, 
heryng  of  me,  dyd  sonde  syr 
lohan  Garnyngham — nowe 
beynge  knyght '^ — to  me,  to 
come  to  youre  grace,  to  haue 
my  counsell  in  physycke  for 
your  infyrmytes.  The  mesage 
done,  I  with  festynacyon  & 
dylygence  dyd  nat  prolonge 
the  tyme,  but  dyd  come  to 
your  grace  accordynge  to  my 
deuty.  The  whiche  was  in  the 
tyme  whan  lorde  Thomas  Car- 
dynall  Archebysshop  of  Yorke 
was  co??tmau/ided  to  go  to  his 

'  No  doubt  Sir  R.  Drury's  son-in-law.  "  Edward  Jernegan,  Esq.,  his  son 
and  heir,  who  was  afterwards  knighted.  He  had  two  wives,  first,  Margaret, 
daughter  of  Sir  Edmund  Bedingfield,  of  Oxborough,  in  Norfolk,  Knt.,  by  whom 
he  had  Sir  John  Jernegan,  of  Somerleytown,  in  Suffolk,  Kut.,  wito  inarrled, 
first,  Bridget,  danghter  of  Sir  Robert  Drury,  of  Hawsted,  in  Suffolk,  Knt., 
from  whom  the  Jernegans  of  Somerleytown,  in  Suffolk,  descended."  —  The 
English  Baronetage,  1741,  vol.  i.  p.  455,  'Jernegan  or  Jerningham,  of  Cossey, 
Norfolk.'  •  From  this  house  (Drury)  branched  off  the  Drurys  of  Hawsted, 
Suffolk,  who  built  Druiy  house  in  London,  temp.  Elizabeth,  the  road  leading 
to  which  has  ever  since  retained  the  name  of  Drury  Lane.  It  stood  a  little 
behind  the  site  of  the  present  Olympic  Theatre.' 
BOORDE.  15 

[ed.  1542.] 
H  The  preface. 
%  To  the  precellerit  and 
armypotent  prynce,  lorde 
ITiomas,  duke  of  Northfolch,* 
Andrew  Borde,  of  Physycke 
doctour,  doth  surrender  hum- 
yle commendacyon. 

Orasmoch  as 
it  pleased 
your  grace 
to  send  for 
me  (to  syr 
knyght,) — whiche  was  the 
yeare  in  the  whiche  lorde 
Thomas,  cardynal,  bishop  of 
york,  was  commaunded  to  go 
to  his  see  of  york,^ — to  haue 
my  cou^iceyll  in  Physycke,  in 
certayne  vrgent  causes  re- 
quyryng  to  iJiQ  sauyte  of  your 
body  :  at  that  tyme  I,  beyng 
but  a  yonge  doctour  in  my 
scyence  or  faculte,  durst  not 

•  Thomas  Howard,  8th  Duke,  in- 
herited the  dukedom  on  his  father's 
death  in  1524,  was  attainted  in  1546, 
when  his  honours  became  forfeited ; 
they  were  restored  in  1553,  and  the 
Duicedied  in  1554. — Nicolas' s  English 
Peerage,  ii.  473. 

=*  A.D.  1530. 


PREFACE,  1542. 

PREFACE,  1547. 

to  presume  to  mynyster  any 
medysone  to  you  wzt/i-out  the 
counceyl  of  mayster  doctour 
Butte,  whiclie  had  a  longe 
continuaunce  with  you_,  &  a 
[}  sign.  A  .ij,]  great  cognys^cyon, 
iuot  onely  of  your  infyrmyte, 
but  also  d  your  complexyon 
&  dyet.  But  he  not  com- 
myng  to  your  grace,  thank es 
be  to  God,  your  grace  re- 
cuperatyng  your  helth,  And 
conuocated  thorowe  the 
kynges  goodnes  to  wayte  on 
his  prepotent  mageste,  I  than 

dyd  passe  ouer  the  sees 
agayne.  And  dyd  go  to  all 
the  vnyuersyties  and  scoles 
approbated,  and  beynge  with- 
in the  precinct  of  chrysten- 
dome.  And  all  was  done  for 
to  haue  a  trewe  cognyscyon 
of  the  practis  of  Physycke ; 
the  whiche  obtayned,  I  than, 
cotydyally  remembryng  your 
bountyfull  goodnes  shewed  to 
me,  &  also  beynge  at  the 
well-hed  of  Physycke,  dyd 
consult  with  many  egregyous 
Doctours  of  Physycke  /  what 
matter  I  shuld  wryte,  the 
whiche  myght  be  acceptable, 
and  profitable  for  the  sauyte 
of    your    body.      The   sayde 

see  of  Yorke.  And  after  my 
commynge  to  you,  and  felynge 
the  pulses  of  your  herte,  the 
pulses  of  your  brayne,  and 
the  pulses  of  your  lyuer,  and 
that  I  had  sene  your  vryne  & 
your  egestyon,  I  durste  nat 
to  enterpryse  or  medyll  with 
out  the  counsell  of  Mayster 
doctor  [Sign.tii.]  Buttes,  the 
which  dyd  know,  nat  onely 
your  complexcion  &  infyrmite, 
but  also  he  dyd  know  the 
vsage  of  your  dyete.  And 
the  imbecyllyte  and  strength 
of  your  body,  with  other 
qualytes  expedyent  &  neces- 
sary to  be  know  en :  but  brefely 
to  conclude,  [for]  your  recu- 
peratyng  or  recouering  your 
health.  And  for  synguler  trust 
and  hygh  fauour,  the  which 
the  kyng  had  to  you,  [I] 
was  compocated^  to  be  in  the 
presence  of  his  magesty.  I 
than  dyd  passe  ouer  the  sees 
agayne,  and  dyd  go  to  all  the 
vnyuersytes  and  great  Scloles,^ 
the  whiche  be  approbated 
with  in  the  precynct  of 
Chrystendome,  for  to  haue  the 
practes  of  physycke.  I  seynge 
many  expedyent  thynges  in 
dyuers  regyons,  at  the  last  I 
dyd  staye  my  selfe  at  Mount- 
p[y]llyoure,  which  is  the  hed 
vniuersite  in  al  Europe  for 
the  practes  of  physycke  & 
surgery  or  chyrming.  Ibeinge 
there.  And  hauyng  a  cotydyal 
remembrance  vpon  youre 
bountyfull  goodnes,  dyd  con- 
suite  with  many  egregyous 
^  80  in  the  original. 

dyetary:  preface,  1642. 

PREFACE,  1547 


doc  tours,  knowynge  my  trewe 
intencyon,  dyd  aduertyse  me 
to  compyle  and  make  some 
boke  of  dyete,  the  whicli,  not 
onely  shuld  do  your  grace 
pleasure,  but  also  it  ^sliuld 
1  [sign.  A  .ij.  back]  be  ncccssary  & 
profytable  for  your  noble  pos- 
terite,  &  for  many  other  men 
the  whiche  wolde  folowe  the 
effycayte  of  this  boke  /  the 
whiche  is  called  the  Regy- 
ment  or  dietary  of  helth. 
And  where  that  I  do  speake 
in  this  boke  but  of  dietes, 
and  other  thynges  concern- 
ynge  the  samb.  If  any  man 
therfore  wolde  haue  remedy 
for  any  syckenes  or  dyseases, 
let  hym  loke  in  a  boke  of  my 
makynge,  named  the  Breuyare 
of  helth.  But  yf  it  shall  please 
your  grace  to  loke  on  a  boke, 
the  which  I  dyd  make  in 
Mountpyller,  named  IKq  In- 
troductory of  knowlege,  there 
shall  you  se  many  new  mat- 
ters /  the  whiche  I  haue  no 
doubte  but  that  your  grace 
wyl  accept  and  lyke  the  boke, 
the  whiche  is  a  pryntynge  be- 
syde  saynt  Dunstons  churche 
within  Temple  barre  ouer 
agaynst  the  Temple.^  And 
where  I  haue  dedycated  this 

Doctours  of  physycke  what 
manor  that  I  myghte  wryte 
the  whiche  myght  be  accept- 
able for  the  conseruacyon  of 
the  health  of  youre  body.  The 
sayde  doctors,  knowynge  my 
zele  and  true  intencyon  had 
to  you,  dyd  aduertyse  me  to 
make  a  boke  of  dyete,  nat 
only  for  your  grace,  but  also 
for  your  noble  posteryte,  and 
for  all  men  lyuynge  :  wherfore 
I  do  noniynate  thys  boke  The 
Dyetary  of  health,  the  which 
doth  pertract  howe  a  man 
shuld  order  him  selfe  in  all 
[Sign,  f  .ii.  back.]  mauer  of  causes 
partenynge  to  the  health  of 
his  body:  yf  your  grace  or 
any  man  wyl  haue  forther 
knowledge  for  dyuers  infyrm- 
ites,  let  him  loke  in  a  boke  of 
my  makynge  named  tliQ  Bre- 
uyary  of  health.     And  where 

I  haue   dedycated  this  boke 

'  There  is  no  early  edition  of  this  book  in  the  British  Museum.  The  re- 
print of  1814  says,  'The  rarity  of  this  Tract  is  such,  that  Mr  West  was  induced 
to  believe  that  no  other  copy  existed  than  the  one  in  his  collection ;  after  his 
death  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  Major  Pearson  ;  and  at  the  sale  of  his  library, 
in  1788,  Mr  Bindley  became  the  possessor.'  This  is  the  only  copy  'known  of 
the  edition  printed  by  Copland  in  Fleteatrete,  at  the  signe  of  the  Rose  Garland. 
Of  the  edition  printed  hy  him  in  Loihiniry  a  copy  is  in  the  Bodleian  Library, 
among  Selden's  books,  B.  5,  6,  [another  in  the  Chetham  Library  at  Manchester,] 
and  from  one  in  the  publishers'  hands  [?  now  Mr  Christie-Miller's  copy]  the 
present  reprint  has  been  executed.' 

1  S* 


PREFACE,  1642. 

PREFACE,  1547. 

boke  to  your  grace,  and  haue 
not  omated  and  florysshed  it 
with  eloquent  speche  and 
rethorycke  termes,  the  which 
1  [sign,  A  .iij.]  in  all  wryHynges  is 
vsed  these  modernall  dayes, 
I  do  submyt  me  to  your 
bountyful  goodnes.  And  also 
dyuers  tymes  in  my  wryt- 
ynges  I  do  wryte  wordes  of 
myrth  /  truely  it  is  for  no  other 
intencyon  but  to  make  your 
grace  mery, — for  myrth  is 
one  of  the  chefest  thynges  of 
Physycke,  the  which  doth 
aduertyse  euery  man  to  be 
mery,  and  to  beware  of  pen- 
cyfulnes, — trustynge  to  your 
affluent  goodnesse  to  take  no 
displeasure  with  any  contentes 
of  this  boke,  but  to  accept 
my  good  wyl  and  dylygent 
labour.  And  furthermore  I 
do  trust  to  your  superabund- 
aunt  gracyousnes,  that  you 
wyll  consydre  the  loue  and 
zeale,  the  which  I  haue  to 
your  prosperyte,  and  that  I 
do  it  for  a  common  weele,  the 
whiche  I  beseche  lesu  chryst 
longe  to  contynew,  to  his  wyll 
and  pleasure  in  this  lyfe,  And 
after  this  transytory  lyfe  re- 
munerate you  with  celestyal 
ioy  and  etemall  glorye.  From 
Mountpyllier.  The  .v.  day  of 
May.  The  yere  of  our  Lorde 
lesu  Chryste  .M.v.C.xlij. 

to  your  grace,  And  haue  nat 
ornated  hit  with  eloquence  & 
retorycke  termes,  the  whiche 
in  all  manor  of  bokes  and 
wryttynges  is  vsed  these  mo- 
dernall dayes,  I  do  submytte 
me  to  your  bountefuU  good- 
nes. And  also  dyuers  tymes 
in  my  wrytynges  I  do  wryte 
wordes  of  myrth  :  truely  it  is 
for  no  other  intewcion,  but  to 
make  your  grace  mery; — for 
myrth  is  one  of  the  chefest 
thynges  of  physycke,^  the 
which  doth  aduertise  euery 
man  to  be  meiy,  and  to  be- 
ware of  pencyfulnes ; — trust- 
ynge to  youre  affluent  goodnes 
to  take  no  displeasure  with 
any  of  the  coTitentes  of  this 
boke,  but  to  accept  my  good 
wyll  &  dylygent  labour.  And, 
forthermore,  I  do  truste  to 
your  superabundaunt  gra- 
cyousnes,  that  you  wyll  con- 
syder  the  loue  and  zele,  thel 
which  I  haue  to  your  prosper- 
yte,  and  that  I  do  it  for  a  com- 
mon weale;  the  which  I  be- 
seche lesu  chryst  longe  to  con- 
tinue, to  his  wyll  and  pleasure 
in  this  lyfe;  And  after  this 
transytory  lyfe,  to  remunerate 
you  with  celestyall  ioye  and 
eternal  glorye.  '^From  Mount- 
pyller.  The  fyft  daye  of 
Maye.  The  yere  of  our 
Lorde  lesu  Chryste.  M. 


*  See  Forewords,  p.  89,  and  Byetary,  p.  244. 

'  Powell's  title  is  :  "A  com-/pendyou8  Regyment  or  a  Dyetary  of  healthe 
made  in  Mount-pyllyer  by  Andrewe  Boorde  of  phy-/8ycke  Doctour  newly  cor- 
rected /  and  imprynted  with  dyuers  ad-/dycyon8  Dedycated  to  the  /  Army- 
potent  Prynce  and  /  valyent  Lorde  Tho-/ma8  Duke  of  /  Northfolke.  (^  :  4^  " 
•i«  ABCDEFGH  in  fours,  I  in  six.     For  Colophon,  see  p.  304. 


^  f  Here  foloweth  ^  the  Table 
of  the  Chapytres. 

THe  fyrste  Chapytre  doth  shewe  where  a  man  shuld  cytuat  or  set 
his  mancyon  place  or  howse,  for  the  helth  of  his  body.  (p.  232) 

IT  The  seconde  Chapytre  doth  shewe  a  man  howe  he  shulde 
"buylde  his  howse,  and  that  the  prospect  be  good  for  the  conseruacion 
of  helth.  (p.  234) 

IT  The  thyrde  Chapitre  doth  shewe  a  man  to  buylde  his  howse  in 
a  pure  and^  fresshe  ayre,  for  to  lengthen  his  lyfe.  (p.  235) 

If  The  .iiii.  Chapytre  doth  shewe  vnder  what  maner  a  man  shuld 
buylde  his  howse  or  mansyon,  in  eschewynge  thynges  that  shuld 
shorten  his^  lyfe.  (p.  237) 

IF  The  .V.  Chapytre  doth  shewe  howe  a  man  shuld  ordre  his 
howse  concernyng  the  implementes  to  comforte  the  spyrytes  of 
man.  (p.  240) 

IT  The  .vi.  Chapytre  doth  shewe  a  man  howe  he  shulde  ordre 
his  howse  and  howsholde.  and^  to  lyue  in  quyetnes.  (p.  241) 

IT  The  .vii.  Chapytre  doth  shew  howe  the  hed  of  a^  howse,  or  a 
howseholder,*^  shulde  exercyse  hym  selfe  for  the  helth  of  the^  soule 
and  body.  (p.  242) 

If  The  .viii.  Chapytre  doth  show  howe  a  man  shulde  order 
hym  selfe  in  slepynge,  and  wat^chynge,*®  and  in  his  apparell  wear- 
ynge.  (p.  244) 

IF  The  .ix.  Chapitre  doth  shew  that  replecion  or  surfetynge  doth 
moche  harme  to  nature,  and  that  abstynence  is  the  chyfest  medyson 
of  all  modysons.^^  (p.  250) 

IT  The  .X.  Chapytre  treateth  of  all  maner  of  drynkes,  as  of 
water,  of  wyne,  of  ale,  of  here,  of  cyder,  of  meade,  of  metheglyn,  & 
of  whay.i2  (p.  252) 

'  sign.  A  .lij.  back. 

""  Wyer'8  undated  edition  (A),  and  Colwel's  of  1562  (B)  read  :  ""f  The 
Table,  t  The  Table  of  the  Chapters  foloweth."  Powell's  edition  of  1547 
(P)  has :  "  Here  foloweth  the  Table  of  the  Chapiters." 

=*  and  a  P.  *  the  AB.  *  AB  omit '  and.' 

^  the  B  ;  A  reads  *of  house.'  '  householde  P.  ®  his  AB. 

^  leaf  A.  4,  not  signed.       ^^  watche  AB.       "  medyson  P.        '=*  AB  add  '  &;c.' 



IF  The  .xi.  Chapytre  treateth  of  breade.  (p.  258) 

IT  The  .xii.  Chapytre  of  potage,  of  sewe,  of  stew  pottes,  of 
grewell,  of  fyrmente,  of  pease  potage,  of  almond  mylke,  of  ryce  pot- 
age,  of  cawdels,  of  culleses,  of  alebrues,  of  hony  soppes,  and  of  all 
other  maner  of  hrothes.  (p.  262) 

IT  The  .xiii.  Chapitre  treateth  of  whyt  meate,  as  of  egges,  butter, 
chese,  mylke,  crayme,  posettes ;  of  almon  ^  butter,  and  of  beane 
butter.  (p.  264) 

IT  The  .xiiii.  Chapytre  treateth  of  fysshe.  (p.  268) 

IT  The  .XV.  Chapytre  treateth  of  wyld  fowle,  of  ^  tame  fowle,  and 
of  byrd38.3  (p.  269) 

^  The  .xvi.  Chapytre  treateth  of  flesshe,  wylde  and  domestycall. 

(p.  271) 
The  .xvii.  Chapytre  treateth  of  partyculer  thynges  of  fysshe  and 
flesshe.  (p.  276) 

If  The  .xviii.  Chapitre  treateth  of  rost  meate,  of  fryde  meate,  of 
soden  or  boy  led  meate,  of  bruled  meate,  and  of  baken  meate.  (p.  277) 
*5r  The  .xix.  Chapytre  treateth  of  rootes.  (p.  278) 

IT  The  .XX.  Chapytre  treateth  of  certayne  vsuall  herbes.^  (p.  280) 
IF  The  .xxi.  Chapytre  treateth  of  fruytes.  (p.  282) 

IT  The  .xxii.  Chapytre  treateth  of  spyces.  (p.  286) 

IT  'The  .xxiii.  Chapytre  sheweth  a  dyate  for  sanguyne  men.  (p.  287) 
^  The  .xxiiii.  Chapytre  sheweth  a  dyate  for  flematycke  men. 

(p.  288) 

IT  The  .XXV.  Chapytre  sheweth  a  dyate  for  colorycke  men.  (p.  288) 

IT    The   .xxvi.    Chapytre   doth  shewe   a   dyate   for  melancoly 

men.  (p.  289) 

IT  The  .xxvii.  Chapytre  treateth  of  a  dyate  and  of  an  order  to 

be  vsed  in  the  pestyferous  tyme  of  the  pestilence  &  the  swetyng 

syckenes.  (p.  289) 

If   The  .xxviii.    Chapytre  treateth   of  a   dyate  for  them  the 

whiche  be  in  an  agew  or  a  feuer.  (p.  291) 

IT  The  .xxix.  Chapitre  treateth  of  a  dyate  for  them  the  whiche 

haue  the  Ilyacke,  or  the  colycke,  and  the  stone.  (p.  292) 

'  almonde  AB.  *  and  AB.  '  and  byrdes  AB. 

*  A  4.  back.  *  of  herbs  P. 

DYETARY.       THE    TABLE   OF   CONTENTS.  231 

IT  The  .XXX.  Chapytre  treateth  of  a  dyate  for  theym  the  which  o 
haue  any  of  the  kyndes  of  the  gowtes.  (p.  293) 

IF  .The  .xxxi.  Chapitre  treateth  of  a  dyate  for  them  the  which 
haue  ^any  kyndes  of  ^  lepored.  (p,  293) 

IF  The  .xxxii.  Chapytre  treateth  of  a  dyate  ^for  theym  the  whiche 
haue  any  of  the  kyndes  of  the  fallynge  syckenes.  (p.  294) 

IT  The  .xxxiii.  Chapytre  treateth  of  a  dyate  for  them^  whiche 
haue  any  payne  in  theyr  hed.  (p.  295) 

IT  The  .xxxiiii.  Chapytre  treateth  of  a  dyate  for  them  the 
whiche  be  in  a  consumpcyon.  (p.  296) 

IT  The  .XXXV.  Chapytre  treatheth  of  a  dyate  for  them  the  which  be 
asmatycke  men,  beynge  short-wynded,  or  lackynge  breath,     (p.  296) 

IT  The  .xxxvi.  Chapytre  doth  shewe  a  dyate  for  them  the  whiche 
hath*  the  palsy.  (p.  297) 

IT  The  .xxxvii.  Chapitre  doth  shew  an  order  &  a  dyate  for  them 
that^  be  mad  &  out  of  their  wyt.  (p.  298) 

IT  The  .xxxviii.  Chapytre  treateth  of  a  dyate  for  them^  which 
haue  any^  kynde  of  the  dropsy.''  (p.  299) 

IT  The  .xxxix.  Chapytre  treateth  of  a  general  dyate  for  all  maner 
of  men  or^  women^  beynge  sycke  or  whole.  (p.  300) 

IT  The  .xl.  Chapytre  doth  shew  an  order  or  a  fasshyon,  howe  a 
sycke  man  shall  ^®  be  ordered  in  his  syckenes.  And  how  a  sycke 
man  shuld  be  vsed  that  is  lykly  to  dye.  (p.  301) 

f  Here  endeth^^  the  Table. 

%  Here  foloweth  the  dyetary  or 
the^^  regyment^^  of  helth. 

'"'  any  of  the  kj-^ndes  of  the  AB.         ^  sign.  B  .1.  '  them  the  AB, 

*  haue  AB.         *  the  whiche  AB.         ^  any  of  the  AB.  ''  of  dropsy  P. 

^  and  AB,  ^  woman  B.  '"  shulde  A  ;  shoulde  B. 

•'  The  ende  of  AB.  ^'^  "or  the  "  is  repeated  in  B,  the  1662  edition. 

"  And  here  foloweth  the  Dyetaiy.. 

[7w  tJi^  Text,  the  small  initials  of  some  proper  names  hate  teen  made 
Capitals ;  and  the  stops  have  been  often  altered. 

In  the  Notes,  "A  "  stands  for  Wyer's  undated  edition  (Forewords,  p.  13)  ; 
B  for  ColweVs  edition  with  the  Dedication  dated  5  Map,  1562;  and  I*  for 
PowelVs  edition,  dated  5  Maij,  1547,  m  the  Dedication,  and  1567  in  the  Colo- 
plion.  Powell  prints  na.t  for  not.  Differences  of  spelling,  and  printers'  mis- 
takes, are  seldom  noted. 

In  Wyer's  original  fl/1542,  the  Galien  cut  on  tlie  necst  page  stands  by  it' 
selfy  and  Hliefyrst  Cltapytre '  begins  on  the  page  after.'] 



fcHAP.    I. 

Whoever  means 
to  build 

or  alter  a  li»use. 


^   i 



^S:  vSS 




r/  '     \.    ^-^S^yife^  j^y f   III  iJi^    1^ 





^    V 






^^  cs^;^  1 

'f  The  fyrsl  Chapytre  doth  shew  whe- 
re a  man  shulde  cytuate  or^  sette  his 
mancyon  place  or  howse  for  the 
health  of  his  body. 

Hat  man  of  honour  or  worshyp, 
or  other  estate,  the  whiche  doth 
pretende  to  buylde  a  howse  or 
any  mancyon  place  to  inhabyte 
hym  selfe,  Or  elles  doth  pre- 
tende to  alter  his  howse,  or  to 

'  sign.  B  .i.  back.     No  cut  in  ABP.  '  sign.  B  .ii. 

''  for  P. 

CHAP.    I.]       DYETARY.      GET    WATER,    WOOD,    AND    ELBOW-ROOM.  233 

alter  olde  buyldyng  in-to  co?wmodyous  and  pleasaunt 
buyldynge,  not  onely  for  his  owne  proper  co?Hmodite, 
welth,.&  helth,  but  also  for  other  men  the  whiche  wyll 
resort  to  hym,  hauyng  also  a  respect  to  his  posterite, — 

IF  Fyrste,  it  is  necessarye  and  expedyent  for  hym  to  must  first  heat 
take  hede  what  counceyll  God  dyd  gyue  to  Abraham ;  Abraham 
and  after  that  to  take  hede  what  counceyll  God  dyd 
gyue  to  Moyses,  and  to  the  chyldren  of  Israeli,  as  it 
appereth  in  the  .xiii.  chapytre  of  Exodi,  and  the  .xx. 
chapytre  of    Numeri,    &   the   .vi.    chapytre  of  Deut- 
ronomii'  ]    and  also   in  the  boke  of  Leuites,   saying 
fyrste  to  Abraham  :  "  Go  thou  forth  of  ^thy  countre,  & 
from  thy  cognacion  or  kynred,  And  come  thou  in  to  to  go  to  a  country 
the  countrey  the  whiche  I  wyll  shew  to  the,  a  countrey  honey; 
abundynge,  or  plentyfuU,  of  my  Ike  and  huwny."  H  Here 
is  to  be  noted,  that  where  there  is  plenty  of  mylke 
there  is  plenty  of  pasture,  and  no  skarsyte  of  water ;  one  with  pasture, 

.  .  water,  woods,  and 

&  where  there  is  plenty  of  huwny  there  is  no  skarsyte, 

but  plentyfulnesse,  of  woddes,  for  there  be  mo  bees 

in  woddes  (and  so  consequently  abundaunce  of  hu?my,) 

than  there  be  bees,  or  huwny,  or  waxe,  in  the,  hyues  in 

gardyns  or  orchardes ;  wherfore  it  appereth  that  whoso-  gardens. 

euer^  wyl  buylde  a  mancyon  place  or  a  house,  he  must 

cytuat  and  set  it  there  where  he  must  be  sure  to  haue 

both  water  and  woode,  except  for  pleasure  he  wyll 

buylde  a  howse  in  or  by  some  cytie  or  great  towiie,  the 

whiche  be  not  destitude  of  such  commodytes.     But  he 

the  whiche  wyll  dwell  at  pleasure,  and  for  profFyte  a  man  must 

and  helth  of  his  body,  he  must  dwell  at  elbowe-rome,  room, 

hauyng  water  and  woode  anexed  to  his  place  or  howse ; 

for  yf  he  be  destytuted  of  any  of  the  pryncypalles, 

that  is  fo  say,  fyrst,   of  water  for  to  wasshe  and  to  and  look  i.ror 

wrynge,  to  bake  and  to  brewe,  and  dyuers  other  causes, 

specyally  for  parrell'',  the  whiche  myghte  fall  by  fyre,  [it]^ 

*  Deutro.  P.         '  sign.  B  .ii.  back.         '  euer  that  AB. 
^  peryll  AB.  *  it  AB. 



[oh.  I,  II. 

were  a  great  dyscommodyous  thynge.     And  better  it 
^  were  to  lacke  woode  than  to  lacke  water,  the  premysses 
2.  for  woo<i.  consydered,  althoughe  that  woode  is  a  necessarye  thynge, 

not  onely  for  fewell,  but  also  for  other  vrgewt  causes, 
specyally  concernynge  buyldynge  and  reperacyons. 

Next  to  the  soil 
and  place, 

yott  must  see  that 
the  prospect  be 

so  tliat  it  may 
please  people  far 

The  sight  of  a 
house  rejoices  a 
man's  heart. 

%  The  seconde  Chapytre  doth  shewe  a 

man  ho  we  he  shuld  buylde  his  house 

or  mansyon,  that  the  prospect  be 

fayre  &  good  for  the  eon- 

seruacyon  of  helth.^ 

Fter  that  a  man  haue  chosen  a  con- 
uenyent  soyle  and  place  accordynge 
to  his  mynde  and  purpose  to  buylde 
his  howse  or  mansyon  on,  he  must 
haue  afore  cast  in  his  mynde,  that 
B  the  prospect  to  and  fro  the  place  b6 
pleasauwt,  fayre,  and  good  to  the  eye,  to  beholde  the 
woodes,  the  waters,  the  feldes,  the  vales,  the  hylles, 
&  the  playne  grouwde,  And  that  euery  thynge  be  desent 
and  fayre  to  the  eye,  not  onely  within  the  precyncte 
of  the  place  appoynted  to  buylde  a  mansyon  or  a  howse, 
to  se  the  commodyties  aboute  it,  but  also  [that]  it 
may  be  placable  to  the  eyes  of  all  men  to  ^se  &  to  beholde 
whan  they  be  a  good  dystaunce  of*  from  the  place,  that 
it  do^  stande  commodyously.  For  the  commodyous 
buyldyng  of  a  place  doth  not  onely  satysfye  the  mynde 
of  the  inhabytonr,  but  also  it  doth  comforte  and  re- 
ioyseth  a  mawnes  herte  to  se  it,  specyally  the  pulcruso 
prospect.  For  my  consayte  is  suche,  that  I  had  rather 
not  to  buy  Id  a  mansyon  or  a  howse,  than  to  buylde  one 

'  sign.  B  .iii. 

'^  As  to  the  building  and  pitching  of  houses,  see  Burton's 
Anatomy,  Part  ii.,  sect  2. — W.  C,  H. 

3  Ti  iij   Ko»ir  4  ^>f  —  ,.fe  5  Joth  A ;  doeth  B. 

B  .ill.  back. 

of  =  off. 

CIL  II,  III.]      DYETARY.      HAVE   GOOD    AIR    ABOUT   YOUR   HOUSE.  235 

without  a  good  respecte  ^  in  it,  to  it,  &  from  it.     For 

and  the  eye  be  not  satysfyed,  thQ  myiide  can  not  be  The  eye  must  be 

•^  J     .1       7  J  satisfied,  or  the 

contented.     And  the  mynde  can  not  be  contented,  the  heart  'u  not  be 
herte  can  not  be  ^  pleased :  yf  the  herte  &  mynde  be  ^  ^***  * 
not  pleased,  nature  doth  abhorre.     And  yf  nature  do 
abhorre,  mortyfycacyon  of  the  vytall,  and  anymall,  and 
spyrytuall  powers,  do  consequently  folowe. 

f  The  thyrde  Chapytre  doth  shewe  a 

man  to  buylde  his  howse  in  a  pure  & 

a  fresshe  ayre,  to  lengthen  his  lyfe. 

Here  is  nothynge,  except  poyson,  that  Bad  air  corrupts 
doth  putryfye  or  doth  corrupt  the  blode  spirits  of  man. 
of  man,  and  also  doth  mortyfye  the 
spyrytes  of  man,  as  doth  a  corrupt  and  a 
conta^gyous  ayre.  For  Galyen,  terapentice^  nonOj  sayeth, 
"  whyther  we  wyll  or  wyll  not,  we  must  grauwt  vnto 
euery  man  ayre ;  for  without  the  ayre,  no  man  can  lyue." 
The  ayre  can  not  be  to  clene  and  pure :  consyderynge  Air  oon't  be  too 


it  doth^  compasse  vs  rounde  aboute,  and  we  do  receyue 
it  in  to  vs,  we  can  not  be  without  it,  for  we  lyue  by  it 
as  the  fysshe  lyueth  by  the  water.  Good  ayre,  ther- 
fore,  is  to  be  praysed.  For  yf  the  ayre  be  fryske,® 
pure,  and  clene,  about  the  mansyon  or  howse,  it  doth  Bright  air 

comforts  the 

conserue  the  lyfe  of  man,  it  doth  comfort  the  brayne,  brain,  and 
And  the  powers  naturall,  anymall,  and  spyrytuall,  in- 
gendrynge  and  makynge  good   blode,  in  the   whiche  makes  good 
consysteth  the  lyfe  of  man.     And  contraryly,  euyl  and 
corrupt  ayres  doth  infecte  the  blode,  and  doth  ingendre  Bad  air 

corrupts  tlie 

many  corrupte  humours,  and  doth  putryfye  the  brayne,  heart,  and 
and  doth  corrupte  the  herte  ;  &  therfore  it  doth  brede 
many  dyseases  &  infyrmytyes,  thorowe  the  which,  mans 

'  prospeote  AP ;  prospect  B.  ^  A  omits  "  be." 

^  B  .iv.  not  signed.  *  terapentico  AB. 

*  close  and  doth  AB.  *"  f  ressbe  AB. 


shortens  man's 

As  standing 
waters,  &c., 
putrefy  the  air, 

take  care  that  you 
don't  build  your 
house  near 
stinking  punds, 

or  near  any 
stinking  ditches, 
eliannels,  or 

or  where  flax  is 
steept  ; 

and  don  t  have 
a  urinal  or 
privy  near  your 


lyfe  is  abreuyated  and  shortned.  Many  thynge^;  doth 
infect,  putryfye,  and  corrupteth  the  ayre,  as*  the  influ- 
ence of  sondry  sterres,  and  standyng  waters,  stynkyng 
mystes,  and  marshes,  caryn  lyinge  longe  aboue  the 
grounde,  moche  people  in  a  smal  rome  lying  vnclenly, 
and  beyng  fylthe  and  sluttysshe;  wherfore  he  ^that 
doth  pretende  to  buylde  his  mansyon  or  house,  he  must 
prouyde  that  he  do  nat  cytuat  hys  howse  nyghe  to  any 
marsshe  or  marysshe  grownde ;  that^  there  be  nat,  nygh 
to  the  place,  stynkynge  and  putryfyed  standyng  waters, 
pooles,  pondes,  nor  myers,'*  but  at  lestwyse  that  such 
waters  do  stande  vpon  a  stony  or  a  grauayle  grownde 
myxt  with  claye,  and  that  some  fresshe  sprynge  haue  a 
recourse  to  nourysshe  and  to  refresshe  the  sayd  stand- 
yng waters.  Also  there  must  be  circumspection  had 
that  there  be  not  aboute  thQ  howse  or  mansyon  no 
stynkynge  dyches,  gutters,  nor  canelles,  nor  corrupt 
dunghylles,  nor  synkes,  excepte  they  be  oft  and  dyuers 
tymes  muTzdyfyed  and  made  clene.  Swepyng  of  howses 
and  chambres  ought  nat  to  be  done  as  long  as  any 
honest  man  is  within  the  precynct  of  the  howse,  for 
the  dust  doth  putryfy  the  ayre,  makyrige  it  dence. 
Also,  nygh  to  the  place  let  nother^  flaxe  nor  hempe^ 
be  watered  j  &  beware  of  the  snoffe  of  candelles,  and  of 
the  sauour  of  apples,  for  these  thynges  be  contagyous 
and  infectyue.  Also,  mysty  &  clowdy  dayes,  impetous 
and  vehement  wyndes,  troublous  and  vaporous  wether 
is  nat  good  to  labour  in  it,  to  open  the  pores  ^  to  let  in 
infectious  ayre.  Furthermore,  ^beware  of  pyssynge  in 
drawghtes;  &  permyt  no  co??imon  pyssyng  place  be 
aboute  the  howse  or  mansyon ;  &  let  the  common  howse 
of  easement  be  ouer  some  water,  or  elles  elongated  from 
the  howse.     And  beware  of  emptynge  of  pysse-potteSj 

'  The  fyrst  is  AB.         ^  B.  4,  back.         '^  And  that  AB. 
*  meeres  AB,         '  nat  her  P.         ^  hempe  nor  flaxe  AB. 
'  powers  AB. 

sign.  C. 

CHAP.  Ill,  IV.]      DYETARY.      BEFORE  BUILDING,   PROVIDE   STORES.       237 

and  pyssing  in  chymnes,  so  that  all  euyll  and  con- 
tagyous  ayres  may  be  expelled,  and  clene  ayre  kept 
vnputryfyed.     And  of  all  thynges  let  the  buttery,  the  Mind  that  your 
celler,  the  kytchen,   the  larder-howse,  with  all  other  offices  are  kept 


howses  of  offyces,  be  kept  clene,  that  there  be  no  fylth 
in  them,  but  good  &  odyferous  sauours  :  and,  to  expell 
&  expulse  all  corrupt  &  contagyous  ayre,  loke  in  the 
.xxviL  Chapytre  of  this  boke.  [p.  289.] 

f  The  .iiij.  Chapytre  doth  shew  vnder 

what  maner  &  fasshyon  a  maw  shuld 

buylde  his  howse  or  mansyon,  in 

exchewynge  thynges  that 

shortneth  mans  lyfe.^ 

Han  a  man  doth  begyn  to  bylde  his  when  you  begin 

hous  or  mawsyou  place,  he  must 

prouyde  (sayth  Jesus  Chryst),  be-  provide  before- 
hand enough  to 
fore  thai  he  begyn  to  buylde,  for  finish,  as  Christ 

tells  you. 

all  thyng^  necessary  for  the  per- 
formacyon  of  it,  lest  that  whan 
he  2  hath  made  his  fouwdacion,  &  can  not  fynysshe  his 
worke  that  he  hath  begon,  euejy  man  wyl  deryde  hym, 
saying :  "  This  man  dyd  begyn  to  buylde,  but  he  can 
not  fynysshe  or  make  an  end  of  his  purpose:"  for  a  man 
must  consyder  the  exspence  before  he  do  begynne  to 
buylde;  for  there  goeth  to  buyldynge,  many  a  nayle,  Manyanaii, 

pin,  straw,  and 

many  pynnes,  many  lathes,  and  many  tyles,  or  slates,  ba-ird  wiii  be 
or  strawes,  besyde  other  greater  charges,  as  tymber, 
hordes,  lyme,  sand,  stones,  or  brycke,  besyde  the  work- 
manshyp  and  the  implementes.  But  a  man  the  whiche 
haue  puruyd,^  or  hath  in  store,  to  accomplysshe  his  pur- 
pose, and  hath  chosen  a  good  soyle  and  place  to  cytuat 

'  thynges  the  whiche  shulde  shorten  the  lyfe  of  man  AB. 
^  C  .i.  back.  '  prouyded  AB. 




Lay  your 
foundation  on 
gravel  and  clay, 
rock,  or  a  hill. 

facing  East  and 
West,  or  that  by 
South ;  but  not 
full  South. 


[CII.  IV. 

North  is  better 
than  South. 

Parlour  at  top  of 
the  Hall;  Pantry 
at  bottom : 

Kitchen  next. 

with  a  Larder. 

Lodgings  on 
another  side  of 
the  Quadrangle ; 

Gate  in  middle  of 
ftont;  Privy- 
chamber  next 
State-chamber ; 

all  looking  into 
the  Chapel. 

hys  howse  or  mansyon,  and  that  the  prospecte  be  good, 
and  that  the  ayre  be  pure,  fryske,  and  clene,  Then  he 
that  wyll  buylde,  let  hym  make  his  fundacyon  vpon  a 
graualy  grownde  myxt  with  clay,  or  els  let  hym  buylde 
vpon  a  roche  of  stone,  or  els  vpon  an  hyll  or  a  hylles 
syde,  And  ordre  &  edyfy  the  howse  so  that  the  pryn- 
cypall  and  chefe  prospectes  may  be  Eest  and  weest, 
specyally  North-eest,  Sowth-eest,  and  South-weest,  for 
the  merydyal  wynde,  of  al  wyndes  is  the  moste  worst, 
for  the  South  wynde  doth  corrupt  and  doth  make  euyl 
vapours.  The  Eest  wynde  is  tem^perate,  fryske,  and 
fragrauwt.2  The  weest  wynde  is^  mutable.  The  ^orth 
wynde  purgeth  yll  vapours ;  wheifore,  better  it  is,  of  thQ 
two  worst,  that  the  wyndowes  do  open  playne  Xorth 
than  playne  Sowth,  althoughe  that  Jeremy  sayth,  "from 
the  Korth  depewdeth  all  euyl"*;"  and  also  it  is  wryten 
in  Cantica  cant[ic]orwm^ :  "  Ryse  vp,  North  wynde,  and 
come,  thou  Sowth  wynde,  and  parfyat  ^  my  gardayne." 
Make  the  hall  vnder  such  a  fasshyon,  that  the  parler  be 
anexed  to  the  heade  of  the  hall.  And  the  buttery  and 
pantry  be  at  the  lower  ende  of  the  hall,  the  seller 
vnder  the  pantry,  sette  somwhat  abase;  the  kychen  set 
somwhat'  a  base  from  tJiQ  buttry  and  pantry,  commyng 
with  an  entry  by  the  wall  of  the  buttry,  the  pastry- 
howse  &  the  larder-howse  anexed  to  the  kychen.  Than 
deuyde  the  lodgynges  by  the  cyrcuyte  of  the  quad- 
ryuyall  courte,  and  let  the  gate-howse  be  opposyt  or 
agaynst  the  hall-dore  (not  dyrectly)  but  thQ  hall-dore 
standynge  a  base,  and  the  gate-howse  in  the  mydle  of 
the  front  entry nge  in  to  the  place  :  let  the  pryue  chambre 
be  an  axed  to  ^^e^  chambre  of  astate,  with  other  cham- 
bres  necessarye  for  the  buyldynge,  so  that  many  of  the 
chambres  maye  haue  a  prospecte  in  to  the  Chapell.     If 

'  Compare  Charles  Kingsley's  poem  on 
3  AB  omit  "is."  "  euyll  AB. 

'  sign.  C  .ii. 
the  East  Wind. 

•''  canticorum  AB.  ^  perfecte  A  ;  perfect  B. 

^  AB  omit  "somewhat."  "  the,  great  AB. 


there  be  an  vtter  courte  made,  make  it  qua^dryuyal,  with  Have  an  outer 

bowses  of  easementes,  and  but  one  stable  for  horses  of  wuh  p^rivies, 

pleasure ;  &  se  no  fylth  nor  dong  be  within  the  courte,  Hdtng"LteJf '°' 

nor  cast  at  the  backe-syde,  but  se  the  donge  to  be  caryed 

farre  from  the  mansyon.     Also,  the  stables  and  the  other  staWes, 

•slaughter-howse,  [and]  a  dyery^  (yf  any  be  kept)  shulde  andVairy,  imiYa 

be  elongated  the  space  of  a  quarter  of  a  myle  from  the  ™'  ®  °  ' 

place.      And    also   the  backe-howse  and    brew-howse 

shuld  be  a  dystaunce  from  the  place  and  from  other 

buyldyng.    whan  all  the  mansyon  is  edyfyed  and  buylte, 

yf  there  be  a  moote  made  aboute  it,  there  shulde  some  The  moat  must 

fresshe  sprynge  come  to  it;  and  dyuers  tymes  the  moote  cieanf  '** 

ought  to  be  skowered,  and  kept  clene  from  mudde  and 

wedes.    And  in  no  wyse  let  not  the  fylth  of  the  kychen  no  kitchen  fiith 

descende  in  to  the  moote.     Furthermore,  it  is  a  com- 

modyous  and  a  pleasaunt  thynge  to  a  mansyon  to  haue 

an  orcherd  of  soundry  fruytes ;  but  it  is  more  commo-  Fruit-orchard. 

diouse^  to  haue  a  fayre  gardain  repleted  wyth  herbes  of  Garden  of 

aromatyck  &  redole7^t  sauours.     In  the  gardayne  raaye  ^*^ 

be  a  poole  or  two  for  fysshe,  yf  the  pooles  be  clene  kept.  Fish-pooi. 

Also,  a  parke  repleted  with  dere  &  conyes  is  a  necessarye  Park  with  deer 

and  a  pleasaunt  thyng  to  be  anexed  to  a  mansyon.     A 

doue  howse  also  is  a  necessary  thyng  aboute  a  mansyon- 

place.     And  amonge  other  ^thynges,  a  payre  of  buttes  a  pair  of  Butts; 

is  a  decent  thynge  aboute  a  mansyon ;  &  other  whyle,  for 

a  great  man,  necessary  it  is  for^  to  passe  his  tyme  with  a  Bowling  aiiey. 

bowles  in  an  aly :  whan  all  this  is  fynysshed,  and  the 

mansyon  replenysshed  with  Implemented,  There  must 

be  a  fyre  kept  cowtynually  for  a  space  to  drye  vp  the  Fire  to  dry  tho 


contagyous  moysters  of  the  walles,  &  the  sauour  of  the 
lyme  and  sande.  And  after  that  a  man  may  ly  and 
dwell  in  the  sayd  mansyon  without  takynge  any  incon- 
uenyence  of  syckenes. 

'  sign.  C  .ii.  back.         '  dayery  A ;  dayerye  B  ;  deiy  P. 
*  more  commodyouser  AB.      *  sign.  C  .iii.     *  AB  omit  "  for." 

1  6 



[chap.  V. 

AVhen  you've 
built  your  house, 

if  you  can't 
furnish  it. 

bat  must  borrow 
salt  here,  a 
sheep's  head 

you'll  be  put  to 
a  shift,  and 
never  be  at 

and  men'll  call 
you  a  fool. 

Look  ere  you 

%  The  .V.  Chapytre  doth  shewe  howe  a 

man  shulde  ordre  his  howse  conser- 

nynge  the  Implementes  to 

comforte  the  spyrytes 

of  man.  ,rCi]l 

Hen  a  man  hath  buylt^  his  msiVr 
syon,  and  hath  his  howses  ne- 
cessary aboute  his  place,  yf  he 
haue  not  howsholde  stuffe  or  im- 
plementes the  whiche  be  nede- 
fuU,  but  muste  borowe  of  his 
nayghbours,  he  than  is  put  to  a  shefte  ^and  to  a  great 
after  deale ;  for  'these  men  the  which  do  brew  in  a  botyl 
and  bake  in  a  walet,  it  wyll  be  long  or  he  can  by  lacke 
a  3  salet';  yet  euery  thynge  must  haue  a  begynnynge,  and 
euery  man  must  do  after  his  possessyons  or  abylytc: 
this  notwithstanding,  better  it  is  not  to  set  vp  a  howse- 
holde  or  hospytalyte,  than  to  set  vp  housholde,  lackjmge 
the  performacyon  of^  it,  as  no  we  to  ron*  for  malt,  and 
by-and-by  for  salt ;  nowe  to  sende  for  breade,  and  by- 
and-by  to  sende  for  a  shepes-heade ;  and  nowe  to  sende 
for  this,  &  nowe  to  sende  for  that ;  and  by-&-by  he  doth 
send  he  can  not  tell  for  what :  such  thynge.s  is  no  pro- 
uysion,  but  it  is  a  gi-eat  abusyon.  Thus  a  man  shall 
lese  his  thryfte,  and  be  put  to  a  shefte ;  his  goodes  shall 
neuer  increase,  and  he  shall  not  be  in  rest  nor  peace, 
but  euer  in  carcke  and  care,  for  his  purse  wyll  euer  be 
bare ;  wherfore  I  do  counceyll  euery  man  to  prouyde 
for  hym  selfe  as  soone  as  he  can ;  for  yf  of  implementes 
he  be  destytuted,  men  wyll  call  hym  lyght-wytted,  to 
set  vp  a  great  howse,  and^  is  not  able  to  kepe  man  nor 
mowse :  wherfore,  let  euery  man  loke  ox  he  lepe,  for 
many  comes  maketh  a  great  hepe. 

'  buylded  AB.        ^  C  .iii.  back.        ^  &  A  ;  and  B.        "on  B. 
*  come  AB.     The  rest  of  this  chapter  runs  into  rude  rimes. 
"  &  he  P. 

CHAP.    VI.]  DYETARY.       SAVE   ONE-THIRD    OF    YOUR   INCOME.  241 

^%  The  .vi.  Chapytre  doth  shewe  howe 

a  man  shuld  ordre  his  howse  and 

howseholde,  and  to  lyue 


Vho  soeuer  he  be  that  wyll  kepe 
an  howse,  he  must  ordre  the  ex-  order  your  house 

„  ,  .     ,  J  •        X      according  to  tout 

penses  oi  his  howse  according  to  rents, 
the  rent  of  his  landes.     And  yf 
he  haue  no  landes,  he  must  ordre 
his  howse  after  his  lucre  wynnynge 
or  gaynes.     For  he  that  wyll  spende  more  in  his  howse 
than  the  rentes^  of  his  landes,  or  his  gaynes,  doth  attayn 
to,  he  shal  fal  to  pouerte,  and  necessite  wyl  vrge,  cause, 
and  compel  hym  to  sel  his   lande,   or    to  waste  his 
stocke;  as  it  is  dayly  sene  by  experyewce  of  many  men; 
wherfore  they  the  whiche  wyll  exchewe  such  prody- 
galyte  and   inconuenyence,  must    deuyde  his  rentes,  Divide  your 
porcyon,  &  exspences,  wherby  that  he  doth  lyue,  in  to  3 parts: 
.iii.  3  equal  porcyons  or  partes.    IT  The  fyrst  parte  must 
seme  to  prouyde  for  meate  and  drynke,  &  all*  other  1  for  food,  &c.f 
necessary  thynges  for  the  sustencyon^  of  the  howse- 
holde.    IF  The  seconde  porcyon  or  parte  must  be  re- 
^serued  for  apparell,  not  onely  for  a  mannes  owne  selfe,  1  for  dress, 
but  for  all  his  howseholde,  &  for  his^  seruauntes  wages,  ^m^!'''^'^'^ 
deductynge  somwhat  of  this  porcyon  in  almes  dede  to 
pore  neyghbours  and  pore  people,  fulfyllynge  [one  or] 
other  of  ^  the  .vii.^  werkes  of  mercy.     IT  The  .iii.^^  por- 
cyon or  parte  must  be  reserued  for  vrgewt  causes  in  tyme  1  for  urgent 
of  nede,  as  in  syckenesse,  reparacyon  of  bowses,  with  ^knessl  repairs, 
many  other  cotydyall  exspences,  besyde  rewardes,  &  the  ^^^  ^^^rai, 
charges  of  a  mans^^  last  end.    If  a  maw  do  exsyde^^  this 

'  C  .iv.  not  signed.  '  rent  A  ;  rente  B.  '  the  three  AB. 
*  also  AB.  *  sustentacion  A  ;  sustentation  B.  ®  C  .iv.  back. 
'  AB  omit  "  his."  *  P  omits  "  other  of."  '  seuen  AB. 

"  thyrde  AB.  "  of  mans  B.  '*  excede  AB. 

BOORDE.  16 

242  HAVE  MONEY  IN  STORE.         [cHAP.  VI,  VII. 

ordre,  he  may  soone  fall  in  det,  the  whiche  is  a  daun- 

gerous  thynge  many  wayes,  besyde  the  bryngynge  a  man 

Once  get  behind-    to  tiouble.     And  he  that  is  ones  behynde  hande  and  in 

hand,  and  you'll  ,  ,        ,  ,        . 

never  be  in  peace,  trouble,  he  Can  not  be  m  quyetnesse  of  mynde,  the 
whiche  doth  perturbe  the  herte,  &  so  consequently 
doth  shorten  a  mannes  lyfe;  wherfore  there  is  no  wyse 
man  but  he  wyll  exchewe  ^  this  inconuenyence,  &  wyll 
caste  before  what  shal  folowe  after.  And  in  no  wyse  to 
sette  vp  a  howseholde,  before  he  hath  made  prouysyon 
to  kepe  a  howse.  For  yf  a  man  shall  bye  euery  thynge 
that  belongeth  to  the  keping  of  his^  howse  with  his 
peny,  it  wyl  be  longe  or  he  be  ryche,  and  longe  or  that 
Before  you  set  up  he  Can  kcpc  a  good  howsc.  But  he  is  wyse,  in  my  con- 
have  3  years' rent  ccytc,  that  wyll  hauc,  or  he  do  sette  vp  his  ^  howseholde, 
.ii.  or  .iii.*  yeares  rent  in  his  cofer.     And  yf  he  haue 

no  landes,  than  he  must  prouyde  for  necessarye  thynges 
or  that  he  begyn  howseholde,  leest  that  he  repent  hym- 
selfe  after,  through  the  whiche  he  do^  fall  in  to  pen- 
cyfulnes,  and  after  that  in  to  syckenes  &  dyseases, 
lyuyng  not   quyetly,   wherby  he   shal   abreuyate   his 


^  The  .vii.  Chapytre  doth  shewe  howe 
the  hed  of  a  howse,  or  a  howseholder 
shulde  exercyse  hym  selfe,  for  the 
helth  of  the®  soule  &  hody. 

Fter  that  a  man  hath  prouyded  ?.ll, 

thynges  necessary  for  his  howse  and 

for  his  howseholde,  expedyent  it  is 

How  to  take  care    |f5KlJ^P'\^^fe1l   ^^^  ^^^  *^  knowc  howe  he  shuld 

a^3lB3»^l   ^x^'^cyse  hym  selfe  both  bodely  and 

Si5ssSs!Sl  ghostly.   For  there  is  no  catholycke 

'  eschewe  AB.  '  a  AB.  '  sign.  D  .i. 

*  two  or  thre  B.  "  doth  AB.  «  his  AB. 

of  body  and  soul. 


or  chrysten  man  lynyng,  but  he  is  bounde  in  con- 

scyence  to  be  more  circu??2specter  aboute  the  welth  of  Care  more  for  the 

well-being  of  your 

his  soule  then  the  helth  of  his  body.     Our  Sauyour  soui  than  the 

health  of  your 

lesus  Chryst  sayth,  "  what  shall  it  profyte  vnto  ^  man  yf  body. 

he  geat  all  the  worlde,  and  lese  hym  selfe,  and  bryng 

hym  2 selfe  to  a  detrymewt  ?"  wherfore  it  appereth  that  a 

man  ought  to  be  circumspecte  for  the  helth  and  welth 

of  his  soule ;  For  he  is  bounde  so  to  lyue,  that  nyght 

and  day,  and  at  all  houres,  he  shulde  be  redy;  than^  Be  always  ready 

to  die. 

whan  he  is  called  for  to  departe  out  of  this  worlde,  he 

shuld  nat  feare  to  dye,  saying  these  wordes  with  sayni 

Ambrose :  "  I  feare  not  to  dye,  bycause  we  haue  a  good 

God."    whan  a  man  hath  prepared  *  for  his  soule,  and 

hath  subdued  sensualyte,  and  that  he  hath  brought  And  when  you've 

hym  selfe  in  a  trade,  or  a  vsage  of  a  ghostly  or  a  to  godliness, 

catholycke    lyuynge    in  obseruyng    the    commaunde- 

mentes  of  God,  than  he  must  study  to  rule  and  to  see  that  your 

1  •  1      1      •     1  •    1  1     1  1     *  1        household  are  not 

gouem  them  the  whiche  be  in  his  howseholde,*  or  vnder  idle; 

his  custody  or  domynyon,  to  se  that  they  be  not  ydle; 

for  kynge  Henry  the  eyght  sayd,  when  he  was  yong, 

**  ydlenes  is  chefe  maistres^  of  vyces  all."   And  also  the 

heade  of  a  howse  must  ouer-se  that  they  the  which  be 

vnder  his  tuyssyon  serue  God  the  holy  dayes  as  dyly-  make  them  serve 

gently,  yee,  and  more  dylygentler'  than  to  do  theyr  Days,  keep  them 

worke  the  feryall  dayes,  refraynjmge  them  from  vyce  punish  swearers, 

and    synne,    compellynge  them   to  obserue  the   com- 

maundementes  of  God,  specyally  to  punysshe  swearers, 

for  in  all  the  worlde  there  is  not  suche  odyble  swear-  for  there's  more 

8W6Arini?  in 

yng  as  is  vsed  in  En^glande,^  specyally  amonge  youth  &  England  than 
chyldren,  which  is  a  detestable  thyng  to  here  it,  and  no  the  world.  ^"  " 
inan  doth  go  aboute  to  punysshe  it.     Suche  thynges 
reformed,  than  may  an  howseholder  be  glad,  not  cess- 
ynge  to  instruct  them  the  whiche  be  ygnorant;  but 

•  to  AB.         '  sign.  D  .i.         '  and  P.         *  prouyded  AB. 

•  Compare  Hugh  Rhodes  in  The  Babees  Book,  p.  64. 

•  maisters  P.  '  diligently er  A ;  dylygentlyer  B. 
"  sign.  D  .ii.  "  See  Ihrewords,  p.  82. 

1  6* 



[chap.  vin. 

Ret  your  people  a   also  he  must  contynewc  in  shewynge  good  example  of 
and  then  be  '      lyuynge;  than  may  he  reioyse  in  God,  and  be  mery,  the 


whiche  myrth  &  reioysyng  doth'  lengthen  a  mans  lyfe, 
and  doth  expell  syckenes.^ 

Moderiite  sleep 

qaickens  all 
man's  powers. 

and  pleases  Ood. 

Immoderate  sleep 
breeds  boils,  and 

apoplexy  (see 
The  Breuyary), 

dulls  the  wits. 

f  The  .viij.  Chapytre  doth  shewe  howe 

a  man  shulde  ordre  hym  selfe  in  sle- 

pynge  and  watchynge,^  and 

in  weryng  his  apparell. 

Han  a  man  hath  exercysed  hym 
selfe  in  the  daye  tyme  as  is  re- 
hersed,  he  may  slepe  soundly  and 
surely  in  God,  what  chaunce  so 
euer  do  fortune  in  the  nyght. 
Moderate  slepe  is  moste  praysed, 
for  it  doth  make  parfyte*  degestyon  ;  it  doth  nourysshe 
the  blode,  and  doth  qualyfye  the  heate  of  the  lyuer; 
it  doth  acuate,  quycken,  &  refressheth  the  memory;  it 
doth  restore  nature,  and  ^doth  quyet  all  the  humours  & 
pulses  in  man,  and  doth  anymate  and  doth  comfort© 
all  the  naturall,  and  anymall,  and  spyrytuall  powers 
of  man.  And  suche  moderate  slepe  is  acceptable  in  the 
syght  of  God,  the  premysses  in  the  aforesayd  Chapytre 
obserued  and  kept.  And  contraryly,  immoderate  slepe 
and  sluggyshnes  doth  humecte  and  maketh  lyght  the 
brayne ;  it  doth  ingendre  rewme  and  impostumes ;  it  is 
cuyll  for  the  palsy,  whyther  it  be  vnyuersall  or  par- 
tyculer ;  it  is  euyll  for  tiiQ  fallynge  syckenes  ^  called 
Epilencia,  Analencia,  &  Cathalencia,  Appoplesia,  Soda, 
with  all  other  infyrmytyes  in  the  heade;  for  it  induceth 
and  causeth  oblyuyousnes ;  for  it  doth  obfuske  and  doth 
obnebulate  the  memorye  and  the  quyckenes  of  wvt. 

*  do  A ;  doe  B.       '  See  Forewords,  p.  88-9  ;  and  p.  228. 
'  slepe  and  watche  AB ;  P  leaves  out  "  and  watchynge." 

*  perfecte  AB.         *  D  .ii.  back.         *  syckenesses  B. 

CHAP.  Vlli.]       DYETARY,      OF  THE   PIT  HOURS   TO   SLEEP.  245 

And  shortly,  to  conclude,  it  doth  pertui-be  the  naturall.  Excessive  sleep 

and  anymall,   and  spyrytuall   powers  of  man.      And  sin/ancur 

specyally  it  doth  instygate  and  lede  a  man  to  synne,  '^«^*»*>'« »« God. 

and  doth  induce  and  infer  breuyte  of  lyfe,  &  detestably 

it  displeaseth  God.     Oure  lorde  lesu  Chryste  dyd  not 

onely  byd  or  commau?jde  his  dyscyples  to  watche,  but 

dyd  anymat  them  and  al  other  so  to  do,  saying:  "  I  say  Christ  bade  au 

not  onely  to  you,  watche,  but  to  all  men  I  say,  watche." 

And  to  Peter  he  said,  "  myghtest  not  thou  one  houre 

wat^che  with  me :"  althoughe  these  holy  scryptures,  with 

many  other  mo,  the  whiche  I  myght  allygate  for  me, 

althoughe  they  be  not  greatly  referred  to  this  sewce,  yet 

it  may  stande  here  with  my  purpose  &  matter  without 

reprehensyon.     These  matters  here  nede  not^  to  be  re- 

hersed ;  wherfore  I  do  retume  to  my  purpose,  and  do  sleep  miHierausiy, 

say  that  the  moderacyon  of  slepe  shulde  be  mesured 

accordyng  to  the  natural  co7wplexyon  of  man,  and  in  according  to  your 

state : 

any  wyse  to  haue  a  respect  to  the  strength  and  the 
debylyte,  to  age  &  youth,  and  to  syckenes  &  helth  of 
man.  1[  Fyrste,  as  concemynge  the  natiirall  complexyon 
of  man,  as^  sanguyne  and  colorycke  men,  .vii.^  houres*  saiiguine  men  for 

7  hoars ; 

is  sufFycyent  for  them.  And  nowe,  consyderynge  the 
imbecyllyte  and  wekenes  of  nature,  a  flemytycke  man  Phlegmatic 

1  •       1  •»*   1  1     «  men  9  hours; 

may  slepe  .ix.  houres  or  more.     Melancoly^  men  may 

take  theyr  pleasure,  for  they  be  [the]^  receptacle  and  the  Melancholy  men, 

dragges  of  all  the  other  humoures.     IF  Secondaryly,  uke. 

youth  and  age  wolde  haue  temporauwce  in  slepynge. 

IT  Thyrdly,  strength  maye  suflfre  a  brount  in  watche, 

the  whiche  debylytye  and  wekenes  can  not.     As  I  wyl  weak  men  can't 

sit  up  so  long  aa 

shew  by  a  famylyer  example.     There  were  two  men  strong  ones. 
set  at  the  dyce  togither  a  day  and  a  nyght,  &  more ; 
the  weke  man  said  to  hym,  "  I  can  playe  no  longer." 
The  stronge  ^man  sayde  to  hym,  "fye  on  the,  benche- 

'  sign.  D  .iii.         *  not  greatlj'  AB.         '  AB  omit  "aa." 

*  seuen  AB.        *  howres  of  slepe  AB.        ^  Melancolycke  AB. 

'  be  the  AB.         ^  D  .ui.  back. 

246  DAY-SLEEP,    AND   GOING   TO   BED.  [e^AP.  VUL 

whystler  !  wylt  thou  sterte  away  nowe1 "  The  weke 
man,  to  satj^sfye  the  stronge  manncs  mynde,  appetyte,* 
&  desyre,  playeth  with  hys  felow  ;  throughe  tho.  which 
he  doth  kyl  hym  selfe.  The  stronge  man  doth  hym 
selfe  lytel  pleasure,  all  thynges  consydered:  the  whiche 

A  sick  man  I  do  passe  ouer.    wherfore  I  wyll  retourne  to  the  sycke 

whenever  he  can,  man,  whiche  maye  slepe  at  all  tymes  whan  that  he 
maye  get  it ;  but  yf  he  maye  slepe  at  any  tyme,  best  it 
is  for  hym  to  refrayn  from  slepe  in  the  day,  &  to  take 

though  night  is  his  uaturall  rest  at  nyght,  whan  all  thynges  is,  or  shulde 
be,  at  rest  and  peace ;  but  he  must  do  as  his  infyrmyte 

Healthy  men        wyll  pcrmyt  and  sufFre.     whole  men,  of  what  age  or 

shouldn't  sleep  in       *^       ^  "^  '  ° 

the  day.  complcxyou  soeuer  they  be  of,  shuld  take  theyr  natural 

rest  and  slepe  in  the  nyght,  &  to  exchew  merydyall 

If  they  must,        slcpe.    But,  an  2  nede  shall  compell  a  man  to  slepe  after 

tliey  should  do  it  ^  ^ 

standing  against    his  meate,  let  hym  make  a  pause,  and  than  let  hym 
a  chair.    '  staud,  and  leane  and  slepe  agaynst  a  cupborde,  or  els  let 

hym  sytte  vpryght  in  a  chayre,  &  slepe.  Slepynge 
after  a  full  stomaoke  doth  ingendre  dyuerse  infyrmyties ; 
it  doth  hurte  the  splen,  it  relaxeth  the  synewes,  it  doth 
ingendre  the  dropsyes  and  the  gowte,  and  doth  make  a 
No  Tenery  early     man  loke  cuyll  coloured.     Beware  of  Veneryous  actes 

at  night  or  on  a 

full  stomach.  before  ^the  fyrste  slepe,  and  speoyally  beware  of  such 
thynges  after  dyner,  or  after  a  ftill  stomacke,  for  it  doth 
ingendre  the  crampe,  the^  gowte,  and  other  displeas- 

Before  bed  time     ures.     To  bcdwarde  be  you  mery,  or  haue  mery  com- 

^^^^'  pany  aboute  you,  so  that,  to  bedwarde,  no  anger  nor 

heuynea,  sorowe  nor  pencyfulnes,  do  trouble  or  disquyet 

and  have  a  fire  in  you.  To  bedwarde,  and  also  in  the  mornyng,  vse  to 
haue  a  fyre  in  your  chambre,  to  wast  and  consume  the 
euyll  vapours  within  the  chambre,  for  the  breath  of 
man  maye  putryfye  the  ayre  within  the  chambre.    1  do 

but  don't  stand  aduertyse  you  not  to  stande  nor  to  syt  by  the  fyre,  but 
stand  or  syt  a  good  waye  of  from  the  fyre,  takynge  the 

'  appyted,  orig.      ^  and  AB  (if).       '  D  .iv.  not  signed. 
*  and  the  AB. 

your  room. 

or  ait  by  the  lire. 

CH.  VIII.]       DYETARY.      HOW  TO  SLEEP,  IN  A  SCARLET  NIGHT-CAP.         247 

flauour  of  it ;  for  fyre  doth  aryfye  &  doth  drye  vp  a 
inawnes  blode,  and  doth  make  sterke  the  synewes  & 
ioyntee  of  man.     In  the  nyght,  let  the  wyndowes  of  shut  your 


youre  howse,  specially  of  your  chambre,  be  closed;  whan  windows  at 

you  be  in  your  bed,  lye  a  lytel  whyle  on  your  left  syde, 

&  slepe  on  your  ryght  syde.     And  whan  you  do  wake  sleep  on  your 

right  side. 

of    your  fyrste   slepe,  make  water  yf  you  fele   your 

bladder  charged,  and  than  slepe  on  the  lefte  syde ;  and 

loke,  as  ofte  as  you  do  wake,  so  ofte  toume  yourselfe  in 

the  bed  from  the^  one  syde  to  the  other.     To  slepe 

grouelynge*  vpon  the  stomacke  and  belly  is  not  good,  i>on't  sieep  on 

oneles  ^the  stomacke  be  slow  and  tarde  of  digestyon ; 

but  better  it  is  to  lay  your  hande,  or  your  bed-felowes 

hande,  ouer  your  stomacke,  than  to  lye  grouelyng.     To 

slepe  on  the,  backe  vpryght  is  vtterly  to  be  abhorred.  <"•  "»*  on  your 


when  thai  you  do  slepe,  let  not  your  necke,  nother 

your  shoulders,  nother  your  handes,  nor  fete,  nor  no  Cover  up  aii  your 


other  place  of  your  body,  lye  bare  vndyscouered. 
Slepe  not  with  an  empty  stomacke,  nor  slepe  not  after 
that  you  haue  eaten  meate,  one  houre  or  two  after.  In 
your  bead,  lye  with  your  heed  somwhat  hygh,  lest  that  Lie  with  your 

head  high. 

the  meate  which  is  in  your  stomacke,  thorow  eructua- 

cyons,  or  some  other  cause,  ascend  to  the  gryfe*  of  the 

stomacke.     Let  your  nyght-cap  be  of  skarlet;  &  this  I  Have  a  scarlet 

do  aduertyse  you,  for^  to  cause  to  be  made  a  good  thycke 

quylt  of  cotton,  or  els   of   pure  flockes,  or  of  clene  a  good  thick 

quilt,  covered 

woull,  and  let  the  couerynge  of  it  be  of  whyte  fustyan,  witi»  fustian, 
and  laye  it  on  the  fether-beed  that  you  do  lye  on;  and  and  a  feather  bed. 
in  your  beed  lye  not  to  hote  nor  to  colde,  but  in  a  tem- 
poraunce.     Olde  auncyent  doctours  of  Physycke  sayth, 
.viii.  houres  of  slepe  in  Sommer,  &  .ix.  houres  of  slepe  ^ 
in  wynter,  is  suffycyent  for  any  man,  but  I  do  tliynke 

'  AB  omit  "the." 

^  The  adverb  in  -lynge  (A. Sax.  -linga,  -lvnga).—'R.  Morris, 
Phil.  Soc.  Trans.  ^  D  .iv.  back. 

*  oryfe  AB  ;  oryfice  P  (see  p.  265,  note  "). 
^  you  to  AB.  *.  AB  omit  "  houres  of  slepe." 


Rise  with  mirth. 

Brush  and  air 
your  breeches* 

Wear  linen  hosci 

Stretch  your  legs, 
go  to  stool. 

truss  your  points, 
and  comb  your 

Wash  in  eold 

Walk  a  mile  or 

Hear  mass, 
or  pray  to  God. 

Play  tennis,  or 
work  your 

Eat  of  2  or  3 
dishes  only, 

and  then  amuse 
yourself  for  an 

WHAT   TO   DO    ON    RISING    FROM    BED.  [cHAP.  VIII. 

that  slepe  ought  to  be  taken  as  the  complexyon  of  man 
is.  whan  you  do  ryse  in  the  morenynge,  ryse  with 
myrth,  ^and  remembre  God.  Let  your  hosen  be  brusshed 
within  and  without,  and  flauour  the  insyde  of  them 
agaynst  the  fyre;  vse  lynnen  sockes  or  lynnen  hosen 
next  your  legges.  whan  you  be  out  of  your  bedde, 
stretche  forth  your  legges  and  armes,  and  your  body ; 
coughe  and  spyt,  and  than  go  to  your  stole  to  make 
your  egestyon ;  and  exonerate  your  selfe  at  all  tymes 
that  nature  wold  expell.  For  yf  you  do  make  any 
restryction  in  kepynge  your  egestion,  or  your  vryne  or 
ventosyte,  it  maye  put  you  to  dyspleasure  in  bredyng 
dyuers  infyrmyties.  After  you  haue  euacuated  your 
body,  &  trussed  your  poyntes,  kayme  your  heade  oft ; 
and  so  do  dyuerse  tymes  in  the  daye.  And  wasshe 
your  handes  and  wrestes,  your  face  and  eyes,  and  your 
tethe,  with  colde  water.  &  after  that  you  be  apparelled, 
walke  in  your  gardayne  or  parke  a  thousande  pace  or 
two ;  &  than  great  and  noble  men  doth  vse  to  here 
masse,  &  other  men  that  can  not  do  so,  but  must 
applye  theyr  busynes,  doth  serue  God  with  some  pray- 
ers, surrendrynge  thankes  to  hym  for  his  manyfolde 
goodnes,  with  askyng  meroye  for  theyr  offences.  & 
before  you  go  to  your  refection,  moderatly  exercyse 
your  body  with  some  labour,  or  playing  at  the  tennys, 
or  castyng  a  ^bowle,  or  paysyng  wayghtes  or  plomettes 
of  ledde  in  your  handes,  or  some  other  thynge,  to  open 
your  poores,  and  to  augment  naturall  hete.  At  dyner 
&  supper  vse  not  to  drynke  of  sondry  drynkes ;  &  eate 
not  of  dyuers  meates,  but  fede  of  two  or  thre  *  dysshes 
at  the  moste.  After  that  you  haue  dyned  &  supped,* 
laboure  not  by-and-by  after,  but  make  a  pause,  syttynge 
or  standyng  vpright  the  space  of  an  houre  or  more,  with 
some  pastyme  ;    drynke  not  moch   after  dyner.     At 

»  sign.  E  .i.         '  E  .i.  back.         ^  AB  omit  "of." 
*  .ij.  or  .iij.  A.         ^  and  supte. 


your  supper,  vse  light  meates  of  digestyon,  &  refrayne  Eat  a  light 

supper;  then 

from  grose  meates ;  go  not  vnto  bedde  *  with  a  ful  nor  ^  rest,  and  go  to 
emptye  stomacke.    And  after  your  supper,  make  a  pause        ™* 
or  you  go  to  bedde;  and  go  to  bed,  as  I  sayde,  with 
myrth.     Furthermore,  as  coracemynge  your  apparell :  in 
wynter,  next  your  sherte  vse^  to  were  a  petycote  of  in  winter,  line 

_  your  jacket  with 

skarlet;  your  doublet  vse  at  plesure;  but  I  do  aduertyse  Wack  and  white 
you  to  lyne  your  lacket  vnder  this  fasshyon  or  maner : 
by  you  fyne  skynwes  of  whyte  lambe  &  blacke  lambe, 
and  let  your  skynner  cut  both  the  sortes  of  the  skynnes 
in  smale  peces  tryangle  wyse,  lyke  halfe  a  quarel  of  a  sown  in  triangles, 
glase  wyndow.  And  than  sewe  togyther  a  whyte  pece 
and  a  blacke,  lyke  a  whole  quarel  of  a  glasse  wyndowe ; 
&  so  sewe  vp  togyther  quarell-wyse  as  moche  as  wyll 
*lyne  your  lacket;  this  fur,  for  holsomnes,  is  praysed 
aboue  sables  or  any  other  furre:  your  exteryall  ap- 
parell vse  accordjmge  to  your  honour.     In  sowraer,  vse  in  summer,  wear 


to  were  a  skarlet  petycote  made  of  stamele  or  lynsye  *-  petucoat, 
wolsye.    In  wynter  and  sommer,  kepe  not^  your  hed  to 
bote,  nor  bynde  it  to  strayte ;  kepe  euer  youre  necke 
warme.     In  so/wmer,  kepe  your  necke  and  face  from  the 
sowne;  vse  to   were   gloues  made  of  goote-skynnes,'  and  good  skin 


perfumed  with  amber-degrece.     And  beware  in  stand- 

ynge  or  lying  on  the  grownde  in  the  reflyxyon  of  the  Don't  stand  or  He 

in  the  sun, 

sowne,  but  be  mouable.    If  you  *  shall  common  or  talke 

with  any  man,  stande  not  sty  11  in  one  place  yf  it  be  on* 

the  bare  grownde,  or  grasse,  or  stones,  but  be  moueable 

in  such  places :  stande  nor  syt  vpon  no  stone  nor^^  stones ;  or  sit  on  a  stone. 

stand  nor  syt  long  bareheed  vnder  a  vawte  of  stone. 

Also  beware   that  you  do  not  lye  in  olde  chambres  Don't  He  in  ratty 

and  snaily  roonu. 

whiche  be  not  occupyed,  specyaUy  such  chambres  as 
myse,  rattes,  and  snayles  resorteth  vnto.  lye  not  in 
suche  chambres  the  whiche  be  depryued  clene  from  the 

•  tobedAB. 

'  nor  an  AB. 

^  vse  you  AB. 

♦  sign.  E  .ii. 

^  lynsyn  P. 

^  not  AB ;  nor  oriff. 

'  skyn  AB. 

«  thou  AB. 
»»  or  AB. 

'  vpon  A  ;  vppon  B. 



[chap.  VIII,  IX. 

sowne  &  open  ayre  ;  nor  lye  in  no  lowe  chambre  except 
Don't  take  cold  in  it  be  boided.     Beware  that  you  take  no  colde  on  your 

your  feet.  "^ 

feete  and  legges ;  and  of  all  wether,  beware  that  you  do 
not  ryde  nor  go  in  great  and  impyteous  wyndes. 

Bepletion  or 
surfeit  comes 
from  drini<ing  as 
well  as  eating. 

Tlie  liver,  or  fire 
under  the  pot,  is 
so  prest  that  it 
can't  cook  the 

the  senses  get 

the  head  aches, 
and  the  malt-corn 
plays  the  devil  in 

^f  The  .ix.  Chapytre  doth  shewe  that 

replecyon^  or  surfetynge  doth  moche 

harme  to  nature  /  and  that  absty- 

nence  is  the  chefyst  medyson 

of  all  medysons. 

Alen,  declaryng  Hypocrates  sentence 
vpon  eatynge  to  moclie  meate,  saith : 
"More  meate  than  accordeth  with 
nature,  is  named  replecyon,^  or  a  sur- 
fete."  Replecyon^  or  a  surfet  is  taken  as  well  by 
gurgytacyons,  or  to  moche  drynkynge,  as  it  is  taken  by 
epulacyon,^  of  eatynge  of  crude  meate,  or  eatynge  more 
meate  than  doth  sufFyce,  or  can  be  truely  dygested.  Or 
els  replecyon^  or  a  surfyt  is  whan  the  stomacke  is  farced 
or  stuft,*  or  repleted  with  to  moche  drynke  &  meate, 
that  the  lyuer,  whiche  is  the  fyre  vnder  the  potte,  is 
subpressed,^  that  he  can  not  naturally  nor  truely  decocte, 
defye,  ne  dygest,  the  superabundauwce  of  meate  & 
drynke  the  whiche  is  in  the  potte  or  stomacke ;  wherfore 
dyuers  tymes  these  impedymentes  doth  folowe :  the 
touwge  is  depryued  of  his  ofFyce  to  speke,  the  wyttes  or 
sensys  be  dull  &  obnebulated  from  reason.  Slouth 
*and  sluggyshnes  consequently  foloweth;  the  appetyde 
is  withdrawen.  The  heade  is  lyght,  and  doth  ake,  and 
[is]  full  of  fantasyes ;  &  dyuers  tymes  some  be  so  sopytyd, 
that  the  malt  worme  playeth  the  deuyll  so  fast  in  the 
heade,  that  all  the  worlde  ro?ineth  rownde  aboute  on 

'  sign.  E  .ii.  back. 
*  atufted  AB. 

*  replexion  AB. 

*  suppressed  AB. 

'  ejfvlatio,  feastiug. 
*  sign.  E  .iii. 

GHxVP.  IX.]       DYETARY.      AVOID  SURFEITS  :    EAT  TWO  MEALS  A  DAY.      251 

wheles ;  then  both  the  pryncepall  membres  &  the  offy- 
cyall  membres  doth  fayle  of  theyr  strength,  yet  the 
pulsys  be  full  of  agylyte.     Such  replecyon,^  specyally  Repletion 

,  ,  shortens  a  tiuiu's 

suche  gurgytacyons,  doth  mgender  dyuers  mfyrmytes,  ufe, 
thorowe  the  whiche,  breuite  and  shortnes  of  lyfe  doth 
folowe.  For  the  wyse  man  sayth,  that  "surfetes  do  kyll 
many  men,  and  temporaunce  doth  prolonge  the  lyfe." 
And  also  it  is  wrytten,  Eccle.  xxxvii.,^  That  "  there  doth 
dye  many  mo  by  surfette,  than  there  doth  by  the 
sworde  ; "  for,  as  I  sayde,  surfetynge  ingendreth  many 
infyrmytes,  as  the  Idropyses,^  the  gowte^,  lepored,  saws-  and  breeds 

.  .  dropsy,  sawsfleme 

ileme  &  pymples  m  the  face,  vehement  impressyons,  (p.  101-2),  gout. 

flnd  fevers 

vndygest  humours,  opylacyons,  feuers,  and  putryfac- 
cyons.  And  also  it  doth  perturbate  the  heade,  the 
eyes,  the  tounge,  and  the  stomacke,  with  many  other 
infyrmyties.  For,  as  ■*  Galen  sayth,  "  ouer  moche  re- 
plecyon  '  or  surfeting  causeth  strangulacion  and  soden 
death;"  for,  as  I  sayde,  the  stomacke  is  so  inferced^,  ®and 
the  lyuer  is  so  sore  obpressed,'  that  naturall  heate  and 
the  poorest  be  extyncted;  wherfore  abstynence  for  this  Abstinen-e  is  the 

best  medicine  for 

matter  is  the  moste  best  and  the  parfytest  medysone  it. 

that  can  be.     And  in  no  wyse  eate  no  meate  vnto  tJiQ 

tyme  the  stomacke  be  euacuated  of  all  yll^  humours  by 

vomet  or  other  conuenyent  wayes ;  for  els,  crude  and 

rawe  humours  vndygested  wyll  multiply  in  the  body  to 

the  detryment  of  man.     Two  meales  a  daye  is  sufFyc-  Two  meals  a  day 

are  enough 

yent  for  a  rest  man ;   and  a  labourer  maye  eate  thre  for  a  resting 

man ;  3  for  a 

tymes  a  day ;  &  he  that  doth  eate  ofter,  lyueth  a  labouring  one. 
beestly  lyfe.  And  he  that  doth  eate  more  than  ones  in 
a  day,  I  aduertyse  hym  that  the  fyrste  refeccyon  or 
meale  be  dygested  or  that  he  do  eate  the  seconde  re- 
feccyon or  meale.  For  there  is  nothynge  more  hurtfuU 
for  mans  body  than  to  eate  meate  vpon  meate  vndy- 

replexion  AB.      '  37  A.      '  dropses  AB.      *  AB  omit  "  as." 
*  enforced  AB.       ^  sign.  E  .iii.  back.       '  oppressed  AB. 
*  powers  AB.         ^  euyll  AB 

252         BAD   ENGLISH   CUSTOMS   AT   DINNER  AND   SUPPER.    [cHAP.  IX,  X. 

Don't  eat  several 
meats  at  a  meal. 

Sit  only  an  hour 
at  dinner. 

Englishmen  sit 
too  long  at  it. 

and  stupidly  eat 
gross  meat  hrst, 

leaving  the  best 
for  the  servants. 

Men  are  so 

For  the  last  refeccyon  or  meale  wyll  let  the 
dygestyon  of  the  fyrste  refeccyon  or  meale.  Also 
sondry  meates  of  dyuers  operacyons  eaten  at  one  re- 
feccion  or  meale,  is  not  laudable ;  nor  it  is  not  good  to 
syt  longe  at  dyner  and  supper.  An  houre  is  suffycyent 
to  syt  at  dynner ;  and  not  so  longe  at  supper.  Englande 
hath  an  euyll  vse  in  syttynge  longe  at  dyner  and  at 
supper.  And  Englysshe  men  hath  an  euyll  ^vse  ;  for,  at 
the  begynnynge  at  dyner  and  supper  he  wyll  fede  on 
grose  meates,  And  tM  best  meates  which  ^  be  holsome 
and  nutratyue,  and  lyeth  ^  of  dygestion,  is  kept  for  ser- 
uauntes ;  for  whan  the  good  meate  dotli  come  to  the 
table,  thorowe  fedynge  vpon  grose  meate,  the  appetyde 
is  extynct  whan  the,  good  meet  doth  come  to  the  table ; 
but  mawnes  mynde  is  so  auydous,  althoughe  he  haue 
eate  ynoughe,  whan  he  seth*  better  meate  come  before 
hym,  agaynst  his  appetyde  he  wyll  eate;  wherupon  doth^ 
come  replecyon  ^  and  surfetes. 

Water  is  not 

wholesome  by 

Water  is  bad  for 
an  Englishman. 

f  The  .X.  Chapytre  treateth  of  al  ma- 

ner  of  drynkes,  as  of  water,  of  wyne, 

of  ale,  of  bere,  of  cyder,  of  meade, 

of  metheglyn,  and  of  whay. 

Ater  is  one  of  the  foure  Elemente.9, 
of  the  whiche  dyuers  lycours  or 
drynkes  for  ma/znes  sustynaunce 
be  made  of,  takyng  theyr  ory- 
gynall  and  substaunce  of  it,  as 
ale,  bere,  meade,  and  metheglyn. 
water  is  not  holsome,'^  sole  by  it  selfe,  for  an 
Englysshe  man,  consyde^rynge  the  contrarye  vsage, 
whiche    is    not    concurraunt    with    nature :    water    is 

'  E  .iv.  not  signed.         '^  the  whiche  AB  ;  meate  which  P. 
^  lyght  BP.     1  Lyeth  is  A. Sax.  Uc^,  mild.        ♦  seeth  AB. 




^  leplexion  AB.         '  See  Forewords,  p.  74. 
"  E  .iv.  back. 


colde,  slowe,  and  slacke  of  dygestyon.     The  best  water  Rain-water 

is  rayne- water,  so  be  it  that  it  be  clene  and  purely  taken. 

Kexte  to  it  is  rownyng  water,  the  whiche  doth  swyftly  running-water 

rowne  from  the  Eest  in  to  the  west  vpon   stones  or 

pybles.     The  thyrde  water  to  be  praysed.  is  ryuer  or  river-water  third. 

broke  water,  the  which  is  clere,  roTznyng  on  pibles  and 

grauayl.     Standynge  waters,  the  whiche  be  refresshed 

with  a  fresshe  spryng,  is  commendable;  but  standyng 

waters,  and  well-waters,  to  the  whiche  the  sowne  hath  weii-water 

no  reflyxyon,  althoughe  they  be   lyghter  than  other 

ro?;.nyng  waters  be,  yet  they  be  not  so^  co?nmendable. 

And  let  euery  man  be  ware  of  all  waters  the  whiche  be  standing  water 

is  bad. 

standynge,  and  be  putryfyed  with  froth,  duckemet,^  and 
mudde ;  for  yf  they  bake,  or  brewe,  or  dresse  meate 
with  it,  it  shall  ingender  many  infyrmytes.  The  water 
tJie  which  euery  man  ought  to  dresse  his  meate  with  all,  ^^^  cooking,  ase 


or  shall  vse  bakynge  or  bruyng,  let  it  be  rownyng ;  and 

put  it  in  vesselles  that  it  may  stande  there  .ii.  or  .iii.^ 

houres  or  it  be  occupy ed;  than  strayne  the  vpper  parte  ^  strained. 

thoroughe  a  thycke  lynnyn  cloth,  and  cast  the  inferyall 

parte  awaye.    If  any  man  do  vse  to  drynke  water  with  water  drunk 

,  with  wine  must 

wyne,  let  it  be  purely  ^strayned ;  and  than  seth  it,  and  be  boiled  or 

,  ,     ,       ,  •  1  .  ,        -,  .      distilled  with 

after  it  be  cold,  let  hym  put  it  to  his  wyne :  but  better  it  herbs. 

is  to  drynke  with  wyne,  stylled  waters,  specyally  the 

water  of  strawberes,  or  the  water  of  buglos,  [or  the 

water  of  borage,]  ^  or  the  water  of  endyue,  or  the  water 

of  cycory,  or  the  waters  of  southystell  and  dau7idelyon. 

And  yf  any  man  be  combred  with  the  stone,  or  doth  For  stone,  drink 

„  water  of  haws, 

burne  in  the  pudibunde '  places,  vse  to  drynke  with  with  white  wine, 
whyte  wyne  the  water  of  hawes  and  the  water  of  mylke : 
loke  for  this  water  in  a  boke  of  my  makynge,  named 
*'the  breuyary  of  health".^ 

'  AB  omit  "  so."  '  docknet  AB ;  duckemeat  P. 

*  two  or  three  B.  *  parte  that  B.         *  sign.  F  .i. 

*  AB  put  in  "  or  the  water  of  borage  "  (not  P). 

'  pubibnude,  orig.  *  Chapter  207,  Fol.  Ixxii ;  p.  80, 




[chap.  X. 

Bespyse  is 
raspberry  wine. 

The  qualities  of 
good  wine. 

Good  wine 
comforts  the 
heart  and  scours 
the  liver. 

White  wine 
nourishes  the 
brain  and 

cleanses  sores. 

Wine  mustn't 
too  old. 

Mix  It  with 

In  Germany, 
maidens  mustn't 
drink  wine. 

Abroad,  there's  a 
water-fountain  in 
every  town. 

IT  Of^  wyne. 

IT  All  maner  of  wyues  be  made  of  grapes,  excepts 
respyse,^  the  whiche  is  made  of  a  bery.  Chose  your 
wyne  after  this  sorte:  itmuste  be  fyne,  fayre,  &  clere  to 
the  eye;  it  must  be  fragraunt  and  redolent,  hauynge  a 
good  odour  and  flauour  in  the  nose;  it  must  spryncle  in 
the  cup  whan  it  is  drawne  or  put  out  of  the  pot  in  to 
the  cup;  it  must  be  colde  &  pleasaunt  in  the  mouth;  and 
it  must  be  strong  and  subtyll  of  substaunce  :  And  than, 
moderatly  dronken,  it  doth  acuate  and  doth  quycken  a 
mans  wyttes,  it  doth  comfort  the  hert,  it  doth  scowre 
the  lyuer ;  specyally,  yf  it  be  whyte  wyn,  it  doth  reioyce 
all  the  powers  of  man,  and  doth  now^ysshe  them ;  it 
doth  ingender  good  blode,  it  doth  comforte  and  doth 
nourysshe  the  brayne  and  all  the  body,  and  it  resolueth 
fleume ;  it  ingendreth  heate,  and  it  is  good  agaynst 
heuynes  and  pencyfulnes;  it  is  ful  of  agylyte;  wherfore 
it  is  medsonable,  specyally  whyte  wyne,  for  it  doth 
mundyfye  and  dense  wou/ides  &  sores.  Furthermore, 
the  better  the  wyne  is,  the  better  humours  it  doth  in- 
gender. wyne  must  not  be  to  newe  nor  to  olde;  but 
hyghe  wynes,  as  malmyse,  maye  be  kep[t]e*  longe.  And 
bycause  wyne  is  full  of  fumosyte,  it  is  good,  therfore, 
to  alaye  it  with  water,  wynes  hyghe  and  bote  ^  of 
operacyoTi  doth  comfort  olde  men  and  women,  but 
there  is  no  wyne  good  for  chyldren  &  maydens;  for  in 
hyghe  Almayne,  there  is  no  mayde  shall  drynke  no 
wyne,  but  styl  she  shal  drynke  water  vnto^  she  be 
maried.  the  vsuall  drynke,  there  &  in  other  hyghe 
countresjfor  youth, is  fountayn  water;  for  in  euery  towne 
is  a  fountaync  or  a  shalowe  wel,  to  the  which  all  people 

»  AB  omit  "  Of." 

*  See  Babees  Book,  125/118  ;  p.  204  ;  267/21. 

^^  sign.  P  .i.  back.         *  kepte  ABP. 

*  hyghe  and  hote.     Wynes  AB. 

•  vnto  the  time  AB  :  vnto  =  until.     See  ch.  xiv,  p.  159,  on 

Hygho  Almayne,  in  the  Introduction. 

CHAP.  X.]  DYETARY.       OF    DIVERS   KINDS   OP   WINES.  255 

that  be  yonge,  and  seruauwte^,  hath  a  confluence  and  a 

recourse  to  drynke.     Meane  wynes,  as  wynes  of  Gas-  Light  wines, 

cony,  Frenche  wynes,  &  specyally  Raynysshe  wyne  that  are  good  wilh  ' 

is  fyned,  is  good  with  meate,  specyally  claret  wyne.    It  "^^*  * 

is  not  good  to  drynke  nother  wyne  *  nor  ale  before  a  man 

doth  eate  somwhat,  althoughe  there  be  olde  fantastycall 

sayinge^  to  the  contrarye.     Also  these  bote  wynes,  as  Hot  wines  are 

,  ,  _  not  good 

malmesye,  wyne  course,  wyne  greke,  romanysk,  romny, 

secke,  alygaunt,  basterde,  tyre,  osay,  Muscadell,  cap- 

rycke,  tynt,  roberdany,^  with  other  bote  wynes,  be  not 

good  to  drynke  with  meate;  but  after  mete,  &  with  with  meat,  but 

oysters,  with  saledes,  with  fruyte,  a  draught  or  two  may  S  it.  ™" 

be  suffered.     Olde  men  maye  drynke,  as  I  sayde,  hyghe 

wynes    at    theyr    pleasure.      Furthermore,  all  swete 

wynes  and  grose  wynes  doth  make  a  man  fatte. 

*  sign.  F  .11. 

'  See  The  Bahees  Book,  p.  202-7,  with  extracts  from  Hen- 
derson's Hutory  of  Ancient  and  Modern  Wines,  1824,  p.  75, 
above,  and  Notes.  Of  the  wines  mentioned  above,  but  not  in 
B.  B., 

Course  is  the  Italian  *  C&rso,  wine  of  Corsica.'  (Florio.) 

Alygaunt  is  *  Alicant,  a  Spanish  wine  . .  said  to  be  made 
near  Alicant,  and  of  mulberries.'  (Nares.) 

Tynt  is  the  modem  Tent  used  in  the  Sacrament,  *  a  kind 
of  wine  of  a  deep  red  colour,  chiefly  from  Galicia  or  Malaga  in 
Spain.'  (Webster.) 

At  Alicant,  in  the  province  of  Valencia,  a  vino  tinto  is 
procured  from  the  tintilla  grape,  which  resembles  the  Rota 
wine,  and  contains  a  large  quantity  of  tannin,  holding  in 
solution  the  colouring  matter,  and  precipitating  animal  gela- 
tin. It  is  sweet  and  spirituous,  having  a  reddish  orange 
colour,  and  a  bitter  and  somewhat  rough  after-taste.  Like  the 
Rota,  it  is  chiefly  used  for  medicinal  purposes. — Henderson,  p. 
193-4 ;  and  see  p.  251. 

Neither  Roberdany  nor  Romanyske  is  mentioned  by 

Sack.  See  Henderson,  p.  298-309,  and  his  quotation,  p. 
315,  of  Markham,  "Your  best  Sacks  are  of  Xeres  in  Spain; 
your  smaller,  of  Gallicia  and  Portugall ;  3'our  strong  Sacks  are 
of  the  islands  of  the  Canaries  and  of  Malligo  .  ."  Also  from 
the  Discovery  of  a  London  Monster  called  the  Black  Bog  of 
Newgate,  printed  in  1612,  "There  wanted  neither  Sherry  Sack, 
nor  Charneco,  Maligo,  nor  amber-coloured  Cand)',  nor  liquorish 
Ipocras,  brown  beloved  Bastard,  fat  Aligant,  nor  any  quick- 
spirited  liquor." 

1   7 

256  OF   ALE,    BEER,    CIDER.  [cHAP.  X. 

ir  Ofi  ale. 

IT  Ale  is  made  of  malte  and  water;  and  they  the 

which  do  put  any  other  thynge  to  ale  then^  is  rehersed, 

except  yest,  barme,  or  godesgood,  doth  sofystical  ^  theyr 

Ale  comes  ale.     Ale  for  an  Englysshe  man  is  a  naturall  drynke. 

naturally  to  an  .  i       /.         i  •• 

Englishman.        Ale  must  haue  these  propertyes :  it  must  be  Iresshe  and 

cleare,  it  muste  not  be  ropy  nor  smoky,  nor  it  must  haue 

It  should  be  5       no  weft  nor  tayle.     Ale  shuld  not  be  dronke  vnder  .v. 

days  oldf 

dayes  olde.  Newe  ale  is  vnholsome  for  all  men.  And 
sowre  ale,  and  deade  ale*  the  which  doth  stande  a  tylt, 
is  good  for  no  man.  Early  malte  maketh  better  ale 
then  oten  malte  or  any  other  come  doth :  it  doth  in- 
and  makes  a  man  gendre  ^  grose  liumoures ;  but  yette  ^  it  maketh  a  man 



ir  Of »  here. 

Beer  is  a  Dutch  IT  Bere  is  made  of  malte,  of  hoppes,  and  water: 

it  is  a  naturall  drynke  for  a  Dutche  man.    And  nowe  of 

but  has  lately       late  daycs  it  is  moche  vsed  in  Englande  to  the  detry- 

Engiand.  mcut  of  many  Englysshe  men;  specyally  it  kylleth 

them  the  which  be  troubled  with  the  colycke,  and  the 
stone,  &  the  strangulion ;"  for  the  drynke  is  a  colde 

It  blows  out  the  drynke  ;  yet  it  doth  make  a  man  fat,  and  doth  inflate 
the  bely,  as  it  doth  appere  by  the  Dutche  mens  faces 
&  belyes.  If  the  bere  be  well  serued,  and  be  fyned, 
&  not  new,^  it  ^  doth  qualyfy  the  heat  of  the  lyuer. 

f  Of  cyder. 
The  best  Cider  ^T  Cyder  is  made  of  the  iuce  of  peeres,  or  of  ^  the 

is  made  of  Pears. 

iuce  of  aples;  &  other  whyle  cyder  is  made  of  both; 
but  the  best  cyder  is  made  of  cleane  peeres,  the  which 
be  dulcet;  but  the  beest^®  is  not  praysed  in  physycke,  for 

'  AB  omit  «  Of."        ^  than  AB.  '  sophysticat  P. 

*  AB  insert  "and  ale."  *  sign.  F  .ii.  back. 

•  AB  omit  "yette  ; "  P  has  "yet." 

'  sti-ayne  coylyon  AB.  *  be  wel  brude  and  fyned  P 

'  newi,  t  orig.  '"  best  AP ;  beste  B. 


CHAP.  X.]      DYETARY.     OP    MEAD,  METHEGLYN,  WHEY,  POSSET   ALB.      257 

cyder  is  colde  of  operacyon,  and  is  full  of  ventosyte, 
wherfore   it  doth  ingendre  euyll  humours,  and  doth  cider  breeds 

I  1.1  ni  n  ®vil  hUIUOUrS, 

swage  to  moche  the  naturall  heate  of  man,  &  doth  let 
dygestyon,  and  doth  hurte  the  stomacke;  hut  they  the 
which  be  vsed  to  it,  yf  it  be  dronken  in  haruyst,  it  but  may  be  drunk 
doth  lytell  harme. 

IT  Ofi  meade. 

2  IT  Meade  is  made  of  ho^ny  and  water  boyled  both 
logyther ;  yf  it  be  fyned  and  pure,  it  preserueth  helth; 
but  it  is  not  good  for  them  the  whiche  haue  the  Ilyacke  Mead  is  bad  for 

. ,  ,      ,  the  oolic. 

or  the  colycke. 

IT  Of^  metheglyn. 

IT  Metheglyn  is  made  of  howny  &  water,  and  herbes, 
boyled  and  soden  togyther ;  yf  it  be  fyned  &  stale,  Metheglyn  is 

wholesonier  than 

it  is  better  in  the  regyment  of  helth  than  meade.  Mead. 

11  Of»  whay.3 

f  whay,  yf  it  be  wel  ordered,  specyally  that  whay 
the  which  doth  come  of  butter,  is  a  temporate  drynke,  whey  from 

butter  is 

and  is  moyst;  and  it  doth  nourysshc,  it  doth  dense  the  nourishing, 
brest,  and  doth  purge  redde  colour,  and  [is]  good  for 
sausfleme  faces. 

IT  Of  ^  poset  ale. 
IF  Poset  ale  is  made  with  bote  mylke  &  colde  ale;  Posset  aie is 

.  good  for  a  hot 

it  IS  a  temporate  drynke,  and  is  good  for  a  bote  lyuer,  liver, 
and  for  bote  feuers,  specyally  yf  colde  herbes  be  soden 
ill  it. 

»  AB  omit  "  Of."  »  sign.  F  .iii. 

'  Pover  cilly  shepperde*  they  gett/ 
Whome  into  their  f armes  they  sett/ 

Lyvynge  on  mylke  /  whyg  /  and  whey  [whyg  =  butter-milk,  oi 
sour  whey]. — Roy's  Satire,  Pt  II,  p.  Ill,  of  Pickering's  re- 
print, p.  17  of  my  Ballads  from  MSS,  1868. 

We  tourmoyle  oure  selfes  nyght  and  daye, 
And  are  fayne  to  dryncke  whygge  and  wheyey 
For  to  maynteyne  the  clurgyes  facciones. 

1530,  A  Proper  Dyaloge,  fol.  G;  Ballads  from  MSS,  p.  22. 
BOORDE.  17 


Coyte  is  a  nsnal 
drink  in  Holland, 

For  a  Ptisane, 
Hippocras,  &c., 


[chap.  X,  XI. 

IT  Ofi  coyte. 

IT  Coyte  is  a  drynke  made  of  water,  in  the  whiche 
is  layde  a  sowre  and  a  salt  leuyn  .iii.  or  .iiii.  houres ; 
thew2  it  is  dronke.  it  is  a  vsual  drynke  in  Pyeardy,  in 
Flaundres,  in  Holande,  in  Brabant,  and  Selande ;  ^hit 
dotlie  but  quench  the  thyrste.^ 

IT  To  speak e  of  a  ptysan,  or  of  oxymel,  or  of  '•aqua 
vite,  or  of  Ipocras,  I  do  passe  ouer  at  this  tyme;  for  I  do 

see  my  Bretiyary.  make  mewsyon  of  it  in  the  Breuyary  of  health.^ 

Wheat  bread 
makes  a  man  fat. 

Unleavened  bread 
is  better  than 

%  The  .xi.  Chapytre  treateth 
of  breade. 






In  Rome,  loaves 
are  only  as  big  as 
a  walnut,  and  are 

Manchet,  with  no 
bran,  I  like. 

Vycen  sayth,  that  breed  made  of 
whete  maketh  a  man  fatte,  specyally 
when  the  breade  is  made  of  newe 
whete;  and  it  doth  set  a  man  in 
temporauwce.  Breade  made  of  fyne 
flower  without  leuyn  is  slowe  of  dy- 
gestyon,  but  it  doth  nourysshe  moche  yf  it  be  truely  or- 
dered and  well  baken.  whan  the  breade  is  leuened,  it  is 
soone  dygested,  as  some  olde  Aucthours  sayth ;  but  these 
dayes  is  proued  the  contrary  by  the  stomacke  of  men, 
for  leuyn  is  heuy  and  ponderous.  Breade  hauynge  to 
moche  brande  in  it  is  not  laudable.  In  Rome,  and 
other  hyghe  countres,  theyr  loues  of  breade  be  lytell 
bygger  then  a  walnot,  and  many  lytell  loues  be  ioyned 
togyther,  the  whiche  doth  serue  for  great  men,  and  it 
is  safferonde:^  I  prayse  it  not.  I  do  loue  manchet 
breade,  and  great  loues  the  whiche  be  well  mowlded 
and  thorowe  'baken,  the  brande  abstracted  and  abiected ; 
and  that  is  good  for  all  ages.^     Mestlyng  breade  is 

2  than  AB.        ^^  put  in  from  P. 
*  chapter  368,  leaf  106,  &c. 
'  F  .iv.  not  signed, 
aches  AB  ;  and  AB  insert  a  fresh  chapter,  headed  ^  Breade 
made  of  Mestlynge  or  of  Rye. 

»  AB  omit  "  Of." 
*  sign.  F  .iii.  back. 
«  See  p.  261, 1.  13. 


made,  halfe  of  whete  and  halfe  of  Rye.     And  there  is  MesUn  is  half 

wheat,  half  rye  or 

also  mestlyng  made,  halfe  of  rye  and  halfe  of  barly.  barley. 

And  yll  ^  people  wyll  put  whete  and  barly  togyther. 

hreade  made  of  these  aforesayde  gravne  or  cornes,  thus  Mixed  corn 

•^         °     "  .  bread  may  fill  the 

poched  togyther,  maye  fyll  the  gutte,  but  it  shall  neuer  guts,  but  does 

do  good  to  man,  no  more  than  horse  breade,  or  breade 

made  of  beanes  and  peason  shall  do  ^ ;  howbeit  this 

matter  doth  go  moche  by  the  educacyon  or  the  bryng- 

yng  vp  of  the  people,  the  which  haue  ben  nourisshed 

or  nutryfyde  with  suche  breade.     I  do  speake  nowe  in 

barlyes  or  maltes,  parte  to  be  eaten  and  also  dronken. 

I  suppose  it  is  to  moche  for  one  grayne,  for  barly  doth  Barley  breeds 

cold  humours ; 

ingender  colde  humours  :  and  peason  and  beanes,  and  peas  and  beans 

°  fill  one  with 

the  substaunce  commynge  from  theym,  repletyth  a  man  wind. 

with  ventosyte ;  but  and  ^  yf  a  man  haue  a  lust  or  a 

sensuall  appetyd  to  eate  and  drynke  of  a  grayne  bysyde 

malte  or  barlye,  let  hym  eate  and  drynke  of  it  the 

whiche  maye  be  made  of    otes:   for   hauer  cakes  in  scotch  oat  cake 

•^  is  good, 

Scotlande  is  many  a  good  lorde  and  lordes  dysshe.^ 

'  euyll  AB. 
*    "  I  haue  "  .  .  quod  Peres  .  .  . 

A  fewe  cruddes  and  creem  •  and  an  hauer  cake, 

And  two  loues  of  benes  and  bran  •  ybake  for  my  fauntis. 

Vision  of  P.  Plotmiian,  Text  B,  p.  107-8,  1.  282-5. 

As  to  hovKcbread,  cp. 

For  Jjat  was  bake  for  Bayarde  [the  horse    '  was  bote  for  many 

hungry,  196 

And  many  a  beggere  for  benes  *  buxome  was  to  swynke, 

And  eche  a  pore  man  wel  apayed  *  to  haue  pesen  for  his  huyre. 

ib.  p.  103. 
Bolde  beggeres  and  bigge  *  l^at  mowe  her  bred  biswynke, 
With  houndes  bred  and  hors  bred  '  holde  vp  her  hertis  ; 
Abate  hem  with  benes  •  for  bollyng  of  her  wombe. 

ib.  p.  104,  1.  216-18. 
'  ABomit  "and." 

*  The  Scotch  lords  had  a  different  character  from  Holin- 
shed  (15.86  AD.),  or  Hector  Boece  (died  1536)  if  Holinshed 
follows  him  here  : — "  But  how  far  we  in  these  present  dales 
are  swarued  from  the  vertues  and  temperance  of  our  elders,  I 
beleeue  there  is  no  man  so  eloquent,  nor  indued  with  such 
vtterance,  as  that  he  is  able  sufficientlie  to  expresse.  For 
whereas  they  gaue  their  minds  to  dowghtinesse,  we  applie  our 
selues  to  droonkennes  :  they  had  plentie  with  sufficiencie,  we 
haue  inordinate  excesse  with  superfluitie :  they  were  temperate, 

1    7  • 



[chap.  XI. 

and,  therefore, 
good  drink  can 
be  got  out  of  oats. 

The  Devil  sends 
bad  Cooks. 

Bad  brewers  and 
cheating  ale- 

And  yf  it  wyll  make  good  haiier  cakes,  consequently  it 
wyll  do '  make  good  drynke  or  euyl ;  euery  thyng  as  it  is 
handled.  ^Foi  it  is  a  co7??mon  prouerbe,  "  God  may 
sende  a  man  good  meate,  but  the  deny  11  may  sende  an 
euyll  coke^  to  dystrue*  it;"  ^wh  erf  ore,  gentyll  bakers, 
sophystycate  not  your  breade  made  of  pure  whete ;  yf 
you  do,  where  euyl  ale-brewers  and  ale-wyues,  for  theyr 
euyl  brewyng  &  euyl  measure,  shuld  clacke  and  ryng 
theyr  tankardes  at  dym  myls  dale,  I  wold  you  shuld 

we  effeminate  ;  and  so  is  the  case  now  altered  with  vs,  that  he 
which  can  deuoure  and  drinke  most,  is  the  noblest  man  and 
most  honest  companion  ;  and  thereto  hath  no  peere,  if  he  can 
once  find  the  veine  (though  with  his  great  trauell),  to  puruey 
himself  of  the  plentifullest  number  of  new,  fine,  and  delicate 
dishes,  and  best  prouoke  his  stomach  to  receiue  the  greatest 
quantitie  of  them,  though  he  neuer  make  due  digestion  of  it. 
Being  thus  drowned  in  our  delicate  gluttonie,  it  is  a  world  to 
see,  how  we  stuffe  our  selues  both  daie  and  night,  neuer 
ceasing  to  ingorge  &  powre  in,  till  our  bellies  be  so  full  that  we 
must  needs  depart.  Certes  it  is  not  supposed  meet  that  we 
should  now  content  our  selues  with  breakefast  and  supper 
onelie,  as  our  elders  haue  doone  before  vs,  nor  inough  that  we 
haue  added  our  dinners  vnto  their  aforsaid  meales,  but  we 
must  haue  thereto  our  beuerages  and  reare  suppers,  so  that 
small  time  is  spared  wherein  to  occupie  our  selues  in  any  godlie 
exercise  ;  sith  almost  the  whole  daie  and  night  doo  scarselie 
suffice  for  the  filling  of  our  panches.  We  haue  also  our  mer- 
chants, whose  charge  is  not  to  looke  out,  and  bring  home  such 
things  as  necessarilie  perteiue  to  the  maintenance  of  our  lines, 
but  vnto  the  furniture  of  our  kitchen  ;  and  these  search  all  the 
secret  corners  of  our  forrests  for  veneson,  of  the  aire  for  foules, 
and  of  the  sea  for  fish  ;  for  wine  also  they  trauell,  not  only  into 
France,  whose  wines  doo  now  grow  into  contempt,  but  also 
into  Spaine,  Italie,  and  Greece  ;  nay,  Affrike  is  not  void  of  our 
factors,  no,  nor  Asia,  and  onelie  for  fine  and  delicate  wines,  if 
they  might  be  had  for  moneie." — P.  22,  Harrison's  DescriptAon 
of  Scotland,  prefixed  to  Holinshed's  Historie,  edit.  1686. 

'  ABP  omit  "do"  (=.  cause  to).  ^  F  .iv.  back. 

^  sende  euyl  cokes  P.  *  dystroy  A  ;  destroye  B. 

'~^  P  has  for  the  next  two  paragraphs  :  '*  But  wyues,  & 
maydes,  &  other  bruers,  the  whiche  dothe  dystrue  malte  the 
whiche  shulde  make  good  ale,  And  they  [D  .iv.  back]  the 
which  that  doth  nat  fyll  theyr  potes,  geuynge  false  measure, — 
I  woulde  they  were  clackynge  theyr  pootes  and  tancardes  at 
dymmynges  dale.  And  euyll  bakers  the  whyche  doth  nat 
make  good  breade  of  whete,  but  wyl  myngle  other  come  with 
whete,  or  do  nat  order  and  seson  hit,  gyuinge  good  weyght,  I 
wolde  they  myght  play  bo  pepe  thorowe  a  pyllery." 

CHAP.  XI.]     DYETARY.     SYMNELS,    CRACKNELS,    AND    GOOD    BREAD.      261 

shake  out  the  remnaunt  of  your  sackes,  standynge  in  i  should  uke  to 

the  Tewnies  vp  to  the  harde  chynne,  and  .iii.  ynches  bakers. 

aboue,  that  whan  you  do  come  out  of  the  water  you 

myght   shake   your   eares  as  a  spanyell   thet   veryly 

commeth  out  of  ^  the  water.2    Gentyll  bakers,  make  good 

breade  ^ !  for  good  breade  doth  comforte,  confyrme,  and  Good  bread 

comforts  a  man's 

doth  stablysshe  a  mannea  herte,  besyde  the  propertyes  heart. 

rehersed.     Hote  breade  is  vnholsome  for  any  man,  for 

it  doth  lye  in  the  stomacke  lyke  a  sponge,  haustyng  Hot  bread  is  like 

a  sponge. 

vndecoct  humours;  yet  the  smel  of  newe  breade  is 
comfortable  to  the  heade  and  to  the  herte.  IT  Soden 
breade,  as  symnels  and  crackenels,  and  breade  baken  Symneisand 

,      Cracknels  are  not 

vpon  a  stone,  or  vpon  yron,  and  breade  that  sanron  is  good. 

in,3  is  not  laudable.    Burnt  breade,  and  harde  crusted,  & 

pasty  crusted,  doth  ingendre  color,  aduste,  and  melan- 

coly  humours;  wherfore  chyp  the  vpper  crust  of  your  chip  your  upper 

omsts  off. 

breade.'*  And  who  so  doth  ^vse  to  eate  the  seconde  cruste 
after  meate,  it  maketh  a  man  leane.  And  so  doth 
wheten  breade,  the  which  is  ful  of  brande.  ^  Breade, 
the  whiche  is  nutrytyue,  &  praysed  m  physycke,  shidd 
haue  these  propertes.     Fyrste,  it  must  [not]  ^  be  newe,  Bread  should  be 

••11  ^  houn  old, 

but  a  daye  &  a  nyght  olde,  nor  it  is  not  good  whan  it  is 

'  B  omits  "of." 

'  Sir  H.  Ellis  (Brand,  iii.  53,  ed.  1843)  says  of  the  Cucking- 
Stool,  "It  was  a  punishment  inflicted  also  anciently  upon 
brewers  and  bakers  transgressing  the  laws.  .  .  In  '  The  Regiam 
Majestatem,'  by  Sir  John  Skene,  this  punishment  occurs  as 
having  been  used  anciently  in  Scotland :  under  '  Burrow  Lawes,' 
chap.  Ixix.,  speaking  of  Browsters,  i.  e.  '  Wemen  quJta  hrewest 
alll  to  be  sauld,''  it  is  said — 'gif  she  makes  gude  ail,  that  is 
sufficient.  Bot  gif  she  makes  evill  ail,  contrair  to  the  use  and 
consuetude  of  the  burgh,  and  is  convict  thereof,  she  sail  pay 
ane  unlaw  of  aucht  shillinges,  or  sal  suffer  the  justice  of  the 
burgh,  that  is,  she  sail  be  put  upon  the  Cock-stnle,  and  the  ail! 
sail  be  distributed  to  the  pure  folke.'  Lysons  cites  an  in- 
stance of  an  alewife  at  Kingston-on-Thames,  being  ducked  in 
the  river  for  scolding,  under  Kingston  Bridge,  in  April  1745, 
in  the  presence  of  2000  or  3000  people."  (Ellis's  Brand, 
iii.  52.) 

^  See  p.  258,  1.  4  from  foot. 

*  See  The  Bahees  Book,  p.  200,  266/4.  «  sign.  G  .1. 

'  not  AB. 



[chap.  XIL, 

not  mouldy, 
slightly  salt. 

Stale  bread 
is  slow  of 

past  .iiii.  or  .v.  dayes  olde,  except  the  loues  be  great ; 
nor  it  must  not  be  moldy  nor  musty ;  it  must  be  well 
muldyd^ ;  it  must  be  thorowe  bake ;  it  muste  be  lyght, 
&  not  heuye,  and  it  must  be  temporatly  salted.  Olde 
breade  or  stale  breade  doth  drye  vp  the  blode  or  natu- 
rall  moyster^  of  man,  &  it  doth  ingender  euyll  humours, 
and  is  euyll  and  tarde  of  dygestyon ;  wherfore  there  is 
no  surfet  so  euyll  as  the  surfet  of  eatynge  of  euyll 

%  The  .xii.  Chapyter  treateth  of  po- 

tage,  of  sewe,  of  stewpottes,  of  grewell, 

of  fyrmewte,  of  pease  potage,  of  al- 

mon  mylke,  of  ryce  potage,  of 

cawdels,  of  cuUeses,  and  of 

other  hrothes. 

Potage  and 
Brotli  fill  a  man 
with  wind. 

Potage  is  more 
used  in  England 
than  anywhere 

Herbs  for  potage 
must  be  good. 

In  pestilence 

L  maner  of  lyquyd  thynges,  as 
potage,  sewe,  &  all  other  brothes, 
doth  replete  a  man  that  eateth 
theym,  with  ve^ztosyte.  Potage  is 
not  so  moch  vsed  in  al  Crystendom 
as  it  is  vsed  in  Englande.  Potage 
is  made  of  the  lyquor  in  the 
which  flesshe  is  soden'^  in,  with  puttyng-to  chopped 
herbes,  and  otemel  and  salt.  The  herbes  with  the 
whiche  potage  is  made  with  all,  yf  they  be  pure,  good, 
and  clene,  not  worme  -^-eaten,  nor  infected  with  the  cor- 
rupte  ayre  descendynge  vpon  them,  doth  comforte  many 
men,  the  ventosyte  notwithstandyng.  But  for  asmoch 
as  dyuers  tymes,  many  partes  of  Englande  is  infected 
with  the  pestylence,  thorow  the   corrupcyon  of  the 

'  moulded  AB  ;  mylded  P, 

*  moyst  AB. 

'  sign.  G  .i.  back.       *  sod  AB.       *  warme,  orig. ;  wanne  P. 

CHAP.  XII,]         DYETARY.       FIRMENTY,    ALMOND-MILK,    ETC.  2G3 

ay  re,  the  which  doth  infecte  the  herbes,  In  such  tymes 

it   is   not  good  to  make  any '  potage,  nor  to  eate  no  don't  make 


potage;   In  certayn  plac[e]s  beyonde  see  where  as  I  haue 
traueyled  in,  in  the   pestylence  tyme  a  general  corn- 
maundment  hath  ben  sent  from  the  superyoryte  to  the 
commonalte,  that  no  man  shuld  eate  herbes  in  suche  in-  or  eat  herbs, 
feccyous  tymes. 

2  IT  Of ^  sewe  and  stewpottes. 
IF  Sewe   and   stewpottes,  and  grewell  made  with  Oatmeai  gruei, 
otmell,  in  all  the^  which  no  herbes  be  put  in,  can  do 
lytel  displeasure,  except  that^  it  doth  replete  a  man  don't  imrt  on© 
with  ventosyte ;  but  it  relaxeth  the  belly. 

H  Of^  fyrmente. 
IT  Fyrmente  is  made  of  whete  and  mylke,  ^  in  the 
whiche,  yf  flesshe  be  soden,  to  eate  if^  is  not  co77imend-  Frumenty  is 
able,^  for  it  is  harde  of  dygestyon;  but  whan  it  is  dy-  but  nourishing, 
gested  it  doth  nourysshe,  and  it  doth  strength^  a  man. 

IT  Of  ^  pease  potage  &  beane  potage. 
%  Pease  potage  and  beane  potage  doth  replete  a  man 
with  ventosyte.      Pease  potage   is   better   than  beane  Pease  potage 
potage,  for  it  is  sooner  dygested,  &  lesser  of  ventosyte :  bean  pouge. 
they   both  be  abstercyue,^  and   do  dense  the   body. 
They  be  compytent  of  nutryment;   but  beane  potage 
doth  increase  grosse  humours. 

H  Of  3  almon  mylke  &  of^  ryce  potage. 
IF  Almon  mylke  and  ryce  potage:  Almons  be  bote 
and  moyst.e:  it  doth  comforte  the  brest,  and  it  doth  Almonds  moiiny 

the  belly. 

moUyfye  the  bely,  and  prouoketh  vryne.     Ryce  potage 

made  with  almon  mylke  doth  restore  and  doth  comforte 


'  AB  omit  "  any."       ^  gjg^   q  jj        ^  ^B  omit  "  Of." 
^  in  the  P.  ^  AB  omit  "  that." 

^-^  P  omits  this,  but  adds  at  the  end,  after  inan,  "but 

flesshe  soded  in  myllve  is  nat  commendable."  '  it,  it  AB. 

^  strengthen  AB.  ^  abstercyue,  o>-ig. 


OF   HENS     EGGS. 

[chap.  XII,  XIII. 

Cullisses  of 
comfort  the 

breed  wind. 

Don't  mind  old 
authors,  if 
contradicts  them. 

*f[  Of  ^  ale-brues,  caudelles,  &  colesses. 

2  IT  Ale-brues,  caudelles,  and  colesses,  for  weke  men 
and  feble^  stomackes,  the  whiche  can  not  eate  solydate 
meate,  is  suffered.*  But  caudels  made  with  hempe- 
sede,  and  collesses  made  of  shrympes,  doth  comforte 
blode  and  nature. 

IT  Of  ^  honny  soppes,  and  other  brothes. 

IT  Howny  soppes  &  other  brothes,  of  what  kynde  or 
substaunce  soeuer  they  be  made  of,  they  doth^  in  gender 
ventosyte ;  wherfore  they  be  not  good  nor  holsome  for 
the  colycke  nor  the  Ulycke,^  nor  other  inflatyue  imped- 
ymentes  or  syckenesses,  specyally  yf  howny  be  in  it, 
the  sayinges  of  Plyne,  Galene,  Auycene,  with  other 
Aucthours,  notwithstandynge ;  for  in  these  dayes  expe- 
ryence  teacheth  vs  contrary  to  theyr  sayinges  &  wryt- 
yngesj^  for  althoughe  the  nature  of  man  be  not  altered, 
yet  it  is  weker,  and  nothynge  so  stronge  nowe  as  whan 
they  lyued,"  &c.  ["  <fe  dyd  practes  &;  makyng  tliQ 
bokes.— P.] 

Hens'  eggs  only 
are  used  in 

Eggifdffosld  be 
new,  and  roasted. 

f  The  .xiij.  Chapitre  treateth  of  whyt 

moate,  as  of  egges,  butter,  chese, 

mylke,  crayme,^  &e, 

N  England  there  is  no  egges  vsed  to  be 
eaten  but  hen-egges;  wherfore  I  wyl 
fyrst  wryte  &  pertract  of  hen-egges, 
The  yolkes  of  ^hen-egges  be  cordyalles, 
for  it  is  temporatly  bote.  The  whyte  of  an  egge  is 
viscus  &  colde,  aijd  slacke  of  digestyon,  and  doth  not 
ingender  good  blode ;  wherfore,  whosoeuer  that  wyl  eate 
an  egge,^*'  let  the  egge  be  newe,  and  roste  hym  reare,  and 

^  AB  omit  "  Of.* 

*  sustered,  oH^. 

*  and  crayme  P. 

'  sign.  G  .ii.  back. 
*  do  AB.     **  nor  Ilyacke  AB. 

'  fell  AB. 
^  vvrytynge  AB. 

sign.  G  .iii. 

'"  Henne  egge  AB. 

CHAP.  XIII.]  DYETARY.       OF    BUTTER.  265 

eate  hym;  or  els  poche  hym,  for  poched  egges  be  best  at  or  poached, 

nyglit,  &  newe  reare  rosted  egges  be  good  in  the  morn- 

ynge,  so  be  it  they  be  tyred  with  a  lytell  salte  and  and  eaten  with 

suger ;  than^  they  be  nutry[ty]ue.2    In  Turkey,  and  other 

hyghe  chrystyan  landes  anexed  to  it,  they  ^  vse  to  seth  in  Turkey,  they 

.  boil  eggs  hard, 

two  or  thre  busshels  of  egges  togither  harde,  and  pull  and  pickie  'em. 

of  the  shels,  &*  sowse  them,  and  kepe  them  to  eate  at  all 

tymes ;  but  hard  egges  be  slowe  and  slacke  of  dygestyon, 

and  doth  nutryfye  the  body  grosly.     Hosted  egges  be 

better  than  sodden;   fryed  egges  be  nought;  Ducke-  Fried  eggs  are 

egges  &  geese-egges  I  do  not  prayse ;  but  fesaunt-egges  pheasant  and 

and  partreges  egges,  physycke  syngulerly  doth  prayse.     ar^l^gwd.^  ^^^* 

IF  OP  butter. 
H  Butter  [is]®  made  of  crayme,  and'  is  moyste  of  ope- 
racion ;  it  is  good  to  eate  in  the  mornyng  before  other  Eat  butter  eariy, 
meates.     Frenche  men  wyll  eate  it  after  meate.     But,  food, 
eaten  with  other  meates,  it  doth  not  onely  nowrysshe,  but 
it  is  good  for  the  breste  and  lunges,  and  also  it  [doth]  ®  it's  good  for 

the  lungs. 

relaxe  and  ^  molly fye  the  bely.    Douche  men  doth  eate 

it  at  all  tymes  in  the  daye,  the  which  e  I  dyd  not  prayse  Dutchmen  cat 

when  I  dyd  dwell  amonge  them  /  consyderyng  that  butter  times  in  tiie  day. 

is  vnctyous,^^  and  euery  thynge  that  is  vnctyous^^  is  noy-      **  ^' "  '  ^*^' 

some  to  the  stomacke,  for  as  moche  as  it  maketh  lubry- 

factyon.    And  also  euery  thyng  that  is  vnctious,^®  That 

is  to  say,  butterysshe, — oyle,  grese,  or  fat, — dothswymme  Butterish  things 

aboue  in  the  brynkes  of  the  stomacke:  as  the  fatnes  other  drinks  in 

doth  swymme  aboue  in  a  boylynge  potte,  the  excesse 

of  suche  nawtacyon  or  superfyce  wyll  ascende  to  the 

oryse^^  of  the  stomacke,  and  doth  make  eructuasyons  / 

wherfore,  eatynge  of  moche  butter  at  one  refection  is 

not  comme?idable,  nor  it  is  not  good  for  theym  the  Butter  is  bad  for 

ague  and  fever. 
'  that  AB.  ^  nutritive  P;  nutrj^ue  AB. 

^  AB  omit  "  they."  "  AB  omit  "  &." 

*  AB  omit  "Of."      ^  is  AB.      '  Butter  made  of  crayme  P. 

*  doth  AB.  ^  and  doth  P ;  sign,  G  .iii.  back. 
'°  vncryous  B.  "  oryfe  AB  ;  orifice  P. 



[chap.  XIII. 

Eat  fresh  butter 
ill  the  morning. 

whiche  be  in  any  ague  or  feuer,  for  the  vnctuosyte  *  of 
it  dothe  auge  and^  augment  the  heate  of  the  lyuer :  a 
lytell  porcyon  is  good  for  euery  man  in  the  morenynge, 
yf  it  be  newe  made. 

Of  5  sorts  of 

cheese : 

1.  Green  Cheese: 

2.  Soft  Cheese ; 

3.  Hard  Cheese; 

4.  Spermyse 
Chees*,  made  of 
curds  and  the 
juice  of  herbs. 

5.  Rewenc 
Cheese,  the  best 

Tlie  qualities  of 
good  Cheese. 

ir  Of  3  Chese. 

IT  Chese  is  made  of  my  Ike ;  yet  there  is*  .iiii.  sorces 
of  chese,  whiche  is  to  say,  grene  chese,  softe  chese, 
harde  chese,  and  ^  spermyse  /  Grene  chese  is  not  called 
grene  by  the  reason  of  colour,  but  for  the  newnes  of  it  / 
for  the  whey  is  not  halfe  pressed  out  of  it;  and  in 
operacy^on  it  is  colde  and  moyste.  Softe  chese,  not  to 
new  nor  to  olde,  is  best,  for  in  operacyon  it  is  bote  and 
moyste.  Harde  chese  is  bote  and  dry,  and  euyll  to 
dygest.  Spermyse  is  a  chese  the  which  is  made  with 
curdes  and  with  the-  iuce  of  herbes :  to  tell  the  nature 
of  it,  I  can  not  /  consyderynge  that  euery  mylke-wyfe 
maye  put  many  iuces  of  herbes  of  sondry  operacyon  & 
vertue,  one  not  agreynge  with  another.  But  and  yf 
they  dyd  knowe  what  they  dyd  gomble  togyther  with- 
out trewe  compoundynge,  and  I  knowynge  the  herbes, 
then  I  coulde  tell  the  operacyon  of  spermyse  chese. 
Yet  besyde  these  .iiii.  natures  of  chese,  there  is  a  chese 
called  a  rewene^  chese,  the  whiche,  yf  it  be  well  orderyd, 
doth  passe  all  other  cheses,  none  excesse  taken.  But 
take  the  best  chese  of  all  these  rehersyd,  yf  a  latel  ^  do 
good  and  pleasur.  The  ouerplus  doth  ingewdre  grose 
humours ;  for  it  is  harde  of  dygestyon ;  it  maketh  a 
man  costyfe,  and  it  is  not  good  for  the  stone.  Chese 
that  is  good,  oughte  not  be  to  harde  nor  to  softe,  but 
betwyxt  both ;  it  shuld  not  be  towgh  nor  bruttell ;  it 
ought  not  to  be  swete  nor  sowre,  nor  tarte,  nor  to  salt, 
nor  to  fresshe ;  it  must  be  of  good  sauour  &  taledge, 

'  ventuosyte  orig.,  and  P ;  vnctuosyte  AB. 
'  AB  omit  "  auge  and."  ^  AB  omit  "  Of." 

*  my  Ike  there  be  P.  '  or  AB.  ^  G  .iv.  not  bignecL 

^  Irweue  AB.  ^  lytell  AB  ;  lytel  P. 

CHAP.  XIII.]      DYETARY.       MILK,    CREAM,    ALMOND-BUTTER.  267 

nor  full  of  iyes,  nor  mytes,   nor   magottes   /   yet   in 

Hydi  Almen^  ^  the  chese  the  whiche  is  full  of  macjotes  is  The  High- 

•^  °  ^  Germans  eat 

called  there  the  best  chese,  and  they  wyll  eatethe  great  cheese-maggots 

like  we  do 

magotes  as  fast  as  we  do  eate  comfetes.  comfits. 

IF  OP  Mylke. 

My  Ike  of  a  woman,  and  the  mylke  of  a  gote,  is  a  woman's  and 
good  restoratyue ;  wherfore  these  mylkes  be  good  for  good  for  con- 
them  that  be  in  a  consumpcyon,   and  for    the  great  ^"™p^^"* 
temperaunce  the  whiche  is  in  them  :  it  doth  nowrysshe 

IT  Cowes  mylke  and  ewes  mylke,  so  be  it  the*  beestes  Cow's  and  ewe's 

•^  -^         '  ^  milk  are 

be  yonge,  and  do  go  in  good  pasture,  the  mylke  is  nutry-  nourishing. 

tyue,  and  doth  humect  and  moysteth  the  membres,  and 

doth  mundyfye  and  dense  the  entrayles,  and  doth  alle- 

uyat  &  my ty gate  the  payne  of  the  lunges  &  the  brest; 

but  it  is  not  good  for  them  the  whiche  haue  gurgula-  Miikisbadfor 


cyons  in  the  bely,  nor  it  is  not  al  the  best  for  sanguyne  inthebeiiy; 
me?z  /  but  it  is  very  good  for  melancoly  men,  &  for  olde  but  good  for  old 

men  and  children. 

men  and  chyldren,  specyally  yf  it  be  soddyn,  addynge 
to  it  a  lytell  sugre. 

IT  Of3  Crayme. 
IF  Crayme  the  which  dothe  not  stande  longe  on  the 
mylke,  &  soddyn  with  a  lytell  suger,  is  nowrysshynge. 
Clowtyd  crayme  and  rawe  crayme  put  togyther,  is  eaten  clotted  cream, 
more  for  a  sensuall  appetyde  than  for  any  good  now- 
rvsshe^ment.     Kawe   crayme   vndecocted,    eaten   mth  strawberries  and 

•^  ,       "^  V       1  Ti  cream  will 

strawberyes  or  hurtes,  is  a  rurall  mannes  banket.    I  haue  endanger  a  man's 


knowen  such  bankettes  hath  put  men  in  ieoperdy®  of 

theyr  lyues. 

IF  Almon-butter. 

^  Almon-butter  made  with  fyne  suger  and  good  Aimond-butter 

and  violets 

rose-water,    and   eaten    with    the    flowers    of   many 

'  Almayne  AB.     See  p.  159,  above.  '  G  .iv.  back. 

3  AB  omit  '*  Of."  "  thai  the  P. 

*  sign.  H  .1.  ^  ieobardy  AB. 



[chap.  XIV, 

rejoice  the 

Bean-butter  fills 
the  paunch 
and  raises  wind. 

England's  the 
best  fish  country. 

vfholesomer  than 
fresh-water  fish. 

Porpoise  is  bad, 
say  the  Bible  and 

Fish  from 
running  water  is 
better  than  fish 

vyolettes,  is  a  commendable  dysshe,  specyallye  in  Lent, 

whan  the  vyoletes  be  fragrant ;  it  reioyseth  the  herte,  it 

doth  comforte  tliQ  brayne,  &  doth  qualyfye  the  heate  of 

the  lyuer. 

IT  Beene-butter. 

f  Beene-butter  is  vsed  moche  in  Lent  in  dyuers 
countres.  it  is  good  for  plowmen  to  fyl  the  panche;  it 
doth  ingender  grose  humours ;  it  *  doth  replete  a  man 
with  ventosyte. 

f  The  .xiiii.  Chapytre  treatyth 
of  Pysshe. 

F  all  nacyons  and  couwtres,  England 
is  beste  seruyd  of  Fysshe,  not  onely 
Rr  I      of  al  maner  of  see-fysshe,  but  also  of 
^^      fresshe- water  fysshe,  and  of  all  maner 
of  sortes  of  salte-fysshe. 

IT  Of  2  See-fysshe. 

'IF  Fysshes  of  the  see,  the  which  haue  skales  or 
many  fynnes,  be  more  holsomer  than  tliQ  fresshe-water 
fysshe,  the  whiche  be  in  standynge  waters.  The  elder  * 
a  fysshe  is,  so  much  he  is  the  better,  so  be  it  that  the 
fysshe  be  softe  and  not  solydat.  yf  the  fysshe  be  faste 
and  solydat,  the  yonger  the  fysshe  is,  the  better  it  is  to 
dygest ;  but  this  is  to  vnderstaTide,  that  yf  the  fysshe 
be  neuer  so  solydat,  it  muste  haue  age  /  but  not  oucr- 
growen,  except  it  be  a  yonge  porpesse,  the  which 
kynde  of  fysshe  is  nother  praysed  in  the  olde  testament 
nor  in  physycke.^ 

IT  Fresshe-water  fysshe. 

IT  The  fysshe  the  whiche  is  in  ryuers  and  brokes 
be  more  holsomer  than  they  the  which  be  in  pooles, 
'  and  AB. 

»  AB  omit  "  Of. 
'  sign.  H  .i.  back.  *  older  AB. 

*  See  TJie  Babces  Book  Index,  "  Porpoise,"  and  ' 


CHAP.  XIV,  XV.]  DYETARY.     OP   SALT    FISH,   AND    WILD    FOWL. 


pondes,  or  mootes,  or  any  other  stawdynge  waters ;  for  from  standing 

they  doth  laboure,  and  doth  skower  them  selfe.    Fysshe 

the  whiche  lyueth  &  doth  feede  on  the  moude,  or  els  do  Mud-fish  taste  of 


feede  in  the  fen  or  morysshe  grou?zde,  doth  sauer  of  the 

moude,  whiche  is  not  so  good  as  the  fysshe  that  fedyth 

and  doth  skowre  them  self  on  the  stones,  or  granell,  or 


ir  Of  Salte  fysshe.i 

IF  Salte  fysshe, 2  the  whiche  be  powderyd'  and  salted 
with  salte,  be  not  greatly  to  be  praysed,  specyally  yf  a  sait-fisii  only  for 
man  do  make  his  hoole  refecty^on  w^ith  it ;  the  qualyte  good, 
doth  not  hurte,  but  the  quantyte,  specyally  suche  salte 
fysshes  as  wyll  cleue  to  the  fyngers  whan  a  man  doth 
eate  it.     And  the  skyn  of  fysshes  be  vtterly  to  be  ab- 
horryd,^  for  it  doth  ingender  viscus  fleume  and  color 
adust.     Al    maner  of   fysshe  is  colde  of  nature,  and 
doth  ingender  fleume;  it  doth  lytell  nowrysshe  /  Fysshe  Don't  eat  fish  and 
and  flesshe  oughte  not  to  be  eaten  togyther  at  one  meale. 

%  The  .XV.  Chapitre  treateth  of  wylde 

fowle,  and  tame  fowle 

[and]  ^  byrdes. 

augment   cam  all   lust. 

'  Salte  fysshes  AB. 
'  sprinkled.— F. 
*  See  Bahees  Boq\  p. 
^  See  Bahees  Booh,  p. 
for  the  other  wild  birds. 

F  all  wylde  foule,  the  Fesaunt  Pheasant  is 

tlie  best ; 

IS  most  beste,'^  Althoughe  that 

a    partreche    of    all    fowleS     is    Partridge  soonest 

soonest  dygested ;  wherfore  it 
is  a  restoratyue  meate,  and 
dothe  comforte  the  brayne 
and  the  stomacke,  &  doth 
A  wood-cocke  is  a  meate  of  woodcock. 

2  fysshes  AB. 

*  sign.  H  .11. 
154/55.3  ;  UO/367,  &c.       ^  and  AB. 
217,  &;c. ;  also  p.  218-20,  143-4,  &c., 


Quail.    Plover. 











[chap.  XV. 

good  temperaunce.  Qufiyles  &  plouers  and  lapwynges 
doth  nowrysshe  but  lytel,  for  they  doth  ingender 
melawcoly  humours,  yonge  turtyll-doues  dothe  in- 
gender good  blode.  ^  A  crane  is  harde  of  dygestyon, 
and  doth  ingey^der  euyll  blode.  A  yonge  herensew  is 
lyghter  of  dygestyon  than  a  crane.  A  bustarde  well 
kylled  and  orderyd  is  a  nutrytyue  meate.  A  byttoure 
is  not  sf  harde  of  dygestyon  as  is  an  herensew.  A 
shoueler  is  lyghter  of  dygestyon  than  a  byttoure :  all 
these  be  noyfull  except  they  be  well  orderyd  and 
dressyd.  A  fesaunt-henne,  A  more-cocke  and  a  more- 
henne,  except  they  be  sutt  ^  abrode,  they  be  nutrytyue. 
All  maner  of  wylde  fowle  the  whiche  lyueth  by  the 
water,  they  be  of  dyscowmendable  nowrysshement. 


Goose.    Duck. 


Colmouse  (or 
Cole  Titmouse, 
Parua  Ater :  Nat. 
Libr,  Kxv.  172). 

H  Of  tame  or  domestycall  fowle. 

If  Of  all  tame  fowle  a  capon  is  moste  beste,^  For  it 
is  nutrytyue,  and  is  soone  dygestyd.  A  henne  in 
wynter  is  good  and  nutrytyue.  And  so  is  a  chyken*  in 
somer,  specyallye  cockrellys  and  polettes,  the  whiche  be 
vntroden.  The  flesshe  of  a  cocke  is  harde  of  dy- 
gestyon, but  the  broth  or  gely^  made  of  a  cocke  is 
restoratyue.  pygyons  be  good  for  coloryke  &  melancoly^ 
men.  gose-flesshe  and  ducke-fiesshe  is  not  pmysed, 
except  it  be  a  yonge  grene  goose,  jonge  peechyken  of 
halfe  a  yere  of  age  be  praysed.  olde  pecockes  be  harde 
of  dygestyon. 

IT  Of  Byrdes. 

^  IT  All  maner  of  smale  Byrdes  be  good  and  lyght  of 
dygestyon,  excepte  sparowes,  whiche  be  harde  of  dy- 
gestyon. Tytmoses,  colmoses,  and  wrens,  the  whiche 
doth   eate  spyders  and  poyson,  be  not  comme7idable.^ 

'  sign.  H  .ii.  back.  '^  do  syt  AB ;  they  sute  P. 

^  See  Bahees  Book,  p.  222,  kc.       *  be  chycken  A ;  be  chyckens  B. 
*  a  gely  AB.  ^  nielancolycke  AB.  ^  sign.  H  .iii. 

^  cowtmestyble  AB. 

CHAP.  XVI.]  DYETARY.       OF   BEEF   AND   VEAL.  271 

of  all  smale  byrdes  the  larke  is  beste  :  tban  is^  praysed  Lark. 
the  blacke  byrde  &  the  thrusshe.^     Rasis  and  Isaac  BiackWrd. 


prayseth  yonge  staares ;  ^  but  I  do  thynke,  bycause  they  starling. 
be  bytter  in  etyng,  they  shuld  ingewder  colour. 

%  The  .xvi.  Chapytre  treatyth 

of  flesshe,  of  wylde  and 

tame  beestes. 

Eefe  is  a  good  meate  for  an  Eng-  Young  Beef  is 

T        •        T        1  1        good  for 

lysshe  man,  so  be  it  the  beest  be  Englishmen. 

yonge,    &    that    it    be    not    kowe- 
flesshe;  For  olde  beefe  and  kowe- 
flesshe   doth*  ingender  melancolye 
and  leporouse  humoures.    yf  it  be  moderatly  powderyd,* 
that  the  groose  blode  by  salte  may  be  exhaustyd,  it  sait  beef  makes 
doth  make  an  Englysshe  man  stro7?ge,  the  educacion  of  ^"^  *  ™"** 
hym  with  it  cowsyderyd.     Martylmas  beef,  whiche  is  Martiimasor 
called  *' hanged  beef"  in  the  rofe  of  the  smoky  howse,  is  bad. 
is  not  laudable ;  it  maye  fyll  the  bely,  and  cause  a  man 
to  drynke,  but  ^it  is  euyll  for  the  stone,  and  euyll  of 
dygestyon,  and  maketh  no  good  iuce.    If  a  man  haue  a 
peace  hangynge  by  his  syde,  and  another  in  his  bely, 
that  the  whiche  doth  hange  by  the  syde  shall  do  hym  '  use  it  outBide 
more  good,  yf  a  showre  of  rayne  do  chaunse,  than  that  not  inside, 
the  which  is  in  his^  bely,  the  appetyde  of  mans  sensu- 
alyte  notwithstandynge. 

IT  Of  9  Veale. 

IF  Veale  is  [a]  ^^  nutrytyue  meate,  and  doth  nowrysshe 
moche  a  man,  for  it  is  soone  dygestyd:  wherupon  many  Veaiiasoon 

.  in    digested. 

men  doth  holde  oppynyon  that  it  is  the  beste  flesshe,^^ 

'  then  P.         ^  thrusshes  B.         '  starlings.         ■•  do  AB. 
5  salted. — F.  **  H  .iii.  back.  ''  a  man  AB. 

*  within  the  AB.  ^  AB  omit  "  Of."         '"  is  a  AB. 

"  flesse,  orUj. 
1  8 

272  MUTTON,    LAMB,    PORK.  [cHAP.  XVI. 

and  the  moste  nutrytyue  meate,  that  can  be  for  mans 

IT  Of  ^  Mutton  and  lambe. 

Mutton  I  IT  Mutton,  of  Easis  and  Aueroyes  is  puaysed  for  a 

'  good  meate,  but  Galen  dothe  not  laude  it;  and  sewrely  I 

do  not  loue  it,  consyderyng  that  there  is  no  beest  that 

is  so  soone  infectyd,  nor  there  doth  happen  so  great 

sheep  are  so         murren  and  syckenes  to  any  quadrypedyd  ^  beeste  as 

murrain.  ^^^^^  ^^^^  ^^  ^j^^  sheepc.    This  notwithstaudynge,  yf  the 

Bat  good  mutton    sheepe  be  brought  vp  in  a  good  pasture  and  fatte,  and 

helps  sick  folk.  n.. 

do  not  nauoure  of  the  woUe,  it  is  good  for  sycke  per- 
sones,  for  it  doth  ingender  good  blode. 
Lamb  18  not  good         IT  Lambes  flesshe  is  moyste  and  flumatycke,  ^wher- 

for  old  men. 

fore  it  is  not  all  the  best  for  olde  men,  excepte  they  be 
melancolye  of  complexyon :  it  *  is  not  good  for  fiumatyke 
men  to  feade ;  to  moche  of  it  doth  hurte.'^ 

IT  Of  1  Porke,  brawne,^  bakon,  &  pygge. 

IT  where-as   Galen,  with   other  auncyent  and  ap- 

probat  doctours,  doth  prayse  porke,  I  dare  not  say  the 
Pork  I  contrarye  agaynst  them ;  but  this  I  am  sure  of,  I  dyd 

neuer  loue  it :  And  in  holy  scrypture  it  is  not  praysed ; 
A  swine  is  filthy    for  a  swyne  is  an  vnclene  beest,  and  dothe  lye  vpon ' 

fylthy  &  stynkynge  soyles  ;  and  with  stercorus  matter 

but  is  kept  dyuers  tymes  doth^  fede  in^  Englande ;  yet  in^^  Hygh- 

ermany,  ^jj^gj^  u  ^j^^  other  hygh  couutres,  (except  Spayne  &  other 

countres  anexed  to  Spayne) ,  [m  en]  doth  kepe  theyr  swyne 
and  has  a  swim     clcuc,  and  dotho  cause  them  ones  or  twyse  a  daye  to 

swymwe  in  great  ryuers,  lyke  the  water  of  Ryne,  whiche 

*  AB  omit  "  Of."     On  lamb,  see  Bahees  Booh,  p.  222. 
'  quatryped  AB ;  quadi-yped  P. 
'  H  .iv.  not  signed.  *  nor  hit  P. 

*  ABP  omit  "doth  hurte." — P  adds  "for  the  flesshe  is  wa- 
teiysshe."  ^  browne,  orig.  '  vpponj  in  AB. 

"  it  doth  AB.  ^  specyallye  in  AB. 

*"  AB  omit  "  in."  "  hyghe  Ahnayne  AB. 

twice  a  day. 

CHAP.  XVI.]    DYETARV.       ADDERS,  PORK,  AND  BACON.  273 

is  aboue  Coleyne^;  but  Spaynyerdes,  with  the  other  regi-  Spanish  swine  are 

ons  anexed  to  them,  kepe  the  swyne  more  fylthyer  than 

Englysshe^  persons  doth.     Further-more,  the  leue,  the 

Sarason,  the  Turkes,  cowsernynge  theyr  polytycke  wyt 

and  lerenyng  in  Physycke,  hath  as  moche  wyt,  wysdom,  .,54 

reason,  and  knowledge,  for  the  sauyte  of  theyr  body,  as 

any  Chrysten  man  hath  ; — and  noble  physycyons  I  haue  I'^e  known 

noble  heathen 

knowen  amonges  them ;  yet  ^  they  all  lacked  gtace,  for  Physicians. 

as  moche  as  they  do  not  knowe  or   knowledge*  lesu 

Chryste,  as  the  holy  scrypture  telly th  vs  and  them. — 

They  louyth  *  not  porke  nor  swynes  flesshe,^  but  doth  Jews  and  Turks 

vituperat  &  abhorre  it;  yet  for  all  this  they  wyll  eate 

adders,  whiche  is  a  kynde  of  serpentes,  as  well  as  any  but  wiii  eat 

adders  like  any 

other  Crysten  man  dwellynge  in  Rome,^  &  other  hyglic  christian  in 

countres ;  for  adders  flesshe  there  is  called  "  fysshe  of 

the   mountayn."      This    notwithstandynge,    physycke 

doth  approbat  adders  flesshe  good  to  be  eaten,  sayinge  Adder's  flesh 

makea  a  man 

it  doth  make  an  olde  man  yonge,  as  it  apperyth,  by  young. 
a  harte  eatyng  an  adder,  maketh  hym  yonge  agayne. 
But  porke  doth  not  so ;  for  yf  it  be  of  an  olde  hogge 
not  clene  kepte,  it  doth  ingender  gross  blode,  &  doth 
humect  to  moche  the  stomacke;  yet  yf  the  porke  be  Young  pork 


yonge,  it  is  nutrytyue. 

IT  Bacon  is   good   for   carters   and   plowmen,  the  Bacon  is  good 

for  ploughmen ; 

whiche  be  euer  labourynge  m  the  earth  or  dunge ;  but 

&  yf  they  haue  the  stone,  and  vse  to  eate  it,  they  shall  bad  for  the  stone. 

synge,  "  wo  be^  the  pye  ! "     wherfore  I  do  say  that  col- 

oppes  and  egges  is  as  holsome  for  them,  as  a  talowe  coiiops  and  eggs 

are  bad  lor  that 

candell  is  good  for  a  horse  mouth,  or  a  peese  of  pow-  too. 

dred^  beef  is  good  for  a  blereyed  mare;   yet  sensuall 

appetyde   muste   haue   a  swynge,    all^   these   thinges 

not-'^withstandynge.     ^^  porke  is  conuertyble  to  mans 


'  See  Introduction,  p.  156.      '  englysse,  orig.      '  H  .iv.  back. 
*  loue  AB.       *  flesse,  orig.       ^  See  Introdiiction,  p.  177. 
'  be  to  AB.         «  salt.  »  at  all  AB.  *»  sign.  I  .i. 

11— u  p  leaves  out  these  words.  ,,  , 

BOORDE.  18 


Brawn  is  a  usual 
English  winter 

Keep  clear  of  it. 


IT  Of »  Brawne. 

IT  Brawne  is  an  vsual  meate  in  wynter  amoTzges 
Englysshe  men :  it  is  harde  of  dygestyon.  the  brawne 
of  a  wylde  "boore  is  moche  more  better  than  the  brawne 
of  a  tame  boore.  yf  a  man  eate  nother  of  them  bothe, 
it  shall  neuer  do  hym  harme. 

Pigs  in  jelly  are 

A  young  fat  pig 
is  good. 
But  mind ;  no 
oraclding  * 

IT  Ofi  Pygges. 

^  Pygges,  specyally  sowe  pygges,  is  nutrytyne;  and 
made  in  a  gelye,  it  is^  restoratyue,  so  be  it  the  pygge  be 
fleed,^  the  skyn  taken  of,  and  than  stewed  with  restor- 
atyues,  as  a  cocke  is  stewed  to  make  a  gely.  A  yonge 
fatte  pygge  in  physicke  is  syngulerly  praysed,  yf  it  be 
wel  orderyd  in  the  rostynge,  the  skyn  not  eaten. 

Kid's  flesh  Is  the 
best  tame  animal 

1[  Of^  Kydde. 

IF  Yonge  Kyddes  flesshe  is  praysed  aboue  all  other 
flesshe,  as  Auicen,  Rasis,  &  Aueroyes  sayth,  for  it  is 
temperate  and  nutrytyue,  although  it  be  somwhat  dry. 
Olde  kydde  is  not  praysed. 

Nowhere  in 
Christendom  are 
deer  so  loved  as 
in  England. 

IT  Of  wylde  beestes  flesshe. 

IT  I  haue  gone  rownde  aboute  Crystendome,  and 
ouerthwarte  Crystendom,  &  a  thousande  or  two  and 
more  myles  out  of  Crystendom,  ^  yet  there  is  not  so 
moche  pleasure  for  harte  &  hynde,  bucke,  and  doo,  and 
for  roo  bucke  and  doo,  as  is  in  Englande ;  &  although 
Give  me  Venison,  the  flesshe  be  dispraysed  in  physycke  /  I  pray  God  to 

though  Physic  '  /.    i 

says  it's  bad.  sende  me  parte  of  the  flesshe  to  eate,  physycke  not-with- 
standyng.  The  opynyon  of  all  olde  physycyons  was 
&  is,  that  venyson  is  not  good  to  eate,  pryncipaylly  for 
two  cause[s]  ^ :  the  fyrst  cause  is,  that^  the  beest  doth  lyue 
in  fere';  for  yf  he  be  a  good  wood-man,  he  shall  neuer 

'  AB  omit  "  Of. 
^  fleyd  AB. 
*  causes  ABP. 

*  is  a  AB. 

*  sign.  I  .i.  back. 

«  that  he  AB.  '  feare  AB. 

CHAP.  XVI. ]  DYETARY.       VENISOi"?-,  HARE,  CONEY,  RABBIT.        275 

se  no  kyude  of  deere,  but  at  the  .x.  hjt  on  the  grasse,  The  deer  is  fuii 

of  fear, 

or  brosynge  on  the  tree,  but  he  wyll  lyfte  vp  his  hed 
&  loke  aboute  hym,  the  whiche  co?72meth  of  tymorys- 
nes ;  and  tymorosyte'doth  brynge  in  melancoly  humours, 
wherfore  all  Physycyons  ^  sayth  that  venyson,  which  and  its  flesh 

.       "  1        T       1  breeds  choleric 

IS  the  secowde  cause,  doth  mgender  coloryke  humours ;  humours. 
&   of  trueth   it  doth  so:  wherfore  let  them  take  the  But i say, 

let  Physicians 

skyn,  and  let  me  haue  the  flesshe.     I  am  sure  it  is  a  take  the  deer's 

skin :  give  me 

lordes  dysshe,  and  I  am  sure  it  is  good  for  an  Englysshe  its  flesh ! 

man,  for  it  doth  anymate  hym  to  be  as  he  is,  whiche  is,  lord's  dish,  and 

stronge  and  hardy  /  but  I  do  aduertyse  euery  man,  for  l^ngHshman. 

all  my  wordes,  not  to  kyll,  and  so  to  eate  of  it,  excepte  Don't  poach  for 


it  be  lefully,^  for  it  is  a  meate  for  great  men.     And 

great  men  do  not  set  so  moch  by  the  meate,  as  they  do  ^  Great  men  uke 

?        ,  ^  ,     „  ^   .  killing 'em. 

by  the  pastyme  of  kyllyng  of  it. 

*  IT  Of  5  Hares  flesshe. 

IT  A  hare  doth  no  harme  nor  ^  dyspleasure  to  no 
man :  yf  the  flesshe  be  not  eaten,  it  maketh  a  gentyl-  Let  hares  be 
man  good  pastyme.     And  better  is  for  the  bounder  or  the  dogs  eat  'em 
dogges  to  eate  the  hare  after  they  haue  kylled  it,  as  I 
Bayd,  than  man  shuld  eate  it;  for  it  is  not  praysed, 
nother  in  the  olde  Testament,  nother  in  physycke ;  for 
the  byble  sayth  the  hare  is  an  vnclene  beeste,  And  they  breed 
physycke  sayeth  hares  flesshe  is  drye,  and  doth  ingen- 
der  melancoly  humors. 

IT  Of  5  Conys  flesshe. 
IT    Conys  flesshe  is  good,  but  rabettes^  flesshe  is  Rabbit's  flesh. 

18  tli6  l)6sti  wild* 

best  of  all  wylde  beestes  /  for  it  is  temperat,  and  doth  beast  flesh, 
nowrysshe,  and  [is]  syngulerly  praysed  in  physycke ;  for 
all  thynges  the  whiche  dothe  sucke,  is  nutrytyue. 

'  Phyon  auchons,  oriff.  and  AB.     Physycyons  P. 

*  lawfully  AB,  '  do  AB.  *  sign.  I  .ii. 

*  AB  omit  "  Of."  6  nor  no  AB. 

'  Rabbit,  the  young  cony  while  a  sucker.     Babees  Book. 

1  8* 


don't    eat    skin,    brains,    etc.  [chap.  XVII. 

^  The  .xvij.  Chapytre  doth  treate  of 

pertyculer  thynges  of  fysshe 

and  flesshe. 

The  heads  and 
the  fat  of  fish 
are  bad. 

Don't  eat  the 
skin  of  fisl)  and 

Brains  (except 
a  Itid's,  and  some 
birds')  hurt  the 

Fore  parts  better 
than  hind  parts. 

Marrow  is 
nourishing  when 
eaten  with 

Blood,  inwards, 

entrails,  aro 

Fat  nourishes 
less  than  lean. 

He  heddes  of  fysshe,  and  the  fatnes  of 
fysshe,  specyally  of  Samon  and  Con- 
ger, is  not  good  for  them  the  whiche 
be  dysposed  to  haue  rewmatycke 
heddes.  And  tho,  heddes  of  lampryes 
^  &  lamprons,*  &  the  strynge  the  whiche  is  within  theym, 
is  not  good  to  eate.  refrayne  from  etynge  of  the 
skynnes^  of  fysshe  and  flesshe,^  &  hornet^  meate,  and 
browne  meate,  for  it  doth  ingender  viscus  humours,  and 
color,  &  melancoly,  And  doth  make  opylacions.  The 
braynes  of  any  beest  is  not  laudable,  excepte  the  brayne 
of  a  kydde  ;  for  it  is  euyl  of  digestyon,  and  doth  hurte 
a  mans  appetyde  and  the  stomacke,  for  it  is  colde,  and 
moyste,  and  viscus.  a  bote  stomacke  may  eate  it,  but  it 
doth  inge?2der  grose  humours.  The  brayne  of  a  wod- 
cocke,  and  of  a  snype,  and  suche  lyke,  is  commestyble. 
The  foreparte  of  all  maner  of  beestes  &  fowles  be  more 
hotter,  and  lyghter  of  digestyon,  than  the  hynder 
partes  be.  The  marye  of  all  beestes  is  bote  and 
moyste ;  it  is  nutrityue  yf  it  be  wel  dygestyd,  yet  it 
doth  moUyfy  the  stomacke,  and  doth  take  away  a  mans 
appetyde;  wherfore  let  a  man  eate  peper  with  it.  The 
blode  of  all  beestes  &  fowles  is  not  praysed,  for  it  is 
hard  of  digestyon.  Al  the,  inwarde*'  of  beestes  and  of 
fowles,  as  the  herte,  the  lyuer,  the  lunges,  and  trypes, 
and  trylybubbes,  wyth  all  the  intrayles,  is  harde  of 
dygestyon,  and  doth  increase  grose  humoures.  The 
fatnes  of  flesshe  is  not  so  moche  nutrytyue  as  ^the 
leenes  of  flesshe ;  it  is  best  whan  leene  and  fat  is 

*  sign.  I  .ii.  back.        ^  See  Babccs  Booh,  p.  215,  166,  174,  235. 
^  kynnes,  orig. ;  skynnes  AB.  *  flesshe  and  fysshe  AB. 

*  burned  AB  ;  borned  P.  *  sign.  I  .iii. 

CH.  XVIII.]        DYETARY.      OF   COOKED   MEAT,    AND   A   GOOD   COOK.        277 

myxte  one  with  another.     The  tunges  of  beestes^  be  Tongues, 
harde  of  dygestyon,  and  of  lytell  nowrysshement.     The 
stones  of  a  cockrell,  &  the  stones  of  other  beestes  that  Teaticie* 
hath  not  done  theyr  kynde,  be  nutrytyue. 

%  The  .xviij.  Chapitre  treaty th  of  roste 

meate,  of  fryed  meate,  [of  soden  or 

boyled  meate,  of  bruled  meate,]  ^ 

and  of  bake  meate. 

Ith  vs  at  Mouwtpylour,  and  other  At  Montpeiier  we 
vnyuersyties,  is  vsed  boyled  meate  for  dinner  and 

,    J  J  .  i     i  roast  for  supper. 

at  dyner,  and  roste  meate  to  sup- 
per :  why  they  shulde  do  so,  I 
cannot  tell,  onlesse  it  be  for  a 
consuetude.  For  boyled  meate  is 
Ivghter  of   digestvon   than  rosted   meate  is.     Bruled  Broiled  meat  is 

•"^  ^       -^  indigestible. 

meate  is  harde  of  digestyon,  &  euyll  for  the  stone. 
Fryed  meate  is  harder  of  dygest[y]on2  ^han  brulyd  meate 
is,  and  it  doth  ingender  color  and  melancoly.     Bake  Baked  meat 

(buried  in  paste) 

meate,  whiche  is  called  flesshe  that  is  beryd,^ — for  it  is  is  bad. 

buryd  in  paast, — is  not  praysed  in  physycke.    All  maner 

of  flesshe  the  whiche  is  inclyned  to  humydyte,  shulde  Roast 

moist  flesh ; 

be  rostyd.     And  all  flesshe  the  whiche  is  ^inclyned  to  boii dry neeh. 
drynes  shulde  be  sodde  or  boyled. 

IT  Fysshe  may  be  sod,  rostyd,  brulyd,  &  baken.  How  to  cook  fish, 
euery  one  after  theyr  kynde,  and  vse,  &  fasshyon  of  the 
countree,  as  the  coke  and  the  physycyon  wyll  agre  and 
deiiyse.      For  a  good  coke  is  halfe  a  physycyon.     For  The  chief  physio 

comes  from  the 

the  cheie  physycke  (the  counceyll  of  a  physycyon  ex-  kitchen, 
cepte)  dothe  come   from  the  kytchyn ;   wherfore  the 
physycyon  and  the  coke  for  sycke  men  muste  consult  cook  and  Doctor 
togyther  for  the  preparacion  of  meate  ^  for  sycke  men. 

'  Put  in  from  AB.         '  dygestyon  ABP.         ^  buryed  AB. 
*  sign,  I  .iii.  back.  *  meates  AB. 



[chap.  XIX. 

Phybicians  are 
bad  cooks. 

Borage;  Bugloss 

(see  p.  280). 


(Scabwort  or 

Parsley  (p.  281). 

Fennel  (p.  281). 




For  yf  the  physycyon,  withx)ut  tlie  coke,  prepare  any 
meate,  excepte  he  be  very  experte,  he  wyll  make  a 
werysse  ^  dysshe  of  meate,  the  whiche  the  sycke  can  not 

%  The  .xix.  Chapitre  treateth  of  Roo- 

tes,  and  fyrste  of  the  rootes  [of]  ^ 

borage  and  of  buglosse. 

He  rootes  of  Borage  and  Buglosse  soden  tender, 
and  made  in  a  succade,  doth  ingender  good  blode, 
and  doth  set  a  man  in  a  temporaunce. 

f  The  rootes  of  Alysannder^ 
and  Enulacampana.* 

IT  The  rootes  of  Alysaunder  soden  tender  and 
made  in  [a]^  succade,  is  good  for  to  dystroye  the  stone 
in  the  Raynes  of  the  backe  &  blader.  ^The  rootes  of 
Enulacampana*  soden  tender,  and  made  in  a  succade,  is 
good  for  the  breste,  and  for  the  lunges,  and  for  all  the 
interyall  membres  of  man. 

IF  The  rootes  of  percelly  &  of  fenell. 

IT  The  Rootes  of  percelly  soden  tender,  and  made  in 
a  succade,  is  good  for  the  stone,  and  doth  make  a  man 
to  pysse.  The  rootes  of  Fenell  soden  tender,  &  made 
in  a  succade,  is  good  for  the  lunges  and  for  the  syght. 

IT  The  rootes  of  turnepes  &  persnepes.'^ 
IF  Turnepes  boyled  and  eaten  with  flesshe,  aug- 
mewtyth  the  seede  of  man.  yf  they  be  eaten  rawe 
moderatly,  it  doth  prouoke  a  good  apetyde.  Persnepes^ 
soden  &  eaten  doth  increase  nature^;  they  be  nutrityne, 
&  doth  expell  vryne, 

^  verysshe  AB  ;  werysshe  P.  '  of  AB. 

'  Fr.  Alexandre  .  .  the  hearb,  great  Parsley,  Alexanders  or 
Alisaunders. —  Cotgrave.  *  Elenacampane  B. 

*  in  a  AB ;  in  surcade  P.  "  I  .iv.  not  signed. 

'  Parsneppes  AB.  ®  Semen,  generative  fluid. 


IF  Radysshe  rootes,  and  Caretes. 

IT  Eadysshe  rootes  doth  breke  wynde,  &  dothe  pro-  Radishes, 
uoke  a  ina?^  to  make  water,  but  they  be  not  good  for 
them  the  whiche  hath  the  gowte.     Caretes  soden  and  Carrots, 
eaten  doth  ange  &  increase  nature,  &  doth  cause  a  man 
to  make  water. 

IT  The  rootes  of  Rapes. 

IT  Rape  rootes,  yf  they   be  well  boyled,  they  do  ^  Rapes, 
nowrysshe,  yf  they  be  moderatly  eaten  :   iwmoderatly 
eaten,  they  doth  ^  ingender  ventosyte,  and  doth  anoye 
the  stomacke. 

3f  Of*  Onyons. 

If  Onyons  doth  prouoke  a  man  to  veneryous  actes,  Onions.  (See 

1    .  1  o       A  11  111  BdbeesBook, 

and  to  sompnolence;  &  yi  a  man  drynke  sondry  drynkes  p.  i56, 2i4.) 
it  doth  rectyfy  and  reforme  the  varyete  of  the  opera- 
cyon  of  them  :  they  maketh  a  mans  apetyde  good,  and 
putteth  away  fastydyousnes. 

IT  Of*  Leekes. 

IT  Leekes  doth  open  the  breste,  and  doth  prouoke  a  Leew. 
man  to  make  water  ;  but  they  doth  make  and  increase 
euyll  blode. 

IT  Of*  Garlyke. 
IT  Garlyke,  of  all  rootes  is  vsed  &  most  praysed  in  gotUc 
Lombardy,  and  other  countres  anexed  to  it ;  for  it  doth 
open  the  breste,  &  it  doth  kyll  all  maner  of  wormes  in  kiiis  worms  in 
a  mans  bely,  whiche  be  to  say,  lumbrici,  ascarides,  and    "^     ^ 
cucurbitini,  whiche  is  to  saye,  longe  wormes,  small  lytell 
longe  wormes  whiche  wyll  tykle  in  the  foundement,  and  and  fund.imenL 
square  wormes  j  it  also  hetyth  tM  body,  and  desoluyth 
grose  wyndes. 

•  doth  AB.  ""  do  AB. 

'•^  I  .iv.  back.  *  AB  omit  "  Of." 



[chap.  XX. 


Bugloes  (see  p. 



f  The  .XX.  Chapitre  treateth  of  ^ 

vsuall  Herbes.     And  fyrste  of 

Borage  and  Buglosse. 

BOrage  doth  comforte  the  herte,  and  doth  ingender 
good  blode,  and  ^(jauseth  a  man  to  be  mery,  & 
doth  set  a  man  in^  temporaunce.  And  so  doth  buglosse, 
for  he  is  taken  of  more  vygor,  &  strength,  &  efFy- 

IT  Of  Artochockes,  and  Eokat.^ 

IT  There  is  nothynge  vsed  to  be  eaten  of  Arto- 
chockee  but  thQ  hed  of  them,  whan  they  be  almost 
rype,  they  must  be  soden  tewder  in  tim  broth  of  beef;*  & 
after,  eate  them  at  dyner:  they  doth  increase  nature,  and 
dothe  prouoke  a  man  to  veneryous  actes.  Rokat  doth 
increase  the  seede  of  man,  and  doth  stumulat  the  flesshe, 
and  doth  helpe  to  dygestyon. 

IT  Of  Cykory,  and  Endyue. 

Chicory.  IT  Cykoiy  doth  kepe  the  stomacke  and  f/ie  heed  in 

Endive.  temporauuce,  and  doth  qualyfy  color.     Endyue  is  good 

for  them  the  whiche  haue  hoote  stomackes  and  drye. 

IT  Of  whyte  Beetes,  and  Purslane. 

White  Beets.  IF  whyte  Beetes  "^  be  good  for  the  lyuer  &  for  the 

Purslane.  spleno,  and  be  abstersyue.     Purslane  dothe  extynct  the 

ardor  of  lassyuyousnes,  and  doth  mytygate  great  heate 

in  all  the  inwarde  partes  of  man. 

•  of  certayne  A  ;  of  certaine  B.  *  sign.  K  .i. 
^  in  a  AB.                            *  etficacytye  AB. 

*  Garden  Rocket  {Brassica  eruca  or  Eruca  mtiva)  is  an 
annual,  of  which,  when  young,  the  leaves  are  used  as  a  salad 
abroad,  and  were  formerly  so  in  Britain.  The  wild  Rocket 
(Sisymbrinm  officinale  or  Erijslinnm  officinale)  is  common 
here,  and  is  sometimes  sown  and  used  as  a  spring  pot-herb. 
Chamhers's  Cijcloi)cedia.  ®  AB  add  "  or  with  beef e." 

■^  beeten  P. 


IT  Of  Tyme  and  Parsley. 
H  Tyme  breky th  the  stone ;  it  dotlie  desolue  wyndes,  xhyme. 
And  causeth  a  man  to  make  water.     Parsley  is  good  to  Parsiey  (p.  sts;. 
breke  the  stone,  and  cau^seth  a  man  to  pysse;    it  is 
good  for  the  stomaeke,  &  doth  cause  a  man  to  haue  a 

swete  breth. 

IT  Of  Lettyse,  and  SorelL 
IT  Lettyse  doth  extynct  veneryous  actes,  yet  it  doth  Lettuce 
increase  my  Ike  in  a  womans  breste;  it  is  good  for  a 
bote   stomaeke,    and   doth   prouoke   slepe,    and   doth 
increase  blod,  and  doth  set  the  blode  in  a  temporaunce. 
SoreU   is  good  for  a   bote  lyuer,   and   good  for   the  SorreU 


IT  Of  Penyryall  and  Isope. 
IF  Penyryall  doth  purge  melawcoly,  and  doth  com-  Pennyrovau 
forte  the  stomaeke  &  the  spyrites  of  man.     Isope  clens-  Hyssop, 
eth  viscus  fleume,  &  is  good  for  the  breste  and  for  the 


%  Of  Roosmary,  and  Rosea. 

^  Roosmary  is  good  for  palses,^  and  for  the  fallynge  Rosemary, 
syckenes,  and  for  the  cowghe,  and  good  agaynst  colde. 
Roses  be  a  cordyall,  and  doth  comfoi-te  the  herte  &  the  Roses. 

IT  Of  Fenell,  and  Anys. 

IT  These  herbes  be  seldome  vsed,  but  theyr  seedes  be 
greatly  occupyde.     Fenell-sede  is  vsed  to  breke  wynde,^  Fennei-seed  (p. 
and  [is]  good  agaynst  poyson.  Anys-sede  is  good  to  dense  Anise-seed, 
the  bladder,  and  the  raynes  of  the  backe,  &  doth  pro- 
uoke vryne,  and  maketh  one  to  haue  a  soote^  breth. 

H  Of  Sawge,  and  Mandragor.* 
<'ir  Sawge  is  good  to  helpe  a  woman  to  conceyue,  sage. 
and  doth  prouoke  vryne.      Mandragor  doth   helpe   a  Mandragora. 
woman  to  concepcion,  and  doth  prouoke  a  man  to  slepe. 

'  sign.  K  .i.  back.  '  the  palsey  P. 

^  vryde  AB.     (cp.  Glutton  going  to  the  ale-house  in  Vii. 
of  Piers  Plowman.)  *  swete  AB. 

*  Mandragod,  oriff.  and  P  j  Mandragor  AB.        ^  sign.  K  .ii. 



[CH.  XX,  XXI. 

No  herb  or  weed 
without  power  to 
help  man. 

IT  Of  all  herbes  in  generall. 

IT  There  is  no  Herbe,  nor  weede,  but  God  haue' 
gyuen  vertue  to  them,  to  helpe  man.  But  for  as  moche 
as  Plyne,  Macer,  and  Diascorides,  with  many  other 
olde  auncyent  and  approbat  Doctours,  hath  wryten 
and  pertracted  of  theyr  vertues,  I  therfore  nowe  wyll 
wryte  no  further  of  herbes,  but  wyll  speke  of  other 
matters  that  shalbe  more  necessary e. 

Figs  are  most 

specially  with 
biancht  Almonds, 

but  provoke 

Raisins  stir  up 
the  appetite. 

^  The  .xxi.  Chapitre  treatyth 

of  Pruytes,  and  fyrste 

of  Pygges. 

Uicen  sayth  that  Fygges  doth  now- 
rysshe  more  than  any  other  Fruyte : 
they  doth  nowrysshe  meruelouslye 
whan  they  be  eaten  with  blanched 
Almons.  They  be  also  good,  rosted, 
^  ^  _  ^  _  &  stued.  They  do  dense  the  brest 
&  the  lunges,  &  they  do  open  th^  opylacyons  of  the 
lyuer  &  the  splene.  They  doth  stere  a  man  to  ^vene- 
ryous  actes,  for  they  doth  auge  and  increase  the  sede  of 
generacyon.  And  also  they  doth  prouoke  a  man  to 
sweate ;  wherfore  they  doth  ingender  lyce. 

IT  Of  great  Eaysyns. 
IT  Great  Eaysyns  be  nutrytyue,  specyally  yf  the 
stones  be  pullyd  out.  And  they  doth  make  the 
sfcomacke  fyrme  &  stable.  And  they  doth  prouoke  a 
man  to  haue  a  good  appetyde,  yf  a  fewe  of  them  be 
eaten  before  meate. 

Currants  are 
good  for  the 

IF  Of  smale  Eaysyns  of  Gorans. 
IT  Smale  raysyns  of  Gorans  be  good  for  tlm  raynes 
of  the  backe ;  and  they  dothe  prouoke  vryne.     Howbeit 
■  hath  AB.  '  sigQ.  K  .ii.  back. 

CHAP.  XXI.]      DYETARY.     THE    QUALITIES    OP   PEACHES,    NUTS,    ETC.     283 

they  be  not  all  the  best  for  the  splene,  for  they  maketh 

IT  Of  Grapes. 
IT  Grapes,  swete  and  newe,  be  nutrytyue,  &  doth  Fresh  Grapes 

^       '  J   J       i  comfort  the 

stumulat   the  flesshe ;     And  they   doth  comforte  the  Liver, 
stomacke  and  thQ  lyuer,  and  doth  auoyde  opylacyons. 
Howbeit,  it  doth  replete  the  stomacke  with  ventosyte. 

IT  Of  Peches,  of  Medlers,  &  Ceruyces. 

IT  Peches  doeth  mollyfy  the  bely,   and  be   colde.  Peaches. 

Medlers,  taken  superfluous,  doth  ingender  melancolye.  Medlars. 

And  Ceruyces^  be  in  maner  of  lyke  operacyon.  services. 

%  Of  Strawburyes,2  Cherys,  &  Hurtes. 
^ir  Strawburyes  be  praysed  aboue  all  buryes,  for  strawberries, 
they  do  qualj^ye  the  heate  of  the  lyuer,  &  dothe  in- 
gender good  blode,  eaten  with  suger.     Cherys   doth  cherries, 
mollyfye   the  bely,   and  be  colde.      Hui"tes  be  of  a  Hmtieberries 

( Vaccinium,  L. 

groser  substaunce;  wherlore  they  be  not  lor  them  the  xheWhortie- 
whiche  be  of  a  clene  dyete. 

IT  Of  Nuttes,  great  and  smale, 

IT  The  walnut  &  the  banocke*  be  of  one  operacyon.  Wainuta. 
They  be  tarde  and  slowe  of  digestyon,  yet  they  doth 
comforte  the  brayne  if  the  pyth  or  skyn  be  pylled  of, 
and  than  they  be  nutrytyue.      Fylberdes   be    better  Filberts  are  best 

when  new. 

than  hasell  Nuttes  :  yf  they  be  newe,  and  taken  from 
the  tree,  and  the  skyn  or  the  pyth  pullyd  of,  they  be 

'  Pyrus  Sorbns,  the  True  Service.  A  tree  very  like  the 
mountain-ash,  but  bigger,  and  bearing  larger  fruit,  which, 
when  beginning  to  decay,  is  brought  to  table  in  France  ;  though 
it  is  oftener  eaten  by  the  poor  than  the  rich.  See  LoudorCs 
Enc.  of  Trees  and  Shrubs,  1842,  p.  442-3. 

*  Strawderyes  B.  '  sign.  K  .iii. 

*  and  banocke,  AB.  JBannnt,  a  walnut,  West.  [Wilts 
and  Somerset :  Stratmann.]  The  growing  tree  is  called  a  Jfl«- 
nut  tree,  but  the  converted  timber  walnut.  The  term  occurs 
as  early  as  1697  in  MS.  Lansd.  1033,  fol.  2.—IIaUhvelVs  Gloss. 



[chap.  XXI. 

Old  nuts  breed 
palsy  in  the 


Beans  are 
strong  food. 

Mellow  Pears 
make  men  fat. 

Roast  Wardens 
comfort  the 

Apples  should 
be  eaten  with 
comfits  or  fennel> 


Baked  Quinces 
soften  the  belly. 

nutrytyue,  &  doth  increase  fatnes ;  yf  they  be  olde,  they 
shuld  be  eaten  with  great  raysens.  But  new  nuttes  be 
farre  better  than  olde  nuttes,  for  olde  nuttes  be  color- 
ycke,  and  they  be  euyl  for  the  hed,  and  euyll  for  olde 
men.  And  they  dothe  ingender  the  palsey  to  the 
tounge,  (yet  they  be  good  agaynst  venym,)  And,  immo- 
deratly  taken  or  eaten,  doth  ingender  corrupcyons,  as 
byles,  blaynes,  &  suche  putryfaction. 

IT  Of  Peason  and  Beanes. 
If  Peason  the  whiche  be  yonge,  be  nutrytyue; 
Howbeit,  they  doth  replete  a  man  with  vento'syte. 
Beanes  be  not  so  moche  to  be  praysed  as  peason,  for 
they  be  full  of  ventosyte,  althoughe  the  skynnes  or 
huskes  be  ablatyd  or  cast  away ;  yet  they  be  a  stronge 
meate,  and  doth  prouoke  veneryous  actes. 

If  Of  Peares,  and  Appulles. 
IT  Peares  the  whiche  be  melow  and  doulce,  &  not 
stony,  doth  increase  fatnes,  ingenderyng  waterysshe 
blod.  And  they  be  full  of  ventosyte.  But  wardens 
rosted,  stued,  or  baken,  be  nutrytyue,  and  doth  com- 
forte  the  stomacke,  specyally  yf  they  be  eaten  with 
comfettes.  Apples  be  good,  after  a  frost  haue  taken 
them,  or  ^whan  they  be  olde,  specyally  red  apples,  and^ 
they  the  whiche  be  of  good  odor,  &  melow  ;  they  shuld 
be  eaten  with  suger  or  comfettes,  or  with  fenell-sede,  or 
anys-sede,  bycause  of  theyr  ventosyte;  they  doth 
comforte  than  the  stomacke,  and  doth  make  good  dy- 
gestyon,  specyally  yf  they  be  rostyd  or  baken. 

IT  Of  Pomegranates,  &  Quynces. 
IF  Pomegranates  be  nutrytyue,  and   good  for   the 
stomacke.     Quinces  baken,  the  core^  pulled  out,  doth 
moUyfy  the  bely,  and  doth  helpe  dygestyon,  and  dothe 
preserue  a  man  from  dronkenshyppe. 

*  sign.  K  .iii.  back.         ^^  P  omits  this.        '  gore  P. 

OHAP.  XXI.]       DYETARY.     THE   QUALITIES    OF   GOURDS,    ETC.  285 

IT  Of  Daates,  and  My  Ions. 
*  IT  Daates,  moderatly  eaten,  be  nutrityue  ;  but  they  i>ate8  nouriBh. 
doth  cause  opylacyons  of  the  lyuer  and  of  the  splene. 
Mylons  doth  ingender  euyl  humoures.  Melons. 

IT  Of  gourdes,  of  Cucu?7ibres,  &  pepones. 
IT  Gourdes  be  euyll  of  nowrysshement.    Cucumbers  Gourds, 
restrayneth  veneryousnes,  or  lassyuyousnes,  or  luxury-  Cucumbers, 
ousnes.     Pepones  ^  be  in  maner  of  lyke  operacion,  but  Pepones. 
the  pepones  ingenderyng^  euyll  humours. 

IT  Of  Almondes  and  Chesteyns. 
IF    Almondes  causeth  a  man  to  pysse ;   they  do*  Almonds  stop 
mollyfy  the  bely,  and  doth  purge  the  lunges.     And 
.vi.  or  .vii.  eate  before  meate,  preserueth  a  man  from 
dror^kenshyp.     Chesteynes  doth  no^vTysshe  the  body  Chestnuts  fatten, 
strongly,  &  doth  make  a  man  fat,  yf  they  be  thorowe 
rested,  and  the  huskes  abiected  ;  yet  they  doth  replete  a 
man  with  vewtosyte  or  wynde, 

IT  Of  Prunes,  and  Damysens. 
IT  Prunes  be  nat  greatly  praysed,  but  in  the  way  of  Prunes  (plums), 
medysyne,  for  they  be  cold  &  moyste.     And  Damysens  Damsons : 
be  of  tJie  sayd  nature ;  for  the  one  is  olde  and  dryed, 
and  the  other  be  taken  from  the  tre.    .vi.  or  .vii.*  dam-  eat  e  or  7  before 


ysens  eaten  before  dyner,  be  good  to  prouoke  a  mans 
appetyde;  they  doth  mollyfy  the  bely,  and  be  ab- 
stersyue;  ^the  skyn  and  the  stones  must  be  ablatyd 
and  caste  awaye,  and  not  vsed. 

IT  Of  Olyues,  and  Capers. 
IT  Olyues  condyted,  and  eaten  at  the  begynnynge  ouves. 
of  [a]^  refectyon,  doth  con'oborate  the  stomacke,  and 
prouoketh  appetyde.     Capers  doth  purge  fleume,  and  capers, 
doth  make  a  man  to  haue  an  appetyde. 

'  K  .iv.  not  signed. 

*  Fr.  Pepon  :  m.  A  Pompion  or  Melon. —  Cotgravc. 

*  ingenderythe  P.         ■•  doth  AB.         *  Syxe  or  seuen  AB. 

^  K  .iv.  back.  '  a  AB 


Oranges,  and 


[chap.  XXII. 

f  Of  Orenges. 

H  Orenges  doth  miake  a  man  to  haue  a  good  appe- 
tyde,  and  so  doth  the  ryndes,  yf  they  be  in  succade,  & 
they  doth  comforte  the  stomacke;  the  luce  is  a  good 
sauce,  and  dothe  prouoke  an  appetyde. 

Green  ginger. 

Pepper,  white, 
black,  and  long 




%  The  .xxii.  Chapitre  treateth  of 
spyces,  and  fyrste  of  Gynger 

ynger  doth  hete  the  stomacke,  and 
helpyth  dygestyon  :  grene  gynger 
eaten  in  the  moreniwge,  fastynge,  doth 
acuat  and  quycken  the  remembraunce. 

IF  Of  Peper. 

IT  There  be  .iii,  sondry  kyiides  of  peper,  which  be 
to  say,  whyte  Peper,  blacke  Peper,  &  long  Peper.  All 
kyndes  of  pepers  doth^  heate  the  bo'-'dy,  and  doth  de- 
solue  fleume  &  wynde,  &  dothe  helpe  dygestyon,  and 
maketh  a  man  to  make  water.  Blacke  peper  doth  make 
a  man  leane. 

IT  Of  Clones,  and  Mace. 
H  Clones  doth  comforte  the  senewes,  &  doth  dy- 
soliie  and  doth  consume  superfluous  humours,  [and]  ^  re- 
storyth  nature.  Maces  is  a  cordyall,  and  doth  helpe 
the  colycke,  &  is  good  agaynst  the  blody  flyxe  and 

IF  Of  Graynes,  and  Safl'eron. 

^  Graynes  be  good  for  the  stomake  and  the  head; 
And  be  good  for  women  to  drynke.  Safferon  doth 
comforte  the  hcrte  &  the  stomacke,  but  he  is  to  bote  for 
the  lyuer. 

^  to  oHff. ;  doth  AB. 

sign.  L  .i. 

and  AB. 


%  Of  Nutmeges,  &  Cynomome.^ 

%  Nutmeges  be  good  for  them  the  whiche  haiie  Nutmegs. 
colde  in  theyr  hed,  and  dothe  comforte  the  syght  and 
the  brayne,  &  the  mouthe  of  the  stomacke,  &  is  good 
for  the  splene.  Cynomome  is  a  cordyall,  wherfore  the  cinnamon. 
Hebrecyon^  doth  say,  "  why  doth  a  man  dye,  and  can 
gette  Cynomome  to  eate  ? "  yet  it  doth  stop,  &  is  good 
to  restrayne,  fluxes  or  laxes. 

%  Of  Lyqueryce. 

^  Lyqueryce  is  good  to  dense  and  to  open  the  Liquorice, 
lunges  &  the  brest,  &  doth  loose  fleume. 

f  The  .xxiij.  Chapytre  sheweth  a  dyete 
for  Sanguyne  men. 

Anguyne  me7i  be  hoote  and  moyste  Sanguine  men 
of  complexion,  wherfor  they  must 
be    cyrcumspect    in    eatynge    of 
theyr  meate,  cowsyderynge   that 
the  purer  the  complex[i]on  is,  the 
soner  it  may  be  coruptyd,  &  the 
blode  maye  be  the  sooner  infectyd  /  wherfore  they  must  mustn't  eat 
abstayne  to  eate  inordynatly  fniytes  and  herbes  and  roots,' 
rotes,  as  garlyke,  onyons,  and  leekes;  they  must  re- 
frayne  from  eatyng  of  olde  flesshe,  and  exchew  the  oidnesii, 
vsage   of  etynge  of   the  braynes  of  beestes,  &  from 
etynge  the  vdders  of  keyn.     They  muste  vse  moderat  cows' udders, 
slepe  and  moderat  dyet,  or  els  they  wyl  be  to  fat  and 
•j[rose.     Fysshe  of  muddy  waters  be  not  good  for  them,  or  mud-ash. 
And  yf  blode  do  abouwde,  dense  it  with  stufes,  or  by 

'  Cynamon  B  (ed.  1562)  ;  Cynamone  P.         ^  Hebricion  ABP, 

^  sign.  L  .i.  back. 
1  9 


%  The  .xxiiij.  Chapyter  sheweth  a  dyete 
for  Fleumatycke  men. 

Leumaticke  men  be  colde  and  moyste, 
wherfore  they  must  abstayne  from 
meates  the  whiche  is  cold.  And 
also  they  must  refrayne  from  eatyng 
viscus  meate,  specially  from  ^  all 
meates  the  whiche  doth  ingender  fleumatycke  humours, 
as  fysshe,  fruyte,  and  whyte  meate.  Also  to  exchewe 
the  vsage  of  eatynge  of  crude  herbes ;  specyall[y]  to  re- 
frayne from  meate  the  whiche  is  harde  and  slowe  of 
dygestyon,  as  it  appereth  in  the  propertes  of  meates 
aboue  rehersyd.  And  to^  beware  not  to  dwell  nyghe  to 
waterysshe  and  morysshe  grounde.  These  thynges  be 
good  for  fleumatycke  persons,  moderatly  taken  :  onyons, 
garlycke,  peper,  gynger ;  And  all  meates  the  whiche 
be  bote  and  drye ;  And  sauces  the  whiche  be  sowre. 
These  thynge.s  folowynge  doth  purge  fleume  :  polypody, 
netyll,  elder,  agarycke,  yreos,  mayden-heere,  and 

fish  or  fruit. 

PlilcKraatic  men 
mnstn't  eat 

but  hot  and  dry 

Purgatives  of 

Choleric  men 
shouldn't  eat  hot 
spices,  or  drink 

Purgatives  of 

%  The  .XXV.  Chapitre  sheweth  a  dyete 
for  Colorycke  men. 

Olor  is  bote  and  dry ;  wherfore  Colorycke 
men  muste  abstayne  from  eatyng  bote 
spyces,  and  to  refrayne  from  drynkynge 
of  wyne,  and  eatynge  of  Colorycke 
meate  :  howbeit,  Colorycke  men  may  eate  groser  meate 
than  any  other  of  complexions,  except  theyr  educacion 
haue  ben  to  the  contrary.  ^  Colorycke  men  shulde  not 
be  longe  fastynge.  These  thynges  folowyng  do^  purge 
color:  Fumytory,  Centory,  wormewod,  wylde  hoppes, 

'  sign.  L  .ii. 

'  sign.  L.  ii.  back. 

*  AB  omit  "  to.' 

*  doth  AB. 


vyoletes,  Mercury,  Manna,  Reuberbe,  Eupatory,  Tama- 
rindes,  &  the  whay  of  butter. 

%  The  .xxvi.  Chapitre  treateth  of  a 
dyetarye  for  Melancoly  men. 

Elancoly  is   colde  &   drye;   wherfore 
Melancoly  men  must  refrayne   from  Melancholy  men 

..■,■,.■,'      mustn't  eat  fried 

iryed  meate,  and  meate  the  whiche  is  or  salt  meat. 

ouer  salte,  And  from  meate  that  is 
sowre  &  harde  of  dygestyon,  and  from  all  meate  the 
whiche  is  burnet '  and  drye.     They  must  abstayne  from  Melancholy  men 

should  drink 

immoderat  thurste,  and  from  drinkyng  of  hote  wynes,  only  light  wine, 

and  grose  wyne,  as  red  wyne.     And  vse  these  thynges, 

Cowe  mylke,   Almon  my  Ike,   yolkes   of    rere   egges.  miik,  and  egg- 

Boyled  meate  is  better  for  Melancoly  men  than  rosted 

meate.     All  meate  the  whiche  wylbe  soone  dygestyd,  & 

all  meates  the  w>»ich  do%  ingender  good  blode.  And 

meates  the   whiche  bt    '«mperatly  hote,  be  good   for 

Melancoly  men.     And  so  uo  all  herbes  the  whiche  be 

hote  and  moyste.     These  thynges  folowynge  doth  purge  Purgatives  of 


Melancoly:  quyckbeme.  Scene,  sticados,  hartystounge, 
mayden  heere,  pulyall  mountane,  borage,  organum, 
suger,  and  whyte  wyne. 

%  The  .xxvii.  Chapiter  treatyth  of  a 

dyete  and  of  an  ordre  to  be  vsed 

in  the  Pestyferous  tyme  of  the^ 

pestylence  &  swetyng  sycknes. 

Han  the  Plages  of  the  Pestylence  in  Pestilence 

,^  ,  1  •     .  time  in 

or  the  swetynge  syckenesis  in  a  Montpeiier, 
towne   or   cou7?-tree,  with  vs   at 
Mountpylour,  and  al  other  hygh 
Regyons  and  countrees  f/iati  haue 
dwelt  in,  the  people  doth  fle  from 

'  burned  AB.  =  of  B. 



people  flee  from 
the  city. 

In  low  countries, 
infected  houses 
are  shut  up,  with 
the  men  in  them. 


[chap.  XXVII. 

Infection  hangs 
in  clothes, 

straw,  and  rushes. 

Burn  scented 
herbs  or  gums ; 

or  ftimigate  with 
Boorde's  powder, 

or  make  a 

of  spices,  &C., 

into  a  ball. 

the  contagious  and  infectious  ayre;  preseruatyues,^  with 
other  counceyll^  of  Physycke,notwithstandyng.  In  lower 
and  other  baase  countres,  howses,  the  which  he  infectyd 
in  towne  or  cytie,  he  closyd  vp,  both  doores  &  wyn- 
dowesj  &  the  inhahytours  shall  not  come  a  brode, 
nother  to  churche,  nor  to  market,  nor  to  any  howse  or 
company,  for^  infectyng  other,  the  whiche  be  clene  with- 
out infection.  A  man  cannot  be  to  ware,  nor  can  not 
kepe  hym  selfe  to  well  from  this  syckenes,  for  it  is  so 
vehe^ment  and  so  parlouse,^  that  the  syckenes  is  taken 
with  thQ  sauour  of  a  mans  clothes  the  whiche  hath 
vysyted  the  infectious  howse,  for  the  infection  wyl  lye 
and  hange  longe  in  clothes.  And  I  haue  knowen  that 
whan  the  strawe  &  russhes  hath  ben  cast  out  of  a 
howse  infectyd,  the  hogges  the  whiche  dyd  lye  in  it, 
dyed  of  tM  pestylence ;  wherfore  in  such  infectious 
tyme  it  is  good  for  euery  man  thai  wyl  not  flye^  from 
the  contagyous  ayre,  to  vse  dayly — specyally  in  the 
mornynge  and  euenyng — to  burne  luneper,  or  Eose- 
mary,  or  Eysshes,  or  Baye  leues,  or  Maierome,  or 
Franke?i[se]nce,  [or]^  bengauyn.  Or  els  make  this  pow- 
der :  Take  of  storax  calamyte  half  an  vnce,^  of  franken- 
sewce  an  vnce,^  of  the  wodde  of  Aloes  the  weyghte  of  .vi. 
b.*j  myxe  al  these  togyther;  Than  cast  half  a  sponefull 
of  this  in  a  chaffyng  -  dysshe  of  coles,  And  set  it  to 
fume  abrode  in  the  chambers,  &  the  hall,  and  other 
howses.  And  ^^  you  wyll  put  to  this  powder  a  lytell 
Lapdanum,  it  is  so  moche  tliQ  better.  Or  els  make  a 
pomemauwder^^  vnder  this  maner.  Take  of  Lapdanum 
.iii.  drammes,  of  the,  wodde  of  Aloes  one  drame,  of  amber 
of  grece  .ii  drames  and  a  half ;  of  nutmegges,  of  storax 
calamite,  of  eche  a  drame  and  a  half ;  confect^^  all  these  ^^ 

»  preeeruations  B.  ^  counsayles  AB. 

'  against,  for  fear  of,  to  prevent.         *  sign.  L  .iii.  back. 

»  peryllous  AB.    ^  flee  AB ;  fly  P.  '  frankensence  or  AB. 

«  ounce  AB.         '  drachms.  *"  if. 

"  Pomaunder  AB.  "  conferre  B.  *'  this  B. 


togyther  with  Eose-wa'ter,  &  make  a  ball.     And  thk 

aforesayd  Pomemaunder^  doth  not  onely  expell  contagy- 

ous  ayre,^  but  also  it  doth  comforte  the  brayne,  as  Bar- 

thelmew   of    Montagnaue  sayth,   &    other  modemall 

doctors  doth  afferme  the  same  :  whosoeuer  that  is  in-  For  remediea  for 

fectyd   with   the    pestylence,  let   hym    loke    in    my  see  my  Breviary. 

*breuyary  of  helth*  for  a  remedy.*    But  let  hym  vse  this 

dyete  :  let  the  Chamber  ^  be  kept  close,  And  kepe  a  Keep  a  fire  in 

your  room. 

contynuall   fyre  in  the   Chamber,  of  clere   burnynge 

wodde  or  chares-cole  without  smoke;  beware  of  takynge  Don't  take  cold; 

any  colde,  vse  temporat  meates  and  drynke,  and  beware 

of  wyne,  here,  &  cyder;  vse  to  eate  stued  or  baken  eat  stewed 

wardens,  with 

wardens,  yf  they  can  be  goten ;   yf  not,  eate  stued  or  comfits, 
baken  peers,  with  comfettes;  vse  no  grose  meates,  but 
those  the  whiche  be  lyght  of  dygestyon. 

f  The  .xxviij.  Chapitre  sheweth  of  a 
dyete  [for  them]  ^  the  whiche  he  in 

any  Feuer  or  agew.  Fever,  Ague. 

Do  aduertyse  euery  man  that  hath  a  Don't  eat  meat 

— ,  .  .   M  ,  ,      for  6  hours  before 

Jb  euer  or  an  Agewe,  not  to  eate  no  meate  the  first  course. 

.vi.  howres  before  his  course  doth  take 
hym.  And  ^in  no  wyse,  as  longe  as  the  Agew  doth  in- 
dure,  to  put  of  ^  shertte  nor  dowblet,  nor  to  ryse  out  of  oon-t  expose 
the  bedde  but  whan  nede  shall  requyre;  and  in  any 
wyse  not  to  go,  nor  to  take  any^®  open  ayer.  For  suche 
prouysyon  may  be  had  that  at  vttermost  at  the  thyrde  You'll  be  cured  at 

,  i/.i-r-i  1        "'^  S""^  course, 

course  he  shalbe  delyuered  of  the  Feuer,  vsynge  the  ifyouusothe 
medsynes  the  whiche  be  in  the  Breuyary  of  helthe.^^  Sm!yar7.^""^^ 

'  L  .iv.  not  signed.         *  Pomaunder  AB.  ayres  AB. 

*  Chap.  121,  fol.  xlv.  back,  ed.  1552.  *  Chambers  AB. 

"  AB  omit  "  chare."  '  for  them  AB. 

«  L  .iv.  back.  »  of  the  AB.         '"  the  AB. 

"  Chap.  135—150,  fol.  xlix.  back,  to  fol.  Iv.,  ed.  1552. 

1  9* 



[CH.  XXIX. 

Weiir  gloves. 

Hiae  and  Colic. 

Beware  of  cold. 

Don't  fast  too 

Mt  now  bread, 

cold  herbs, 

fruit,  or  anything 
which  raises 

For  Stone,  don't 
drink  wine,  or  eat 
red  herrings,  &c. 
(See  p.  80  above). 

And  let  euery  man  beware  of  castynge  theyr  handes 
&  armes  at  any  tyme  out  of  the  bed,  in  or  out  of  theyr 
agony,  or  to  spraule  with  the  legges  out  of  the  bed  : 
good  it  is  for  the  space  of  .iii.  courses  to  weare  con- 
tynewelly  gloues,  and  not  to  wasshe  the  handes.  And 
to  vse  suche  a  dyet  in  meate  &  drynke  as  is  rehersyd  in 
the  pestylence.     [See  above;  p.  291,  lines  11 — 15.] 

1  The  .xxix.  Chapitre  treatyth  of  a 

dyete  for  them  the  whiche  haue  the 

Iliacke,  or  the  colyck,  &  the  stone. 

He  Iliacke  and  the  Colycke  be  ingen- 
dered  of  ventosyte,  the  whiche  is 
intrusyd  or  inclosed  in  two  guttes ; 
the  one  is  called  Ilia,  And  the  other 
is  called  Colon.  For  these  two  in- 
fyrmytes  a  *  man  muste  beware  of  colde.  And  good  it 
is  not  to  be  longe  fastynge.  And  necessary  it  is  to  be 
laxatyue,  and  not  in  no  wyse  to  be  constupat.  And 
these  thynges  folowyng  be  not  good  for  them  the  which 
haue  these  aforesaid  infyrmytes ;  ^new  bred,  stale  bred,^ 
nor  new  ale.  They  must  abstayne  also  from  drynkyng 
of  beere,  of  cyder,  and  red  wyne,  and  cynamom.  Also 
refrayne from  al  raeates  that  ho?iny  is  in;  exchew  eatyng 
of  cold  herbesj  vse  not  to  eate  beanes,  peson,  nor 
potage ;  beware  of  the  vsage  of  fruytes.  And  of  all 
thynges  the  whiche  doth  ingender  wynde.  For  the 
stone,  abstayn  from  drynkynge  of  new  ale ;  beware  of 
beere,  and  of  red  wyne  and^  bote  wynes;  refrayne  from 
eatynge  of  red  herynge,  ma[r]tylmas  beef  and  bakon,  and 
salte  fysshe,  and  salt  meates.  And  beware  of  goynge 
colde  aboute  the  mydell,  specyally  aboute  the  raynes 
of  the  backe.  And  make  no  restryctyon  of  wynde  and 
water,  nor  seege^  that  nature^  wolde  expelle. 

'  sign.  M  .i.         ^^  bote  bread  P.         ^  and  of  AB. 
*  egestyon  P.         ^  water  AB. 



%  The  .XXX.  Chapitre  treatyth  of  a 

dyete  for  them  the  whiche  haue 

any  kyndes  of  the  gowte.^ 

Hey  the  whiche  be  infectyd  with  the 
gowte,  or  any  kynde  of  it,  I  do  aduer- 
tyse  them  not  to  syt  long^  bollynge*  Don't  sit  bibbing 
and  bybbynge,  dysyng  and  cardyng, 
in  forgettyng  them  selfe  to  exonerat  and  forget  to 
the  blader  and  the  bely  whan  nede  shall  xeqnyre; 
and  also  to  beware  that^  the  legges  hange  not  without 
some    stay,    nor    that    the    bootes    or    shoes    be    not  Gowtyfoik 

mustn't  wear 

ouer  strayte.     who  soeuer  hath  the  gowte,  muste  re-  tight  boots, 

frayne  from   drynkyng  of    newe   ale ;    and    let  hym 

abstayne  from  drynkyng  of  beere  and  red  wyne.    Also, 

he  must  not  eate  new  brede,  egges,  fresshe  samon,  eles,  or  eat  salmon, 

fresshe  heryng,  pylcherde^,  oysters,  and  all  shell-fysshe.  oysters. 

Also,*  he  muste  exchew  the  eatynge  of  fresshe  beef,  of 

goose,  of  ducke,  &  of  pygyons.     Beware  of  takyng^  or  ducks; 

colde  in  the  legge,^  or  rydyng,  or  goynge  wetshod.    Be-  or  go  wetshod. 

ware  of  veneryous  actes  after  refection,  or  after  or  vpon 

a  full  stomacke.     And  refrayne  from  all  thinges  that 

doth  ingewder  euyll  humours,  and  be  infiatyue. 

%  The  .xxxi.  Chapytre  treatyth  of  a 

dyete  for  them  the  whiche  haue 

any  of  the  kyndes  of  lypored. 

E  that  IS  mfectyd  wyth  any  of  the  Lepers  mustn't 

drink  wine  and 

.im/"  kyndes  of  the  lepored  must  strong  aie. 
refrayne  from  al  maner  of  wynes,  & 
from  new  drynkes,  and  stro7^ge  ale ; 
than  let  hym  beware  of  ryot  and 

'  gowtes  AB. 
*  bowlynge  AB. 
'  takynge  of  A  : 
^  sign.  M  .ii. 

^  sign.  M  .i.  back. 
^  AB  omit  "  that. 

takyng  of  B. 

'  to  longe  AB, 
«  And  AB. 
*  legge  AB. 
'"  foure  AB. 




Lepers  mustn't  supfetyiige.  And  let  hym  abstayne  from'  etyng  of 
spyces,  and  daates,  and  from  trypes  &  podynges,  and 

fish,  eggs,  all  inwardes  of  beestes.     Fysshe,  and  egges,  &  mylke, 

is  not  good  for  leperous  persons :  and  they  must  ab- 

beef,  goose,  stayne  from  eating  of  fresshe  beef,  and  from  eatynge  of 

water-fowl,  gose  [&]  ducke,  and  from  water-fowle  and  pygions; 

venison,  hate^  &c.  And  in  no  wyse  eate  no  veneson,  nor  bare-flesshe,  and 
suche  lyke. 

(See  Breuyary, 
ch.  122,  fol.  xlvi.) 
Folk  with  Falling 

mustn't  drink 
milk  or  strong 

or  eat  fish-fat, 
viscous  fish, 
garlick,  leeks, 
venison,  &c. ; 

or  go  to  meetings 
of  men. 

or  sit  too  near  the 

%  The  .xxxii.  Chapytre  treatyth  of  a 
dyete  for  them  the  whiche  haue  any 
of  th^  kyndes  of  the  fallyng  syckenes. 

Ho  so  euer  he  be,  the  which  haue 
any  of  the  kyndes  of  the^  fallyng 
syckenes,  must  abstayn  from  eat- 
ynge of  whyte  meate,  specially  of 
milke :  he  must  ^rcfrayne  from 
drynkyng  of  wyne,  newe  ale,  and 
stronge  ale.  Also  theyshulde  not  eate  the  fatnes  of  fysshe, 
nor  the  hedes  of  fysshe,  the  whiche  dothe  ingender 
rewme.  Shell-fysshe,  eles,  samon,  herynge,  &  viscus 
fysshes,  be  not  good  for  Epilentycke  men.  Also,  they 
muste  refrajTie  from  eatynge  of  garlyke,  onyons,  leekes, 
chybbolles,  and  all  vaperous  meates,  the  whiche  doth 
hurte  ihQ  bed :  venson,  hare-flesshe,  beef,  beanes,  and 
peason,  be  not  good  for  Epilentycke  men.  And  yf  they 
knowe  that  they  be  infected  with  this*  great  sycknes, 
they  shulde  not  resorte  where  there  is  great  resorte  of 
company,  whiche  is,in^  churche,  in  sessyons,  and  market- 
places on  market  dayes  ;  yf  they  do,  the  sycknes  wj'll 
infeste^  them  more  there  than  in  any  other  place,  or  at 
any  other  tyme.  They  must  beware  they  do  not  syt 
to  nyghe  the  fyre,  for  the  fyre  wyll  ouercom  them,  and 

'  for  AB.        «  AB  omit  "the." 
<  these  AB.        *  in  the  AB. 

'  sign.  M  .ii.  back. 
"  infecte  AB. 

OH.  XXXIIL]  DYETARY.      diet   for   HEADACHE.  295 

wyll  induce  the  sycknes.     They  must  beware  of  lyeng 

hote^  in  theyr  bed,  or  to  laboure  extremely;  for  suche  or  work  too  hard. 

thynges  causyth  the  grefe  to  come  the  ofter. 

%   The   .xxxiii.   Chapytre   treatyth 
of  a  dyete  [for  them]  ^  the  whiche 

haue  any  payne  in  the  ^  hed.  Headache. 

Any  sycknes,  or  infyrmytes,  and  impe- 
dymentes,  may  be  in  a  mans  hed, 
wherfore,  who  so  euer  haue  any  impe-  Keep  the  head 


dymewt  in  the  hed,  must  not  kepe  the 
hed  to  bote  nor  to  colde,  but  in  a  tem- 
poraunce.      And  to  beware  of  ingendryng  of  rewme,  Don't  eat  things 
whiche  is  the  cause  of  many  infyrmytes.     There  is  no-  rheum; 
thynge  that  doth  ingender  rewme  so  moche  as  doth  the 
fatnes  of  fysshe,  and  the  heddes  of  fysshe,  and  sur- 
fettes,^  &  takynge  colde  in  the  feete,  and  takynge  colde 
in  the  nape  of  the  necke  or  hed.     Also,   they  thQ 
whiche  haue  any  infyrmyte  in  the  hed  must  refrayne  don't  sleep  too 
of  immoderat  slepe,  specyally  after  meate.     Also,  they 
must  abstayne  from  drynkynge  of  wyne ;  and  vse  not  drink  wine, 
to  drynke  ale  and  beere  the  whiche  is  ouer  stronge. 
vocyferacyon,  halowynge,  cryeng,  and  hygh  synging,  is  or  haUo. 
not  good  for  the  hed.      All  thynges  the  whiche  is 
vaporous  or  dothe  fume,  is  not  good  for  the  hed.     And 
all  thynges  the  which  is  of  euyll  sauour,  as   caryn,  Keep  out  of 
synkes,  wyddrawghtes,^  pisse-bolles,  snoffe  of  candellys, 
dunghylles,  stynkynge  canellys,  and  stynkynge  stand- 
yng  waters,  &  stynkynge  marshes,  with  suche  conta- 
gyous  ^  eyres,  doth  hurte  the  hed,  and  the  brayne,  and  the 
memory.     All  odyferous  sauours  be  good  for  the  hed,  and  smeii  swwt 
and  the  brayne,  and  the  memory. 

'  to  bote  AB.         '  for  them  ABP.         ^  theyr  AB. 

*  sign.  M  .iii.  *  surfestes,  orig.  *  wynkraughtes. 

'  sign.  M  .iii.  back. 




Avoid  sour 

Use  cordials, 
nourishing  food, 
su»;ar,  and  sweet 

^  The  .xxxiiii.  Chapitre  treateth  of  a 

dyete  for  them  the  whiche  be 

in  a  consumpcyon. 

Ho  soeuer  he  be  that  is  in  a  consumpcyon 
muste  abstayne  from  all  sowre  and  tarte 
thynges,  as  venegre  &  alceger/  &  suche 
lyke.  And  also  he  must  abstayne  from 
eatynge  of  grose  meates,  the  whiche  be  harde  and  slowe 
of  dygestyon,  And  vse  cordyallys  and  restoratynes, 
and  nutrytyue  meates.  All  meates  and  drinkes  the 
which  is  swete,  &  that  suger  is  in,  be  nutrytyue; 
wherfore  swete  wynes  be  good  for  them  the  whiche  be 
in  consuwpcion,^  moderatly  taken.  And  sowre  wyne, 
sowre  ale,  and  sowre  brede,^  is  good  for  no  man ;  For 
it  doth  freate  away  nature,  and  let  them  beware,  that 
Don't  eat  fried  or  be  in*  consumpcion,  of  fryde  meate,  of  bruled  meate, 

burnt  meat;  at* 

and  bronte"''  meate,  the  whiche  is  ouer  rostyd.  And  m 
any  wyse  let  them  beware  of  anger  &  pencyfulnes. 
These  thynges  folowynge  be  good  for  them  the  whiche 
^be  in  coTisumpcions  "^ :  a  pygge  or  a  cocke  stewed  and 
made  in  a  gely,  cockrellys  stewed,  gootes  mylke  and 
suger,  almon  mylke  in  the  whiche  ryce  is  sod  en,  and 
rabettes  stewed,"  &c.  ["  &  newe  layd  egges,  &  rere 
yolkes  of  egge^,  &  ryce  soden  in  almon  mylke.     P.] 

but  eat  stewed 
pig  or  coclc. 

%  The  .XXXV.  Chapitre  treateth  of  a 
dyete  for  them  the  whiche  be  as- 
matyke  men,  beyng  short  wyn- 
dyd,  or  lackynge  breth. 

aleger  AB ;  alegar  P.       *  consumpcions  AB.       ^  beere  AB. 
*  in  a  AB.         *  of  burned  AB.         ^  M  .iv.  not  signed. 
'  consumpcion  AB. 


Asthma  comes 
from  phlegm 
obstroctLng  the 

Hortnes  of  wynde  commeth  dyuers 
tymes  of  impedyniente^  in  the 
lunges,  and  stray tnes  of  the  brest, 
opylatyd  thorow  viscus  fleume; 
and  other  whyle  whan  the  hed  is 
stufFyd  with  rewme,  called  the 
pose,   lettyth   the   breth   of   his  ThePose. 

naturall  course,  wherfore  he  that  hath  shortnes  of  breth 
muste  abstayne  from  eatyng  of  nuttes,  specyally  yf  they 
be  olde  *  chese^  and  my  Ike  is  not  good  for  them ;  no  more 
is  fysshe  and  fruyte,  and  rawe  or  crude  herbes.  Also 
all  maner  of  meate  the  whiche  is  harde  of  dygestion,  is 
not  good  for  them.  They  muste  refrayne  from  eat- 
yng of  fysshe,  specially  from  eatyng  fysshe  the  which 
^wyll  cleue  to  the  fyngers,  &  be  viscus  &  slyme ;  &  in 
any  wyse  beware  of  the  skyns  of  fysshe,  &  of  all 
maner  of  meate  the  whiche  doth  ingender  fleume. 
Also  they  muste  beware  of  colde.  And  whan  any 
howse  is  a  swepynge,  to  go  out  of  the  howse  for  a  space 
in  to  a  clene*  eyre.  The  dust  also  that  ryseth  in  the 
etrete  thorow  the  vehemens  of  the  wynde  or  other 
wyse,  is  not  good  for  theym.  And  smoke  is  euyll  for 
them ;  and  so  is  all  thynge  that  is  stoppynge :  wherfore 
necessary  it  is  for  them  to  be  laxatyue,  [&  to  be  in  a 
clene  &  pure  eyre.     P.] 

Don't  eat  nuts  or 
cheese,  &c. 

For  Asthma 

don't  eat 
viscous  fish. 

Beware  of  cold 
and  dust. 

and  smoke. 

%  The  .xxxvi.  Chapitre  treatyth  of  a 
dyete  for  them  the  whiche 

haue  the  palsy e.  pai^ 

Hey  the  whiche  haue  the  Palsye,  vny- 
uersall  or  pertyculer,  must  beware  of 
anger,  hastynes,  and  testynes,  &  must  Don't  get  teaty. 
beware  of  feare,  for  thorow  anger  or 
feare  dyuers  tymes  the  Palsye  do  come 
in  AB.        ^  and  chese  P.         '  M  .iv.  back.         ■•  clere  P. 



Don't  get  drunk,    to  a  man.     Also  tliey,  must  beware  of  dronkewnes,  and 
or  eat  nuts,  eatyng  of  nuttes,  whiche  thynges  be  euyll  for  the  palsye 

of  the  tonge.  coldnes,  and  contagyous  and  stynkynge 
&  fylthy  ayres  be  euyll  for  the  palsye.  And  lette  euery 
^man  beware  on^  lyeng  vpon  the  bare  grounde,  or  vpon 
the  bare  stones ;  for  it  is  euyll  for  the  Palsye.  the 
f^'ais"'' *' ^"^  sauour  of  Castory,  &  the  sauour  of  a  fox,  is  good 
agaynst  the  palsye. 

or  lie  on  the 

Madmen  must  be 
kept  in  safe 

Mychell,  a 

killed  2  people 
and  himself. 

Keep  lunatics  in 
a  close  dark 
room,  witli  a 
keeper  whom 
they  fear. 

Don't  put 
pictures  in  their 

Shave  their  heads 
once  a  month. 

f  The  .xxxvii.  Chapitre  doth  shew 

an  order  and  a  dyete  for  them 

the  whiche  be  madde,  and 

out  of  theyr  wytte. 

Here  is  no  man  the  whiche  haue  any  of 
tliQ  kyndes  of  madnes  but  they  ought  to 
be  kepte  in  sauegarde,  for  dyuers  incon- 
uenyewce  that  may  fall^  as  it  apperyd  of 
late  dayes  of  a  lunatycke  man  named 
Mychell, 3  the  whiche  went  many  yeres  at  lyberte,  &  at 
last  hedyd  kylle  his  wyfe,  and  hiswyfes  suster,  &his  owne 
selfe.  wherfore  I  do  aduertyse  euery  man  the  whiche  is 
madde,  or  lunatycke,  or  frantycke,  or  demonyacke,  to  be 
kepte  in  saue  garde  in  some  close  howse  or  chamber, 
where  there  is  lytell  lyght.  And  that  he  haue  a  keper, 
the  whiche  the  madde  man  do  feare.  And  se  that  the 
madde  man  haue  no  knyf,  nor  sheers,  nor  other  edge 
toule,  nor  that  he  haue  no  gyrMyll,  except  it  be  a  week 
lyste  of  clothe,  for^  hurtynge  or  kyllynge  hym  selfe. 
Also  the  chamber  or  the  howse  that  the  madde  man  is 
in,  let  there  be  no  payntcd  clothes,  nor  paynted  wallys, 
nor  pyctures  of  man  nor  woman,  or  fowle,  or  beest ;  for 
suche  thynges  maketh  them  ful  of  fantasyes.  lette  the 
madde  persons  hed  be  shauen  ones  a  moneth :  let  them 

*  sign.  N  .i.       '  of  AB.       '  Michel  P.       *  sign.  N  .i.  back. 
*  against,  to  prevent. 


drinke  no  wyne,  nor  stronge  ale,  nor  stronge  beere,  "but  and  give  them  no 

,...  .  ,  strong  drink. 

moderat  drynke;  and  let  them  haue  .111.  tymes  in  a  days 
warme  suppynges,  and  [a]^  lytell  warme  meat.  And  vse 
few  wordes  to  them,  excepte  it  be  for  reprehensyon,  or  speak  iittie  to 
gentyll  reformacyon,  yf  they  haue  any  wytte  or  perse- 
ueraunce  to  vnderstande  [what  reprehensyon  or  refor- 
macyon is.     P.] 

%  The  .xxxviii.  Chapytre  treatyth  of 

a  dyete  for  them  the  whiche  haue 

any  of  the  kyndes  of  the 

Idropyses.  i>r'*»». 

Aynt  Beede  sayeth  'the  more  a  man 
doth  drynke  that  hath  the  Idropise,^ 
the  more  he  is  a  thurst ;'  for  although 
the  syckenes  doth  come  by  superabun- 
daunce  of  water,  yet  the  lyuer  is  drye,  whether  it  be 
alchy^tes,  Iposarca,  Lencoflegmancia,  or  the  tympany. 
They  that  hath  any  of  the  .iiii.  kyndes  of  the  Idropyses  /*  Avoid  binding 
must  refrayne  from  al  thynges  the  whiche  be  cowstupat 
and  costyue,  and  vse  all  thynges  the  which  be  laxatyue  / 
nuttes,  and  dry  almondes,  and  harde  chese,  is^  poyson  Nuts  and  cheese 
to  them ;  ^  A  ptysane  and  posset  ale  made  with  colde  posset  aie  is 
herbes  doth  comforte  them,     who  so  euer  he  be,  the  ^ 
whiche  wyll  haue  a  remedy  for  any  of  these  fours 
kyndes  of  the  Idropyses,''  and  wyll  knowe  a  declaracyon  For  aii  sicknesses 
of  these  infyrmytes,  and  all  other  sycknesses,  let  hym  treatment,  see 
loke  in  a  boke  of  my  makyng,  named  the  Breuyary  of  ™^    «*y«»'i'« 
helth.     For  in  this  boke  I  do  speke  but  of  dyetes,  and  i  only  speak  hero 

of  Diet,  and  of 

how  a  man  shuld  order  his  mansyon  place,  And  hym  self  managing  a 


&  his  howsholde,  with  suche  lyke  thynges,  for  the  con- 
seruacion  of  helth.* 

*  a  AB.         '^  Idropsye  AB;  I  dropj'-se  P.         '  sign.  N  .ii. 

*  Idropsyes  AB.         *  AB  omit  "is."         ^  Not  in  AB. 

^  See  Boorde's  Bretiyary^  chap.  179,  38,  17,  345. 




A  general  Diet, 

%  The  .xxxix.  Chapytre  treateth  of  a 

generall  dyete  for  all  maner  of 

men  and  women,  beynge 

sycke  or  hole. 

Every  one  knows 
best  what  helps 
and  what  hurts 

Don't  be  anxious, 

Sleep  at  night. 
A  merry  heart 

makes  a  man 
live,  and  look 

Care  brings  age 
and  death. 

Wash  your  hands 
ollen,  and  comb 
your  head. 

Keep  your  chest 
and  stomach 
warm,  your 
feet  dry,  and 

your  head  cool. 

Avoid  venery; 

THere  is  no  man  nor  woman  the  which  haue  any 
respect  to  them  selfe,  that  can  be  a  better  Phesyc- 
ion  for  theyr  ^owne  sauegarde,  than  theyr  owne  self 
can  be,  to  consyder  what  thynge  tJiQ  whiche  doth  them 
good,  And  to  refrayne  from  suche  thynges  that  doth 
them  hurte  or  harme.  And  let  euery  man  beware  of 
care,  sorowe,  thought,  pencyfulnes,  and  of  inwarde 
anger.  Beware  of  surfettes,  and  vse  not  to'^  moche 
veneryouse  actes.  Breke  not  the  vsuall  custome  of 
slepe  in  the  nyght.  A  mery  herte  and  mynde,  the 
whiche  is  in  reste  and  quyetnes,  without  aduersyte 
^and  to  moche  worldly  busynes,^  causeth  a  man  to  lyuo 
longe,  and  to  loke  yongly,  althoughe  he  be  agyd.  care 
and  sorowe  bryngeth  in  age  and  deth,  where[fore]  ^  let 
euery  man  be  mery ;  and  yf  he  can  not,  let  hym  re- 
sorte  to  mery  company  to  breke  of  his  perplexatyues. 

IF  Furthermore,  I  do  aduertyse  euery  man  to  wasshe 
theyr  handes  ofte  euery  daye;  And  dyuers  tymes  to 
key  me  theyr  hed  euery  daye,  And  to  plounge  the  eyes 
in  colde  water  in  the  morenyng.  Moreouer,  I  do  coun- 
cell  euery  man  to  kepe  the  breste  and  the  stomacke 
warme,  And  to  kepe  the  feete  from  wet,  and  other 
whyle  to  wasshe  them,  and  that  they  be  not  kept  to 
bote  nor  to  colde,  but  indyfFerently.  Also  to  kepe  the 
hed  and  the  necke  in  a  moderat  temporaunce,  not  to 
bote  nor  to  colde;  ^and  in  any  wyse  to  beware  not  to 
medle  to  moche  with  veneryous  act^s;  for  that  wyll  cause 
a  man  to  loke  agedly,  &  also  causeth  a  man  to  haue  a 

*  sign.  N  .ii.  back. 

*  wherfore  A 

^  so,  orig. 
wherefore  B. 

-'  Not  in  P  (ed.  1547), 
'  sign.  N  .iii. 

CHAP.  XL.]  DYETAR7.     HOW   TO   MANAGE  A   SICK   MAN.  301 

breef  or  a  shorte  lyfe.     All^  other  matters  pertaynynge  it  shortens  life, 
to  any  pertyculer  dyete,  you  shall  haue  '^  in  the  dyetes 
aboue  in  this  boke  rehersyd. 

^  The  .xl.  Chapytre  doth  shewe  an 
order,  or  a  fasshyon,  how  a  sycke 

man  shulde  be  ordered,  And  Anchroom,^ 

how  a  sycke  man  shuld 
be  vsyd  that  is  lykely 
to  dye. 

and  a  Death-bed. 

Hoo  SO  euer  that  is  sore  sycke,  it 
is  vncerteyne  to  man  whether  he 
shall  lyue  or  dye ;  wherfore  it  is 
necessarye  for  hym  thai  is  sycke 
to  haue  two  or  .iii.^  good  kepers,  Have  2  or  3  good 
the  whiche  at  all  tymes  must  be 

dylyge7it,  and  not  slepysshe,  sloudgysshe,*  sluttysshe. 

And  not  to  wepe  and  wayle  aboute  a  sycke  man,  nor  to  No  wailing  or 


vse  many  wordes  /  nor  that  there  be  no  greate  resort  to 

common  and  talke,  ^For  it  is  a  busynes  [for]  ^  a  whole 

man  to  answere  many  men,  specyally  women,  that  shall 

come  to  hym.     They  the  which  commeth  to  any  sycke 

person,  ought  to  haue  few  wordes  or  none,  except  certayne  except  to  make 

persons  the  whiche  be  of  counseyll  of  the  Testament 

makynge,  the  whiche  wyse  men  be  not  to  seke  of  such 

matters  in  theyr  syckenes ;  for  wysdom  wolde  that  euery 

man  shulde  prepare  for  suche  thynges  in  helth.  And  yf 

any  man  for  charyte  wyll  vyset  any  person,  lette  hym  a  visitor  may 

aduertyse  the  sycke  to  make  euery  thynge  euyn  bytwext  matters, 

God,  and  the  worlde,  &  his  co?2Scyence ;   And  to  re-  receiving  the 

c6yue  the  ryghtes  of  holy  churche,  lyke  a  catholycke  cimrch, 

•  Also  AB  ;  All,  ed.  1547.  '  haue  it  AB. 
'  thre  AB.                            *  ABP  insert  "nor." 

*  sign.  N  .ill.  back.  *  for  AB  and  ed.  1547. 


attention  to 
and  Doctor. 

THE  SICK  Man's  death. 

[chap.  XL. 

Keep  sweet 
odours  in  the 
sick  room. 

Don't  have 
women  babbling 

Have  the  drink 

When  Death's 

read  of  Christ* 
sufferings ; 

give  the  dying 
man  a  little 
warm  drink ; 

and  pray  that  he 
may  die  in  the 
faHh  of  Christ. 

man;  And  to  folowe  the  counseyll  of  "both  Physyc- 
yona,  whiche  is  to  say,  the  physycyon  of  the  soule,  & 
the  physycyon  of  the  body,  that  is  to  saye,  the  spyrit- 
uall  counseyl  of  his  ghostly  father,  and  the  bodely  coun- 
seyll of  his  physycyon  consernyng  the  receytes  of  his 
medsons  to  recouer  helth.  For  saynt  Augustyn  saith, 
'*  he  that  doth  not  the  ^  commauwdement  of  his  physyc- 
yon, doth  kyll  hym  self."  Furthermore,  about  a  sycke 
persone  shuld  be  redolent  sauour[s],  and  the  chamber 
shuld  be  replenysshed  with  herbes  &  flowers  of  ody- 
ferouse  sauour.^  &  certayne  tymes  it  is  good,  to  be  vsed 
a  lytell  of  some  perfume^  ^to  stande  in  tliQ  my  die  of 
the  chamber.  And  in  any  wyse  lette  not  many  men,  and 
specyally  women,  be  togyther  at  one  tyme  in  the  cham- 
ber, not  onely  for  bablynge,  but  specially  for  theyr 
brethes.^  And  the  kepers  shulde  se  at  all  tymes  that 
the  sycke  persons  drynke  be  pure,  fresshe,  &  stale,  and 
that  it  be  a  lytell  warmed,  turned  out  of  the  colde. 
Yf  the  sycke  man  wex  sycker  and  sycker,  that  there  is 
lykle^  hope  of  amendment,  but  sygnes  of  deth,  than  no 
man  oughte  to  moue  to  hym  any  worldly  matters  or 
busynes;  but  to  speke  of  ghostly  and  godly  matters. 
And  to  rede  the  passyon  of  Cryste,  &  to  say  the  psalmes 
of  the  passyon,  and  i^o  holde  a  crosse  or  a  pyctour  of 
the  passyon  of  Cryste  before  tliQ  eyes  of  the  sycke 
person.  And  let  not  the  kepera  forget  to  gyue  the 
sycke  man  that  is  in  suche  agony,  warme  drynke  with 
a  spone,  and  a  sponefull  of  a  cawdell  or  a  colesse. 
And  than  lette  euery  man  do^  indeuer  hym  selfe  to 
prayer,  that  the  sycke  person  may  fynysshe  his  lyfe 
Catholyckely  in  the  fayth  of   lesu  Cryste,  And    so^ 

'  not  obserue  the  cowmaundementes  AB. 
'  flauours  AB.  '  good  to  vse  some  perfumes  P. 

*  N  .iv.  not  signed.  *  hote  breathes  AB. 

«  likely  AB  ;  lytle  P.  '  P  leaves  out  "  do." 

8  so  to  AB. 

CHAP.  XL.]         DYETARr.      MAT   WE   DIE  IN   THE   FAITH  !  303 

departe  out  of  this  myserable  world.  I  do  beseche 
the  Father,  and  the  sone,  and  the  holy  ghost,  thorow 
the  meryte  of  lesu  Crystes  passyon,  that  I  and  all 
Creatures  lyuynge  may  do  [so].^    AMEN. 

»   80  P 



Wi^tx  I  btofllgnjgt  in  u^ni 

JHartgns  pargisslje  besstre  cfjargnge 

Crosge,  at  tlie  ssgne  of  segnt 

3oi}n  ffiuangelgste* 

(for  |o^n  ^0bg^£,  C«m  priuilcgio  ngali. 
gib  imprimenbttm  solwrn.^ 

[?  Cif/^  ^  St  John  wi'ltinff  Ids  Revelations  in  the  Isle  of  Patmos.'\ 

'  N  .iv.  back. 

'  Robert  "W)'^er'8  Colopbon  to  the  undated  edition  in  the  British  Museum  of 
?  1557  A.D.,  is  :  ^f  Imprinted  by  me  Robert  Wyer,  Dwellynge  at  the  Sygne  of 
Seynt  John  Euangelyst  in  S.  Martyns  Parysshe,  besyde  Chavynge  Crosse. 

Thomas  Colwel's  Colophon  to  the  edition  of  1562  is  :  ^  Imprinted  by  me 
Thomas  Colwel.  Dwellynge  in  the  house  of  Robert  Wyer,  at  the  Signe  of 
S.  John  Euangelyst,  besyde  Charynge  Crosse.     c^J 

Wyllyam  Powell's  Colophon  to  the  edition  of  1547  is  :  ^  Imprynted  at 
London  in  Fletestrete  at  the  sygne  of  the  George  nexte  to  saynte  Dunstones 
churche  by  Wylh^nm  Powell.  In  the  yere  of  our  Lorde  god  .M.  CCCCC. 
LXVII.     tt^  :  ^ 


C^()e  treatpft  anftioe 
jpnge  ttie  bofee  of 

Compgleb  bg  CDllgtt  clobjt^,  btiig* 

catgb  to  Barttarbt  barber 

bbjdlgtts  in  Banberg. 




^%  %a  kgitk  foitlj  mt,  k  not  a  itxHt 

[Coarse  woodcut  of  a  man  stooping  down  and  exposing 

himself,  with  the  legend  Testiciilos  Habet, 

Any  member  wanting  the  cut  must  apply  to 

Mb  Fuenivall.] 

^  I  am  a  Jfjook  of  (^si^t  lowllgs  bot^ 
Callgitg  al  kitancs,  in  pll  t^mix  a  rope. 

A  .i.  back. 


^%  The  preface,  or  the  pystle. 

0  the  ryght  worshypfulle  (Bamarde  Barber),  dwell- 
ynge  in.  Banberye,  CoUyn  Clowte  surrendreth  gret- 
ynge,  with  inmiGrtall  thankes. 

IT  was  so,  worshypful  syr,  that  at  my  last  beynge  in  Mount- 
pyllour,  I  chaunsed  to  be  assocyat  with  a  doctor  of  Physyke  / 
which  at  his  retorne  had  set  forth  .iij.  Bokes  to  be  prynted  in 
Fleetstrete,  within  Temple  barre,  the  whiche  Bokes  were  compyled 
togyther  in  one  volume  named  the  Introductorie  of  knowledge  / 
whervpon,  there  dyd  not  resort  only  vnto  hym  marchauntos,  gentyl- 
men,  and  wymen  /  but  also  knyghtes,  and  other  great  men,  whiche 
were  desyrous  to  knowe  the  effycacyte,  and  the  efFecte  of  his  afore- 
sayd  bokes ;  and  so,  amonge  many  thynges,  they  desyred  to  knowe 
his  fansye  consernynge  the  werynge  of  Berdes  /  He  answeryd  by 
great  experyence :  "  Some  wyl  weer  berdes  bycause  theyr  faces  be 
pocky,  maun^gy,  sausflewme',  lyporous,  &  dysfygured  /  by  the 
whiche  many  clene  men  were  infected."  *  So,  this  done,  he  desyred 
euery  man  to  be  contentyd :  Vvherfore  I  desyre  no  man  to  be  dys- 
pleasyd  with  me.  And  where-as  he  was  anymatyd  to  wryte  his  boke 
to  thende,  that  great  men  may  laugh  therat*/  I  haue  deuysed  this 
answere,  to  the  entent,  that  in  the  redyng  they  myght  laughe  vs 
bothe  to  scorne  /  And  for  that  cause  I  wrote  this  boke,  as  god  know- 
eth  my  pretence  /  who  euer  keape  youre  maystershyp  in  helthe. 

'  sign.  A  .ij.  '  sign.  A  .ij.  back.  '  See  Forewords,  p.  101, 

*  Speaking  of  matters  trifelyng,  Wilson,  in  his  ^7-^  of  Rhetor'upte,  1553 
(edit.  1584,  p.  8),  8a)'S  :  "  Suche  are  triflyng  causes  when  there  is  no  weight  in 
them,  as  if  one  should  phantasie  to  praise  a  Goose  before  any  other  Beast 
liuyng  (as  I  knowe  who  did)  or  of  fruite  to  conimende  Nuttes  cheefly,  as  Ouid 
did,  or  the  Feuer  quartaine  as  Phaciosimis  did,  or  the  Gnat,  as  Virgill  did,  or 
the  battaile  of  Frogges,  as  Homer  did,  or  dispraise  beardes,  or  commende 
shauen  hiddes."— W.  C.  Hazlitt. 

*  See  the  Preface  to  the  Byctary,  p.  228  above. 

20  # 


%  Here  foloweth  a  treatyse,  made 

Answerynge  the  treatyse  of 

doctor  Borde  vpon  Berdes. 

Allynge  to  remembraunce  your  notable  reproclie  gyuew 
vnto  berdes,^  I  was  cowstrayned  to  render  the  occasion 
therof;  whempon,  I  founde  by  longe  surmyse  and 
studye  that  ye  had  red  the  storye  of  Hellogobalus, 
&  founde  therin  greate  and  stronge  auctoryties  / 
which  hy  lykelyhode  mouyd  you  to  this  ^  Eeformacyon  of  berdes. 
For  ye  knowe  that  Hellogobalus,  beynge  gyuen  moche  to  the 
desyre  of  the  body,  &  that  by  moche  superfluyte,  he^  thought  it 
requysyght  to  commyt  the  fylthy  synwe  of  leche[r]y,  vpon  the 
receyptes  of  delycate  meat^^.     For  he  caused  his  cokes  to  make  & 

'  Mr  Hazlitt  sa3's,  *  See  Grapaldus  de  Partibvs  Ovimn,  and  Collier's  Extr. 
Jicg.  Stat.  Co.  ii.  97.'  At  the  latter  reference,  22  Sept.  1579,  is,  '  H.  Denham, 
Lycenced  unto  him  &c,  A  paradox,  provinge  b)'^  Reason  and  example  that 
Baldnes  is  much  better  then  bushie  heare  .  .  vj^.'  (Written  by  Synesius, 
englished  by  Abraham  Fleming. )  After  this,  Mr  Collier  prints,  from  a  MS  of 
his  own,  he  says,  an  amusing  dialogue  between  B[aldness]  and  H[air],  en- 
titled the  '  Defence  of  a  Bald  Head.'  B,  argues  that  baldness  is  no  sign  of 
old  age,  as  many  young  men  are  bald  from  too  much  wenching  ; 

Then,  thinke  also  of  this  : 

if  you  no  haire  have  gott. 
How  pleasantly  your  haire  you  misse, 

when  weather  it  is  hot. 
Let  ruffins  weare  a  bushe, 

and  sweat  till  well  nigh  dead, 
In  that  Ime  bald,  I  care  no  rush, 

but  onely  wipe  my  head, 
fiair  ends  with 

Thy  reasons  may  be  good, 

that  baldnes  is  no  ill ; 
But  ladies  will  love  lustie  blood 

and  haire,  say  what  you  will. 
'  A  .iij.  not  signed.  ^  orig.  ye 


ordeyne  suche  hote  meates  that  maye  prouoke  or  stere  hym  the 
rather  therunto.  And  in  ther  so  doyng,  he  made  them,  some  of  his 
preuye  chambre,  some  of  his  hed  lordes  of  his  counsell.  But  yet  the 
chefe  and  pryncypall  preseptes  that  he  gaue  vnto  his  cokes,  was  this, 
that  they  shulde  not  only  poUe  theyr  hedes,  hut  also  shaue  theyr 
berdes.  For  this  entente,  that  when  he  were  dronkyn,  or  vometynge 
rype  by  takyng  excesse,  that  he  myghte  be  well  assuryd,  that  it 
came  not  by  no  heer  of  from  his  cokes  heddes.  For  his  delyght  was 
not  onely  in  the  feminyne  kynde  /  but  also  delyghted  in  womenly 
men  /  yet  he  and  his  fyne  vnberdyd  faces  ledde  not  onely  a  vycyous 
lyfe,  but  also  made  a  shameful  ende.  Notwithstandynge  other, 
that,  or  this  storye  folowynge,  was  and  is  the  occasyon  why  ye 
*abore  berdes,  and  that  was  this:  at  your  laste  beynge  in  Mownt- 
pyllyer,  Martyn  the  surgyen  beyng  there  with  you,  &  dyd  accompany 
dayly  with  none  so  moch  as  with  you :  yf  ye  be  remembred,  he 
brought  you  to  dyner  vpon  a  daye  to  one  Hans  Smormowthes  house, 
a  Duche  man,  in  whiche  house  you  were  cupshote^,  otherwyse  called 
dronkyn,  at  whiche  tyme  your  berde  was  lowge  /  so  then  your 
assocyat  Martyn  brought  you  to  bed  /  and  with  the  remouyng,  your 
stomake  tornyd,  &  so  ye  vometyd  ixk  his  bosome  y  howbeit,  as  moche 
as  your  berde  myghte  holde,  vpon  youre  berde  remayned  tyll  the 
next  daye  in  the  morenyng.  And  when  ye  waked,  &  smelt  your 
owne  berde,  ye  fel  to  it  a  fresshe  ;  and,  callynge  for  your  frende 
Martyn,  shewynge  ^  the  cause  of  this  laste  myschaunce.  Wherupon 
ye  desyred  to  shaue  you.  And  so,  when  ye  sawe  your  berde,  ye  sayd 
that  it  was  a  shamfull  thynge  on  any  mans  face.  And  so  it  is  in 
suche  cases,  I  not  denye  /  yet  shall  ye  consyder,  that  our  Englysshe 
men,  beynge  in  Englande,  dothe  vse  to  kepe  theyr  berdes  moche 
more  clen 

[leaf  A  .iv.  is  lost.] 

'  A  .ill.  back.  '  See  p.  156,  note.  ^  7  shewed  hym. 



[leaf  A  .iv.  is  lostJl 

[sign.  B  .i.]      As  longe  as  any  berdes  be  worne, 
Mockynge  shall  not  be  forborne ; 
But  yet  at  length,  his  is  the  scorne. 
I  fere  it  not. 

Andrew  Boorde 
hates  bearded 

because  he  once 
made  his  own 
beard  stink. 

IF  With  berdyd  men  he  wyll  not  drynke, 
Bycause  it  doth  in  theyr  berdes  synke ; 
The  cause  therof,  ye  may  soone  thynke, 
His  berde  in  Flaunders  ones  dyd  stynke, 
"Whiche  by  dystulacyon 
Of  a  vomytacyon 
Made  suche  dysturbacyon, 
That  it  abored  the  nacyon. 
I  fere  it  not. 


Boorde lookt 
like  a  fool  when 
he  got  drunk. 

IT  Some  berdes,  he  saith,  doth  grow  a  pace, 
To  hyde  an  euyll  coleryd  face  ; 
In  fayth,  his  had  an  homlye  grace, 
When  he  was  in  that  dronkyn  case. 
But  sythe  he  doth  this  matter  stere. 
To  make  that  shauynge  shuld  be  dere, 
I  thynke  it  doth  full  well  appere, 
That  foles  had  neuer  lesse  wyt  in  a  yere. 
I  fere  it  not. 



Boorde  says  a       IF  A  bcrdc,  sayth  he,  wyl  breyd  moch  care, 

06drd  will  brficd 

cttte.  If  that  he  with  his  mayster  compare.  24 

Here  may  ye  proue  a  wyt  full  bare 

That  iudgeth  so  a  man  to  fare, 
[sign.  B  .1.  back]   What  maw  lyuyng,  I  wold  fayne  knowe. 

That  for  comparason  letes  his  berde  growe  %  28 

He's  a  spiteful       But  yet,  though  that  a  spyghtfuU  shrow 

His  spyghtfull  wordes  abrode  doth  blow, 
I  fere  it  not,  &c. 



IT  Of  berdes,  he  sayth,  tlier  comms  no  gaynes, 
&  berdes  quycknytb  not  the  braynes. 
Lo,  haw  in  Physyke  he  taketh  paynes  ! 
He  mery tes  a  busshel  of  brwers  *  graynes  ! 
He  warneth  aLso  euery  estate 
To  auoyde  berdes,  for  fere  of  debate. 
If  men,  lyke  hym,  shnld  vse  to  prate, 
His  warnyng  then  shuld  come  to  late, 
I  fere  it  not. 

32  Boorde  says 
beards  don't 
quicken  tho 



and  do  raise 

IT  If  berdes,  also,  a  purse  doth  pycke, 
As  ye  compare  them  to  be  lyke, 
yet  ye  haue  gotte  more  in  one  w'ycke. 
Then  berdes  in  .x.  togyther  may  stryke. 
For  by  castynge  of  a  pyspotte, 
ye  haue  poUyd  many  a  grote  ; 
yea,  and  moche  more,  God  wotte. 
By  falshede  ye  haue  gotte. 
I  fere  it  not. 



Oh,  Andrew, 

you've  cheated 
men  of  many  a 
groat  by  looking 
at  their  urine, 
and  by  falsehood ! 

IT  Yet  one  thynge  more,  I  wyll  assayle : 
The  dauwger  of  drynkyng  ye  do  bewayle^. 
Beleue  ye  me,  yf  all  do  fayle. 
In  stede  of  a  cup,  ye  shall  haue  a  payle ; 
For  you  haue  gyuen  warnynge  playne, 
That  berdyd  men  shall  be  full  fayne 
To  brynge  a  cup,  for  theyr  owne  gayne, — 
The  more  fole  you,  so  to  dysdayne  ! 
I  fere  it  not. 

You've  warned 
men  against 
52    drinking. 

and  told  bearded 
men  to  bring  a 
56   cup  for  them- 

IF  Note  me  well,  for  it  is  trewe, 
Thoughe  berdyd  men  ye  wyll  eschewe. 
There  be  moche  honyster  men  than  you, 
That  wyl  drynke  long,  or  they  do  spewe 

60   Some  bearded 
men  are  more 
worthy  than  you, 
and  don't  spue, 
like  you. 


'  See  Boorde  on  Drunkenness,  p.  90,  above. 



As  you  haue  done,  I  knowe,  or  this, 
wh  erf  ore  I  say,  though  so  it  is, 
I  wyll  not  tell  that  is  amys  ; 
yet  wyll  I  tell  some  trewyth  yewys^. 
I  fere  it  not. 


Boorde,  yon  say 
tliat  a  Beard 
lioats  a  man. 

But  your  honour 
is  stained. 

IF  yet  of  one  thynge  that  ye  do  treate, 
Howe  that  a  berde,  in  a  great  swete, 
By  lyke  doth  catche  a  k[n]auysshe^  hete 
Therby  ye  do  a  grete  prayse  gete, 
For  trewely  vnfayned, 
Your  honyste  is  dystayned ; 
All  though  ye  haue  dysdayned, 
Men  kn,owe  ye  haue  sustayned. 
I  fere  it  not.. 




You  tell  men  not    ^  Though  in  the  wyuter  a  dew  wyl  lye, 

to  drink  when  ■,     -,     n  i  ^ 

their  noses  run.     That  dystylleth  froHi  the  nose  pryuelye  ; 
To  refrayne  your  cup  ye  pray  then  hartly ; 

sign.  B  .ii.  back]  And  all  is  for  superfluous  glotonye. 
For  glotony  i§  of  such,e  a  kynde, 
That  ende  of  excesse  he  can  none  fynde, 

You've  lost  wit      Tyll  past  is  both  the  wyt  aud  mynde  ; 

through  gluttony. 

So  one  of  those  ye  be  assynde. 
I  fere  it  not. 



getvis,  certainly. 

^  See  1.  156. 



0f  tjjat  S0ng^. 

ILytell  thought,  ye  were  so  wyse, 
Berdes  to  deuyse  of  the  new  guyse ; 
But  truely,  for  your  enterpryse, 
ye  may  go  cast  your  wyt  at  dyse. 
At  syncke  or  syse,  whiche  so  doth  fall, 
Fere  ye  not  to  cast  at  all ; 
For  yf  you  lose,  your  lostes  be  small : 
It  is  to  dere,  a  tenys  ball  j 
I  fere  it  not. 

Boorde,  with  your 





your  wit 's 

liice  a  tennis-ball. 

f  A  berde  vpon  his  ouer  lyppe, 
ye  saye  wyll  be  a  proper  tryppe, 
Wherby  ye  shall  the  better  skyppe. 
Go  your  wayes,  I  dare  let  you  slyppe, 
"Where  as  be  many  more, 
I  thynke,  by  .xx.  score, 
In  cocke  lorelles  bote,  before 
ye  maye  take  an  ore. 

I  fere  it  not. 



Boorde,  begone, 
you  poor  fool, 

and  row  low 
down  in  Cock 
Lorell's  boat ! 
[B  .Hi.  not 

IT  Yet  though  that  ye  one  thing  do  craue,  104 

"Which  is,  a  muster  deuyles  berde  to  haue, 

ye  make  me  study,  so  God  me  saue  ! 

If  this  peticion  came  not  of  a  knaue, 

Perhapes  some  other  man  dyd  make  it,  108 

And  so  ye  dyd  vp  take  it ; 

But  best  ye  were  forsake  it, 

For  fere  of  Pears  go  nakyt. 

Nowe  fere  you  that !  112 

You  want  a  kind 
of  Devil's  beard, 
do  you  P 

Beware  of  Piers 



You  say  beards 
hide  little  brains, 

and  want  mag- 
pies to  pull  our 
hairs  out. 

You  tell  crafty 

IT  ye  say  some  berdes  be  lyke  lambes  woU, 
With  lytell  wyt  within  theyr  skull : 
*  Who  goth  a  myle  to  sucke  a  bull,* 
Comes  home  a  fole,  and  yet  not  fulL*  116 

And  where  ye  wyshe  them  pekt  with  pyes, 
That  weres  a  berde,  vnto  theyr  iyes  : 
Be  wyse,  take  hede  !  suche  homely  spyes 
Oftymes  can  spye  your  crafty  lyes.  120 

I  fere  it  not. 

Pray,  Andrew, 
didn't  God  make 
Adam  a  beard  ? 

If  He  did,  who 
shaved  him  ? 

[B  .ui.  back] 

IT  But,  syr,  I  praye  you,  yf  you  tell  can, 
Declare  to  me,  when  God  made  man, 
(I  meane  by  our  forefather  Adam) 
Whyther  that  he  had  a  berde  than ; 
And  yf  he  had,  who  dyd  hym  shaue, 
Syth  that  a  barber  he  coulde  not  haue. 
Well,  then,  ye  proue  hym  there  a  knaue, 
Bycause  his  berde  he  dyd  so  saue. 
I  fere  it  not. 



Didn't  Christ  and  IT  Christ  &  his  apostlcs,  ye  haue  declaryd, 
beards  ?  That  theyr  berdes  myght  not  be  sparyd, 

Nor  to  theyr  berdes  no  berdes  cowparyd : 
Trewe  it  is,  yet  we  repayryd 
By  his  vocacion,  to  folowe  in  generall 
His  disciples,  both  great  and  small ; 
And  folowyng  ther  vse,  we  shuld  not  fal, 
Nothynge  exceptynge  our  berdes  at  alL 
I  fere  it  not. 

And  we  ought  to 
follow  them. 



Sampson,  and 
thousands  of  old 
wouldn't  be 

We  should 
imitate  them. 

IT  Sa77zpson,  with  many  thousandes  more  140 

Of  auncient  phylosophers,  full  great  store, 

Wolde  not  be  shauen,  to  dye  therfore  ; 

Why  shulde  you,  then,  repyne  so  sore  1 

A[d]myt  that  men  doth  Tmytate  144 

Thynges  of  antyquite,  and  noble  state. 

Waltom's  calf,  says  the  proverb,  did  this. 

BAllNES    IN    THE   DEFENCE   OF    THE   BEllDE. 


Sucli  couwterfeat  thinges  oftymes  do  my ty gate 
Moche  ernest  yre  and  debate. 
I  fere  it  not. 


IT  Therfore,  to  cease,  I  thynke  be  best ; 
For  berdyd  men  wolde  lyue  in  rest. 
you  proue  yourselfe  a  homly  gest, 
So  folysshely  to  rayle  and  iest ; 
For  if  I  wolde  go  make  in  ryme, 
Howe  new  shauyd  men  loke  lyke  scraped  swyne, 
&  so  rayle  forth,  from  tyrae  to  tyme, 
A  knauysshe  laude  then  shulde  be  myne  : 
I  fere  it  not. 

Bearded  men 
like  peace. 
You're  a  noodle 
to  rail  against 
152    them. 

[B  .iv.  not  signed] 
I  won't  tell  you 
how  shaved  men 
look  like  scraped 
156    »wine. 

IT  What  shulde  auayle  me  to  do  so, 
yf  I  shulde  teache  howe  men  shulde  go, 
Thynkynge  my  wyt  moche  better,  lo, 
Then  any  other,  frende  or  fo  1 
I  myght  be  imputed  trewly 
For  a  foole,  that  doth  gloryfye 
In  my  nowne  selfe  onelye  ; 
I  thynke  you  wyll  it  veryfye : 
I  fere  it  not. 

WhafU  be  the 
good  of  it  ? 



I  don't  want  to 
show  off. 

And  thus  farewel,  though  I  do  wryght 
To  answere  for  berdes,  by  reason  ryght ; 
yet  vnberdyd  men  I  do  not  spyght, 
Though  ye  on  berdes  therin  delyght. 
And  in  concludynge  of  this  thynge, 
I  praye  God  saue  our  noble  kynge  ! 
Berdes  &  vnberdyd,  to  heuen  vs  brynge, 
Where  as  is  loye  euerlastynge  ! 
I  fere  it  not,  &c. 

Tho'  I  defend 
beards,  I  don't 
168    Bpite  unbearded 

172    God  save  the 

King !  and  bring 
us  all,  beards  and 
no  beards,  to 
Heaven ! 

^  Pinis. 


[B  Iv,  back] 

f^  l$arnr0  in  tjbe  tie 
fmct  of  tht  ^tr^t. 

If  my  rimea 
are  bad. 

think  that  my 
wish  is  to  stop 


Ames,  I  say,  yf  thou  be  shent, 
Bycause  thou  wantyst  eloquence, 
Desyre  them,  that  thyne  entent 
May  stonde  all  tymes  for  thy  defence, 
Consyderynge  that  thy  hole  pretence 
Was  more  desyrous  of  vnyte 
Then  to  enuent  curyosyte. 

R      w 

^  Ad  imprimendum  solum. 



This  term  Hindwords  is  Mr  David  Laing's ;  and  I  gladly  adopt 
it,  as  it's  so  much  better  than  the  Post-Prcefatio  of  Mr  W.  C.  Haz- 
litt  in  his  Handbook,  and  of  divers  other  folk. 

After  the  extracts  in  the  Forewords,  p.  74 — 104,  from  Boorde's 
Breuyary,  showing  his  opinions  there,  it  seems  to  me  now  that  I 
ought  to  have  stated  some  of  his  opinions  in  his  Introduction  and 
Dyetary  before  summing  up  his  character  on  p.  105.  I  therefore  do 
this  here ;  better  late  than  never. 

Boorde  believes  in  'the  noble  realme  of  England'  (p.  116,  144), 
and,  though  he  reproaches  his  countrymen  for  their  absurd  love  of 
new  fashions  in  dress,  and  for  the  treason  among  them  (p.  119),  he 
yet  holds  that  *  the  people  of  England  be  as  good  as  any  people  in 
any  other  lande  and  nacion  thai  euer  I  haue  trauayled  in,  yea,  and 
much  more  better  in  many  thynges,  specially  in  maners  &  manhod. 
As  for  the  noble  fartyle  couwtrey  of  England,  hath  no  regyon  lyke  it.' 
So  also  London  is  the  noblest  city  in  any  region,  and  has  the  fairest 
bridge  :  *  in  al  the  worlde  there  is  none  lyke '  (p.  119).  But  Cornish 
ale  Boorde  thinks  very  bad  (p.  123).  In  Wales  he  notices  the  people's 
love  of  toasted  cheese,  and  that  their  voices  and  harps  are  like  the 
buzzing  of  a  bumble-bee  (p.  126),  the  people  very  rude  and  beastly, 
very  fond  of  the  devil  in  their  speech,  of  selling  their  produce  a 
year  before  it  comes  (p.  127),  and  of  lechery  (p.  128).  The  custom 
of  '  bundling '  probably  prevailed  there ;  and  the  priests  also  in- 
creased the  population. 


The  wild  Irish,  Boorde  describes  as  very  rude  and  wrathful,  men 
and  women  lying  together  in  mantles  and  straw  (p.  132-3);  but 
among  those  in  the  English  Pale,  which  is  a  good  country,  Boorde 
found  as  faithful  and  good  men  as  ever  he  knew  (p.  133).  The 
Scotch,  among  whom  Boorde  had  lived,  he  didn't  much  like  :  they 
bragged  and  lied  ;  and  either  naturally,  or  from  a  devilish  disposition, 
didn't  love  Englishmen,  though  they  resembled  the  latter  in  being 
hardy  and  strong,  well-favoured,  and  good  musicians  (p.  137).  With 
Boorde's  description  of  Iceland  (p.  141)  my  friend,  Mr  Gu^brandr 
Vigfusson,  is  much  amused,  but  does  not  believe  in  it.  Boorde 
liked  Calais,  and  Flanders  (p.  147),  though  the  Flemings  were — like 
the  Dutch  (p.  149) — great  drinkers,  and  also  eat  frogs'  loins,  and 
toadstools  (p.  147),  and  sold  brood  mares  to  England.  The  church- 
spire  and  meat-shambles  of  Antwerp  he  thought  fine  (p.  151) ;  and 
ihe  Julich  (or  Juliers)  custom  of  plucking  their  geese  yearly,  curious 
(p.  154).  Cologne  he  calls  a  noble  city,  the  Rhine  a  fair  water,  and 
its  wine  good;  but  the  people  he  found  very  drunken  (p.  156), 
though  many  were  virtuous  and  full  of  alms-deeds  (p.  157).  The 
Germans  were  rude  and  rustical,  eat  cheese-maggots,  gave  their 
maidens  only  water  to  drink  (p.  160),  and  had  snow  on  their  moun- 
tains in  summer  (p.  161).  Denmark,  Boorde  found  such  a  poor 
country,  that  he  couldn't  make  out  how  it  (and  little  Saxony,  p. 
164)  came  to  win  England  (p.  163).  The  Bohemians  he  thought 
heretics,  and  they  didn't  eat  ducks  (p.  167).  The  Poles  were  poor, 
eat  honey,  and  didn't  like  wax  (p.  168).  Hungary  was  partly  in  the 
hands  of  the  Turks,  and  was  full  of  aliens  (p.  170).  Greece  was 
Turkish ;  its  capital,  Constantinople,  and  its  St  Sophia's  the  fairest 
cathedral  in  the  world,  with  a  wonderful  sighf^  of  priests  (p.  172). 
Of  Sicily,  the  biting  flies  (or  mosquitoes)  Boorde  noticed  (p.  176); 
of  Naples,  the  laziness  and  the  hot  wells  (p.  177);  of  Italy,  the 
fertility,  the  noble  river  Tiber,  the  fallen  St  Peter's  at  Rome,  and 
the  abominable  vices  in  the  city  (p.  178).  Venice,  Boorde  thought 
the  beauty  of  the  world  ;  and  he  saw  no  poverty  there,  but  all 
riches  (p.  181-5).  The  Lombards  he  found  crafty,  eaters  of  adders 
and  frogs,  and  having  spiteful  cur-dogs  that  would  bite  your  legs. 
'  The  phrase  wasn't  slang  then. 


The  Lombards  also  ploughed  with  only  two  oxen,  which  they 
covered  with  canvas,  against  the  flies  (p.  187).  Genoa  was  a  noble 
city  in  a  fertile  land  (p.  189).  France  a  noble  country,  with  Paris 
and  four  other  universities ;  but  the  French  had  no  fancy  for  Eng- 
lishmen ;  they  set  the  fashion  to  all  nations  (p.  190-1).  They  alone, 
and  the  English,  to  Boorde's  great  disgust,  were  always  changing 
their  dress ;  every  other  nation  kept  to  its  old  apparel.  Aquitaine 
was  the  cheapest  country  in  the  world,  and  Montpelier  the  noblest 
medical  university  (p.  193-4).  The  Portuguese  were  seafarers,  and 
their  girls  cropt  their  polls  (like  the  Spanish  women),  but  left  a 
rim  of  it  like  a  barefoot  friar's  (p.  197).  Spain  was  a  sadly  poor 
place;  no  good  food,  wine  in  goat-skins,  hogs  under  your  feet  at 
table,  and  lice  in  your  bed  (p.  198-9).  In  Castille,  &c.,  the  people 
stupidly  called  on  their  dead  friends  to  come  to  life  again  (p.  200). 
Boorde's  pilgrimage  to,  and  abode  in,  Compostella  we  have  noticed 
above  (p.  51) ;  thieves,  hunger,  and  cold,  were  his  foes  on  it  (p.  206). 
At  Bordeaux  was  the  greatest  pair  of  organs  in  the  world,  with  "Vices, 
giants'  heads,  &c.,  that  wagged  their  jaws  and  eyes  as  the  player 
played  (p.  207).  Normandy  was  a  pleasant  country,  and  its  people 
gentle  :  it  and  all  France  really  belonged  to  England  (p.  208). 
Latin  was  spoken  over  all  Europe  (p.  210). 

From  Barbary,  slaves  were  sold  to  Europe,  and  left  to  die  un- 
buried  (p.  212).  Turkey  was  a  cheap  and  plentiful  country,  under 
the  law  of  Mahomet,  whose  tricks  Boorde  shows-up  (p.  214-16). 
Judaea  is  a  fertile  land  ;  and  Boorde  gives  full  instructions  to  persons 
intending  to  make  a  pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem,  and  describes  shortly 
the  Holy  Sepulchre  (p.  219-20). 

In  his  Dyetary,  Boorde  tells  his  contemporaries  how  to  choose 
sites  for  their  houses,  how  to  arrange  their  buildings,  spend  their 
incomes,  govern  their  households,  manage  their  bodies  ;  and  what 
flesh,  fish,  vegetables,  and  fruits,  are  good  to  eat.  The  two  passages 
that  I  specially  call  attention  to  are  those  on  the  site  and  plan  of  a 
Tudor  mansion,  p.  238-9,  and  on  what  a  man  should  do  before  going 
to  bed  and  on  rising,  p.  246-8.  They  enable  you  to  realize  well  the 
surroundings  and  life  of  an  English  gentleman  of  Henry  VIII's 
time.    The  bits  on  Ale  and  Beer  (p,  256) ;  on  bad  cooks  and  brewers, 

2  1 


and  rascally  bakers  (p.  260-1) ;  and  on  Venison  (p.  274-5),  are  also 
very  characteristic. 

Our  good  friend  at  Manchester,  Mr  John  Leigh,  Officer  of  Health 
to  the  Corpoiation  of  the  town,  has  been  kind  enough  to  read 
thromgh  the  Forewords  and  Boorde's  Dyetary,  and  to  send  me  some 
iwtes  on  the  former,  which  will  be  found  further  on,  and  the  follow- 
ing high  opinion  of  Boorde  and  his  Dyetary,  which  will,  I  hope,  give 
the  reader  as  much  pleasure  as  it  has  given  me  : — 

"  Either  the  man  was  far  beyond  his  time,  or  the  men  of  the 
time  were  better  informed  than  we  have  given  them  credit  for. 
How  a  man  who  wrote  so  gravely,  and  exhibited  in  his  writings 
such  clear  sound  sense,  could  have  been  taken  for  a  'Merrie  An- 
drewe,'  passes  one's  conception. 

"  I  have  carefully  read  through  the  Dyetary.  The  first  ten 
chapters  are  admirable ;  indeed,  the  third  chapter  so  thoroughly 
comprehends  all  that  sanitary  reformers  have  been  teaching  for  the 
last  20  years,  that  it  is  difficult  to  say  that  we  have  made  any 
advance  upon  it.  Certainly,  until  quite  recently,  the  knowledge  of 
Englishmen  on  all  sanitary  matters  connected  with  the  surroundings 
of  a  house,  must  have  retrograded  since  Boorde  wrote.  Nothing  can 
be  better  than  the  advice  he  gives  as  to  the  situation  of  a  house,  the 
soil  on  which  it  should  be  erected,  the  placing  of  the  outbuildings, 
the  avoidance  of  stagnant  water,  &c.,  and  the  means  to  be  taken  to 
secure  a  pure  atmosphere.  The  advice  given  throughout  the  remain- 
ing seven  chapters,  how  to  procure  and  to  retain  good  health,  is  not 
surpassed  in  quality  in  any  book  of  modern  times.  It  is  not  neces- 
sary to  select  any  special  passage  where  all  is  good. 

"The  remaining  chapters  of  the  book  on  special  diets  are  all 
coloured  by  the  peculiar  doctrines  of  Boorde's  time ;  but,  setting  those 
aside,  the  advice  he  gives  is  good.  He  specifies  the  articles  of  diet 
which  are,  as  determined  by  long  experience,  difficult  of  digestion,  or 
which  produce  flatulence ;  whilst  such  elements  of  diet  as  are  laxa- 
tive, diuretic,  stimulant  to  special  organs,  &c.,  he  points  out,  dlbeit 
there  is  sometimes  a  little  fancy  about  the  latter. 

"  Like  a  sensible  man,  however,  he  sums  up  in  his  thirty-ninth 
chapter  what  it  is  necessary  that  a  man  should  do  to  preserve  his 
health,  making  much  of  that  depend  upon  his  own  experience  and 
common  sense.  The  perusal  of  the  Dyetai'y  is  calculated  to  give  a 
medical  reader  a  high  opinion  of  Boorde's  sound  good  sense  and 
powers  of  observation.  1  think  you  have  done  good  service  in 
reprinting  the  Dyetary ^  and  that  you  will  thereby  have  corrected 
some  erroneous  impressions  as  to  the  knowledge  of  the  time  on 
sanitary  matters." 

A  man  must  dwell  at  elbow-room,  says  Boorde  (p.  233),  having 


water  and  wood  annexed  to  his  house  ;  he  must  have  a  fair  prospect 
to  and  from  it,  or  he'd  better  not  build  a  house  at  all  (p.  234) ;  he 
must  have  pure  air  round  it,  and  nothing  stinking  near  it  (p.  235-7), 
and  must  provide,  before  he  begins,  all  things  needful  to  finish  it ; 
for  *  there  goeth  to  buyldynge  many  a  nayle,  many  pynnes,  many 
lathes,  and  many  tyles  or  slates  or  strawes,  besyde  tymber,  hordes, 
lyme,  sand,  stones  or  brycke,'  &c.  (p.  237).  Don't  front  your  house 
to  the  South,  but  don't  be  afraid  of  the  East,  as  *  the  Eest  wynde  is 
temperate,  fryske,  and  fragraunt,' — witness  Charles  Kingsley  ; — ar- 
range your  buildings  on  my  plan  in  pages  238-9,  and  have  a  park, 
a  pair  of  butts,  and  a  bowling-alley,  near  them.  Provide  food  and 
necessaries  beforehand  (p.  240) ;  divide  your  income  into  three 
parts,  1.  for  food ;  2.  for  dress,  wages,  and  alms ;  3.  for  emergencies 
(p.  241) ;  fear  God,  and  make  your  household  do  so  too,  specially 
punishing  swearing  (p.  243).  Sleep  moderately  (p.  245),  and  not 
during  the  day ;  be  merry  before  bed- time,  sleep  on  your  side,  wear 
a  scarlet  night-cap,  and  have  a  quilt  over  you  (p.  247);  air  your 
breeches  in  the  morning ;  wash,  pray,  take  exercise,  and  eat  two  meals 
a  day  (p.  248).  Wear  a  lambskin  jacket  in  winter,  and  a  scarlet  ijety- 
cote  in  summer  (p.  249).  Don't  stuff  (p.  250).  Abstinence  is  the 
best  medicine  (p.  251).  Only  sit  an  hour  at  dinner :  Englishmen 
sit  too  long,  and  stupidly  eat  heavy  dishes  first  (p.  252).  DonH 
drink  water  (p.  252-3),  except  it's  mixed  with  wine  (p.  254).  In 
Germany,  maidens  drink  water  only ;  prostitutes  drink  wine.  Abroad 
there's  a  fountain  in  everv  town  (p.  254). 

*Ale  for  an  Englysshe  man  is  a  naturall  drynke.  .  .  Bere  is  a 
naturall  drynke  for  a  Dutche  man ;  and  nowe  of  late  dayes  it  is 
moche  used  in  Englande,  to  the  detryment  of  many  Englysshe  men ' 
(p.  256).  Cider  does  little  harm  in  harvest-time ;  metheglin,  fined, 
is  better  than  mead  (p.  257).  Bread  is  best  when  unleavened  and 
without  bran.  In  Eome  the  loaves  are  saffroned,  and  little  bigger 
than  a  walnut  (p.  258).  EascaUy  bakers  I  should  like  to  stand  in 
the  Thames  up  to  their  eyes  (p.  261).  Potage  is  more  used  in 
England  than  anywhere  else  in  Christendom  (p.  262).  Almonds 
comfort  the  breast,  and  mollify  the  belly  (p.  263).  Don't  mind 
what  old  authors  say,  if  experience  contradicts  them  (p.  264).     No 

BOORDE.  21 


eggs  but  hen's  are  used  in  England  (p.  264) ;  in  Turkey  they  pickle 
hard  eggs  (p.  265).  Dutchmen  eat  butter  at  all  times  in  the  day, 
which  I  think  bad  (p.  265).  In  High  Almayne  the  Germans  eat 
cheese-maggots  like  we  do  comfits  (p.  267).  Milk  is  not  good  for 
those  who  have  grumbling  in  the  belly ;  strawberries  and  cream  may 
put  men  in  jeopardy  of  their  lives  (p.  267).  England  is  supplied 
better  with  fish  than  any  other  land  (p.  268) ;  but  you  musn't  eat 
fish  and  flesh  at  the  same  meal  (p.  269).  A  pheasant  's  the  best 
wild  fowl,  and  a  capon  the  best  tame  one  (p.  269-70).  All  small 
birds  are  good  eating  (p.  270).  Young  beef  is  good  for  an  English'- 
man  (p.  271) ;  mutton  and  pork  I  don't  like.  In  England  swine  eat 
stercorous  matter,  and  lie  in  filth,  though  in  Germany  and  abroad 
(except  in  Spain)  they  have  a  swim  once  or  twice  a  day  (p.  272). 
Jews  and  Turks  hate  pork,  but  will  eat  adders  as  well  as  any 
Christian  in  Rome  will  (p.  273).  Bacon  's  oidy  good  for  carters  and 
ploughmen.  Brawn's  a  usual  winter  meat  in  England.  Nowhere 
are  hart  and  hind  loved  as  in  England.  Doctors  tell  us  that 
venison  is  bad  for  us  ;  but  I  say  it 's  a  lord's  dish  :  let  the  doctors 
take  the  skin  !  give  me  the  flesh !  (p.  274-5).  Let  dogs  eat  hares ; 
don't  you  (p.  275).  Rabbits,  sucking  ones,  are  the  best  wild  beasts' 
flesh  (p.  275).  At  Montpelier  they  have  boiled  meat  for  dinner, 
roast  for  supper  (p.  277).  A  good  Cook  is  half  a  physician.  Onions 
make  a  man's  appetite  good,  and  put  away  fastidiousness  (p.  279). 
Artichokes'  heads  and  sorrel  are  good  (p.  280-1).  *  There  is  no 
Herb  nor  Weede,  but  God  haue  gyven  vertue  to  them,  to  helpe 
man '  (p.  282).  Strawberries  are  praised  above  all  berries ;  filberts 
are  better  than  hazle-nuts  (p.  283) ;  peas  and  beans  fill  a  man  with 
wind  ;  roast  apples  comfort  the  stomach  (p.  284).  Olives  and 
oranges  provoke  appetite ;  black  pepper  makes  a  man  lean  (p.  285-6). 
Then  I  give  you  diets  for  Sanguine,  Phlegmatic,  Choleric,  and  Me- 
lancholy folk  (p.  287-9),  tell  you  how  to  treat  Pestilence  (p. 
289-91),  Fever  or  Ague  (p.  291-2),  the  Iliac,  Colic,  and  Stone  (p. 
292),  Gout,  Leprosy  (p.  293),  Epilepsy  (p.  294),  Pain  in  the  Head 
(p.  295),  Consumption  (p.  296),  Asthma,  Palsy  (p.  297),  and 
Lunatics  (p.  298).  Hardly,  these  last :  keep  'em  in  the  dark,  shave 
their  heads  once  a  month,  and  use  few  words  to  them.     Lastly,  I  treat 


Dropsy  (p.  299) ;  give  general  directions  on  Diet  to  all  people  (p. 
300) ;  and  then  tell  you  how  to  arrange  a  sick-bed,  a  death-bed, 
urging  all  to  make  their  peace  with  God  (p.  300-1). 

Two  quaint  and  jolly  books  these  are  *  and  if  readers  are  not 
obliged  to  me  for  reprinting  them,  they  ought  to  be. 

On  the  state  of  England  at  Boorde's  time,  I  refer  the  reader  to 
my  Ballads  from  Manuscripts  for  the  Ballad  Society,  Part  I,  1868, 
*  Poems  and  Ballads  on  the  Condition  of  England  in  Henry  VII I 's 
and  Edward  Vl's  Keigns;*  Part  II,  1871,  these  continued,  with 
Poems  against  Cromwell,  on  Anne  Boleyn,  &c.  The  contemporary 
complaints  give  a  very  different  view  of  the  state  of  affairs  to  Mr 
Froude's  couleur-de-rose  picture.  Of  early  books  on  the  countries  of 
Europe,  I  know  only  the  Lihel  of  English  Policy,  a.d.  1436,  in  Mr 
T.  Wright's  Political  Songs,  vol.  ii.  1861,  and  the  descriptions,  not 
the  history,  in  Thomas's  very  interesting  History e  of  Italy e,  156L 
Both  of  these  I  have  quoted  largely.  George  North's  *  Description 
of  Swedland,  Gotland,  and  Finland.  Imprinted  at  London  by 
Jhon  Awdeley,  1561,  4to,  28  leaves,  with  the  Lord's  Prayer  in 
Swedish  at  the  end'  (Hazlitfs  Handbook),  I  don't  know.  The 
Russia  of  Fletcher,  and  Horsey,  Boorde  does  not  touch. 

Spriiner's  Reformation  Map  of  Europe  in  the  middle  of  the  16th 
century,  No.  VII,  in  his  Historical  Atlas,  is  the  best  to  use  for 
Boorde's  Introduction.  In  it,  Syria  is  part  of  the  Osmannisches 
Reich,  Turkey  in  Europe  and  Asia,  and  that  may  account  for  Boorde 
treating  it  as  in  Europe.  For  the  dress  of  the  inhabitants  of  the 
different  countries,  recourse  may  be  had  to  the  Reciieil  de  la  Di- 
■versitS  des  Habits,  Paris,  1562,  8vo,  from  which  Upcott  had  his 
Scotchman  and  Frenchman  cut  on  wood  for  his  reprint  of  Boorde's 
Introduction  in  1814,  chap.  iv.  sign.  G  ii,  chap,  xxvii.,  sign.  T. 

In  conclusion,  I  have  to  thank  Mr  John  W.  Praed  for  his  help 
(obtained  by  Miss  C.  M.  Yonge's  kind  offices)  in  Boorde's  Cornish 
dialogue ;  Dr  B.  Davies  for  help  in  the  Welsh ;  Mr  F.  W.  Cosens 
and  Mr  H.  H.  Gibbs  for  help  in  the  Spanish ;  Professor  Cassal  for 
help  in  the  French ;  and  Prof  Rieu  in  the  Arabic ;  also  a  German 
officer  of  the  Coin  Department  in  the  British  Museum  (with  very 
little  time  to  spare)  for  explanations  of  the  names  of  a  few  coins. 

2  1  • 

324  EINDWORDS.       AN   ENGLISH   GAIATEO   IN    1576. 

To  Mr  Henry  Bradshaw,  Librarian  of  the  University  of  Cam"bridge, 
I  am  much  indebted  for  help  in  the  bibliography  of  Boorde's  books, 
and  to  his  friend,  Mr  Hollingworth,  Fellow  of  King's,  and  curate  of 
Guckfield,  for  a  very  pleasant  day's  entertainment  and  walk  near 
Andrew  Boorde's  birthplace. 
19^^  Sept.,  1870. 

One  of  Andrew  Boorde's  phrases,  "  good  felowes  the  whyche  wyll 

drynke  all  out"  i^.  151,  1.  6,  receives  illustration  from  an  unexpected 

source,  namely,  an  English  translation  in  1576  a.d.  of  the  famous 

Galateo  of  Delia  Casa,  written  about  1550  a.d.,  and  so  amusingly 

sketched  for  us  from  the  original  Italian  by  our  good  friend  Mr  W. 

M.  Eossetti,  at  the  end  of  his  essay  on  Italian  Courtesy  Books  in 

Part  II,  p.  66 — 76,  of  the  Society's  Queene  Elizabethes  Achademy, 

&c.,  1869.     Neither  he  nor  I  knew  at  that  time  of  the  existence  of 

this  translation,  though  it  was  entered   in  Bohn's   Lowndes,  with 

others  in  1703,  and  1774  :— 

"  Galateo  of  Maister  lohn  Delia  Casa,  Archebishop  of  Beneuenta. 
Or  rather,  A  treatise  of  the  maTxners  and  behauiours,  it  behoueth  a 
man  to  vse  and  eschewe,  in  his  familiar  conuersation.  A  worke  very 
necessary  &  profitable  for  all  Gentlemen,  or  other.  First  written  in 
the  Italian  tongue,  and  now  done  into  English  by  Eobert  Peterson, 
of  Lincolnes  Inne  Gentleman.  Satis,  si  sapienter.  Imprinted  at 
London  for  Eaufe  Newbery  dwelling  in  Fleetestreate  a  little  aboue 
the  Conduit.  An.  Do.  1576."  black  letter  4to,  leaves,  ^  in  4,  ^  in 
2,  B,  C,  D,  E,  F,  G,  H,  I,  K,  L,  M,  N,  0,  P,  Q,  in  fours,  with  a  leaf 
of  errata  and  verse. 

On  leaf  115  is  this  passage  : 

"  Kow,  to  drinh  all  out  euery  man — which  is  a  fashio^^  as  litle  in 
vse  amowgst  vs,  as  the.  terme  it  selfe  is  barbarous  &  strau??ge:  I 
meane,  Ick  bring  you : — is  sure  a  foule  thing  of  it  selfe,  &  in  our 
countrie  [Italy,  ab.  1550  a.d.]  so  coldly  accepted  yet,  that  we  must 
not  go  about  to  bring  it  in  for  a  fashion." 

The  Swearing^  of  which  Boorde  complains  so  much  in  pages  82, 
243,  was  also  complained  of  by  Eobert  of  Brunne  in  1303  a.d.  ;  but 
then  the  gentry  were  the  chief  sinners  in  this  way,  and  *  every  gad- 
ling  not  worth  a  pear  taketh  example  by  you  to  swear.'  Handlyng 
SynnSy  p.  23-7 




p.  21.  Agues  ,  ,  .he  infectiouse.  Although  at  this  day  medical  men 
are  disposed  to  extend  tlie  list  of  communicable  diseases,  they  have  not 
yet  come  to  regard  the  agues  as  amongst  them. — John  Leigh. 

p.  25.  Pronosticacions. — An  amusing  instance  of  how  some  people 
believed  in  prognostications  and  astronomers'  prophecies  in  Boorde's 
days,  is  told  by  Hall : — 

"  In  this  yere  [1524  a.d»],  through  bookea  of  Emphymerydes  and 
Pronostications  made  and  calculate  by  Astronomers,  the  people  were 
sore  aflfrayde ;  for  the  sayd  writers  declared  that  this  yere  should  be 
suche  Eclipses  in  watery  signes,  and  suche  coniunctions,  that  by  waters 
&  fluddes  many  people  should  perishe,  Insomuche  that  many  persones 
vitailed  them  selfes,  and  went  to  high  groundes  for  feare  of  drounyng ; 
and  specially,  one  Bolton,  which  was  Prior  of  sainct  Bartholemewes  in 
Sniythfeld,  builded  him  an  house  vpow  Harow  of  the  hill,  only  for  feare 
of  this  flud  ;  and  thether  he  went,  and  made  prouision  for  all  thinges 
iiecessarye  within  him,  for  the  space  of  two  monethes  :  But  the  faythfuU 
people  put  their  trust  and  confidence  onely  in  God.  And  this  raine  was 
by  the  wryters  pronosticate  to  be  in  February  ;  wherfore,  when  it  began 
to  raine  in  February,  the  people  wer  muche  afrayd  ;  &  some  sayd, '  now 
it  beginneth  : '  but  many  wisemen  whiche  thought  tliat  the  worlde 
could  not  be  drounod  againe,  contrary  to  Goddes  promise,  put  their  trust 
in  him  onely;  but  because  they  thought  that  some  great  raines  might  fall 
by  enclinacionsof  the  starres,  and  that  water  milles  might  stand  styll,  and 
not  griude,  they  prouided  for  meale  ;  and  yet,  God  be  thanked,  there  was 
not  a  fairer  season  in  many  yeres  ;  &  at  the  last,  the  Astronomers,  for 
their  excuse,  said  that  in  their  computacion  they  had  mistaken  and  mis- 
counted in  their  nomber  an  hundreth  yeres." — HalVs  Chronicle^  p.  675, 
ed.  1809. 

p.  28.  Gotham  and  Nottingham.  Nearer  hand  [nearer  to  Notting- 
ham Castle  than  Belvoir  Castle  was],  within  three  miles,  I  saw   the 


ancient  Towne  of  Gotham,  famous  for  the  seven  sages  (or  Wise  men) 
who  are  fabulously  reported  to  live  there  in  former  ages.  (1639.  John 
Taylor,  Part  of  this  Summers  Travels,  p.  12,) 

p.  59.  Trust  yow  no  Skot  f  "  As  there  are  many  sundry  Nations,  so 
are  there  as  many  inclinations  :  the  Russian,  Polonian,  German,  Belgian, 
are  excellent  in  the  Art  of  Drinking ;  the  Spaniard  will  Wench  it ;  the 
Italian  is  revengefull ;  the  French  man  is  for  fashions ;  the  Irish  man, 
Usquebaugh  makes  him  light  heel'd  ;  the  Welsh  mans  Cowss-boby 
works  (by  infusion)  to  his  fingers  ends,  and  translates  them  into  the 
nature  of  lime-twigs  ;  and  it  is  said,  that  a  Scot  will  prove  false  to  his 
Father,  and  dissemble  with  his  Brother;  but  for  an  English  man,  he  is  so 
cleare  from  any  of  these  Vices,  that  he  is  perfectly  exquisite,  and  ex- 
cellently indued  with  all  those  noble  abovesaid  exercises."  1652.  John 
Taylor,  Christmas  in  <&  out,  p.  9. 

p.  64.  Boorde  holding  land.  The  statute  31  Henry  VIII,  chapter  vi, 
(a.d.  1539)  enabled  "all  .  .  .  Religiouse  persons  .  .  to  purchase  to  them 
and  their  heires  .  .  .  landes  .  .  and  other  hereditaments  .  .  as  thoughe 
they  . .  had  never  bene  professed  nor  entred  into  any  suche  religion." 
This  Act  also  enabled  them  to  sue  and  be  sued,  but  provided  that  not 
"  axiyQ  of  the  saide  religiouse  persons,  beinge  Priestes,  or  suche  as  have 
vowed  religion  att  twenty  one  yeres  or  above,  and  therto  then  consented, 
continuynge  in  the  same  any  while  after,  not  duly  provinge  .  .  some  un- 
laufuU  cohercion  or  compulsion  ...  be  enhabled  by  .  .  this  Acte  .  .  to 
marie  or  take  any  wief  or  wyves." 

p.  71.  Mr  J.  F.  Collier's  inaccuracy.  I  believe  that  among  persons 
who  have  followed  Mr  Collier,  only  one  opinion  prevails  as  to  his 
accuracy.  While  I  write,  comes  an  unsought  testimony  on  the  point 
from  a  conscientious  editor  ;  "  King  lohan  as  edited  by  Mr  Collier  so 
^arms  with  blunders,  that  I  regard  it  as  just  so  much  waste  paper.  The 
late  J —  B- —  (good  man  and  true)  sent  me  his  copy  of  Mr  C.'s  lohan, 
and  every  page  is  speckled  with  his  corrections.  I'm  sorry  to  say  this  is 
no  new  thing  in  following  and  testing  Mr  Collier." 

p.  72.  The  sycknes  of  the  prisons.  Boorde  has  anticipated  Howard 
and  other  Samaritans  in  announcing  that  "this  infirmitie  doth  come  of 
the  corruption  of  the  ayer,"  &c.  As  prisons  are  now  kept,  medical  men 
have  little  opportunity  of  seeing  the  special  forms  of  disease  referred  to 
by  Boorde.  They  do,  however,  meet  with  cases  simulating  carcinoma, 
in  badly-ventilated  private  houses,  which  recover  on  removal  to  more 
healthy  localities. — John  Leigh. 

p.  75,  256.  Ale.  I  call  to  minde  the  vigorous  spirit  of  the  Buttry, 
Nappy,  Nut-browne,  Berry-browne,  Ale  Abelendo,  whose  infusion  and  in- 
spiration was  wont  to  have  such  Aleaborate  operation  to  elevate  &  ex- 
hillerate  the  vitals,  to  put  alementall  Raptures  and  Enthusiams  in  the  most 
capitall  Perricranion,in  such  Plenitude,  that  the  meanest  and  most  illiter- 
ate Plowjogger  could  speedily  play  the  Rhetorician,  and  speak  alequently, 
as  if  he  were  mounted  up  into  the  Aletitude.  1652.  John  Taylor, 
Christmas  in.  &  out,  p.  14. 


p.  75,  255.  Wines.  See  a  long  list  of  wines  in  "  Colyn  Blowbols 
Testament"  (?  1475-1500  a.d.),  printed  in  Halliwell's  Nugce  Poeticce, 
1844,  and  Hazlitt's  Early  Popular  Poetry,  i.  106,  lines  324-341  (line  7  or 
8  of  the  poem  is  left  out)  ;  and  in  "The  Squyr  of  Lowe  Degre,"  1.  753- 
7G2,  E.  Pop.  P.  ii.  51.  Alicant  wine,  so  called  from  Alicante,  the  chief 
Town  of  Mursia  in  Spain,  where  great  store  of  Mulberries  grow,  the  juyce 
whereof  makes  the  true  Alicant  Wine. — Blount's  Glossographia. 

p.  78-9.  An  excellent  description  of  Nightmare  and  of  its  causes 
and  remedies.  Nothing  can  be  better  than  the  advice.  It  is  honestly 
wortli  a  guinea  even  now. 

Query,  Is  the  use  of  '  Saynt  lohns  worte'  (commonly  placed  by 
maidens  under  their  pillows  on  St  John's  eve  in  former  times,  and  in 
some  districts  even  now,  that  they  may  dream  of  their  sweethearts,) 
adopted  on  the  Hahnernanian  principle,  that  what  will  cure  a  disease 
will  produce  it  ? — John  Leigh. 

p.  79.  If  the  general  advice  for  the  cure  of  Cachexia  be  followed,  the 
treatment  by  '  Confection  of  Alkengi '  may  be  safely  omitted. — J.  L. 

p.  80,  271.  Martinmas  beef.  "  In  a  hole  in  the  same  Rock  was  three 
Barrels  of  nappy  liqueur  ;  thither  the  Keeper  brought  a  good  Red-Deere 
Pye,  cold  roast  Mutton,  and  an  excellent  shooing-horn  of  hang'd 
Martimas  Biefe."  (1639.  John  Taylor,  Part  of  this  Summers  Travels, 
p.  26.) 

p.  80.  Symnelles.  At  Bury  in  Lancashire,  '  Symnell  Sunday '  is  a 
great  day  ;  and  rich  cakes  are  prepared  for  it,  containing  currants, 
raisins,  candied  lemon,  almonds,  and  other  ingredients. 

In  the  prescription  for  Stone,  the  Broom  seeds,  parsley  seeds,  saxi- 
frage {Saxifraga  granulatd),  and  Gromel  seed  (those  of  Lithospen'mum 
arvense)  are  all  excellent  diuretics. — J.  L. 

p.  81.  It  is  rather  an  exaggeration  to  say  that  "  touchynge  the  con- 
tentes  of  vrines,  experte  physicions  maye  knowe  the  infyrmyties  of  a 
pacient  unfallybly'^ ;  but  certainly,  the  careful  examination  of  the  con- 
tents by  the  "  experte  phisicions  "  of  modern  times  has  marvellously  in- 
creased their  knowledge  of  many  diseases. — J.  L. 

p.  82.  ^^  Impetigo"  is  now  known  to  be  a  fungoid  growth,  and  not  a 
worm. — J.  L. 

p.  94.  The  farrago  of  remedies  for  the  treatment  of  wounds  is  now 
all  cast  aside.  The  proper  treatment  is  all  contained  in  Boorde's  first 
two  lines  of  "remedy." — J.  L.     ' 

p.  97.  Boorde's  treatment  of  Tertian  Fever  not  unlikely  brought  the 
latter  into  the  category  of  infectious  diseases. — J.  L. 

p.  97.  *  Boorde's  treatment  of  Scurf '  With  the  omission  of  the 
mercury,  we  Lave  here  a  very  good  sulphur  ointment,  the  free  applica- 
tion of  which  would  render  the  cultivation  of  the  nails  unnecessary. — 
J.  L. 

p.  99.  '  Boorde's  cure  for  asthma.'  The  treatment  consists  in  the- 
administration  of  antispasmodics  and  expectorants,  and  the  avoidance  of 
such  articles  of  diet  as  produce  flatulence. — J.  L. 

328  NOTES    ON    THE   FOREWORDS.' 

p.  99.  '  Loch  de  pino.'  In  tlie  "  Niewe  Herball  or  Hislorie  ot 
Plantes,  &c.,  first  set  foorth  in  the  Doutche  or  Alinaigne  tongue  by  that 
learned  D.  Rembert  Dodoens,  &c.,  and  uowe  first  translated  out  of  French 
into  English  by  Henry  Lyte,  Esquyer,  1578,"  it  is  strted  in  the  descrip- 
tion of  the  virtues  of  the  Pine  :  "  The  Kernels  of  the  Nuttes  which  are 
founde  in  the  Pine  apples  are  good  for  the  lunges,  they  dense  the  breast, 
and  cause  the  fleme  to  be  spet  out ;  also  they  nourish  wel,  and  ingender 
good  blood,  and  for  this  cause  they  be  good  for  suche  as  have  the 
cough." — John  Leigh. 

p.  99.  '•  Pylles  of  Agai-ycke.^  Dodoens  also  says,  "  there  groweth  on 
the  larche  tree  a  kinde  of  Mushrome  or  Tadstoole,  that  is  to  say,  a  fung- 
euse  excrescence  called  Agaricus  or  Agarick,  the  whiche  is  a  precious 
medicine,  and  of  great  vertue.  The  best  Agarick  is  that  which  is  whitest, 
very  light  and  open  or  spongious.  .  .  .  Agarick  is  good  against  the 
fihortnesse  of  breath  called  Asthma ;  the  hard  continual!  cough  or  in- 
veterate cough.  .  .  .  Taken  about  the  weight  of  a  Dramme,  it  purgeth 
the  belly  from  colde  slimie  fleme,  and  other  grosse  and  raw  humours 
which  charge  and  stoppe  the  brayne,  the  sinewes,  the  lunges,  the  breast, 
the  stomach,  the  liver,  the  splene,  the  kidneyes,  the  matrix,  or  any  other 
the  inwarde  partes.  .  .  It  also  cureth  the  wamblinges  of  the  stomacke." 
—J.  L. 

p.  99.  Wood  poiodei'  for  Excoriation.  The  application  of  wood- 
powder  to  an  excoriation  is  analogous  treatment  to  that  of  flour  to  a 
burn  or  scald.  The  object  in  both  cases  is  to  exclude  atmospheric  air, 
and  to  efl'ect  the  absorption  of  purulent  matter. — J.  L. 

Wood-dust  was  also  used  for  the  'violet  powder'  of  the  present 
day  :  compare  Florio's  '  Carolo,  a  moath  or  timber-worme.  Also,  a  cunt- 
botch  or  winchester-goose.  Also  dust  of  rotten  wood  vsed  about  yongue 
children  against  fleaing .^ 

p.  100.  '  Agnus  castus.''  "  Agnus  castus,  Hempe  tree  or  Chaste  tree, 
is  a  singular  remedie  and  medicine  for  such  as  woulde  live  chaste  .  .  . 
whether  in  powder  or  in  decoction,  or  the  leaues  alone  layde  on  the  bed 
to  sleepe  uppon.  .  .  .  The  seede  of  Agnus  Castus  driveth  away  and  dis- 
solveth  all  windinesse  and  blastinges  of  the  stomacke,  entrailes  &c." 
Lyte's  Dodoens — J.  L. 

p.  110.  Louis  Napolem,.  My  revises  come  on  Sept.  5  ;  and  on  Sept. 
2  Louis  Napoleon  and  MacMahon's  army  surrendered  almost  uncon- 
<litionally  to  the  King  of  Prussia,  Bazaine  and  the  Army  of  the  Rhine 
being  held  captives  at  Metz !  Well-deserved  retribution^!  May  it  be 
speedily  followed  to  the  end,  and  France  have  meted  to  her  the  same 
measure  she  declared  that  she  would  mete  to  Prussia,  at  least,  the  loss 
of  her  Rhine  provinces  !  Meantime,  as  the  uprising  of  the  German 
nation  to  defend  their  Fatherland  has  been  the  grandest  sight  that  I 
have  ever  seen,  and  one  of  the  most  magnificent  that  I  have  ever  heard 
of,  making  one  glad  to  have  lived  to  witness  it,  I  desire  to  quote  hero 

'  Notwithstanding  Louis  Napoleon's  friendship  for  England.  If  one's 
friends  take  to  unprovoked  murder,  they  deserve  hanging. 


the  words  of  a  stranger  who  is  not  one  of  the  trimmerB  who  have  dis- 
graced part  of  the  English  Press  : — 

"  History  will  record  no  instance  of  a  greater  outrage  done  to 
humanity,  or  one  accompanied  by  circumstances  of  more  malicious 
perfidy,  more  selfish  premeditation,  or  a  display  of  combined  abjectness, 
effrontery,  and  vainglorious  miscalculation  more  disgustful  to  think  of, 
than  this  war  thrust  upon  the  world  by  Napoleon  III.  and  his  official 
lackeys.  There  has  never  been  a  nobler  movement  of  national  indigna- 
tion and  national  resolution,  undertaken  in  a  temper  more  magnificent, 
more  gravely  and  unexultingly  heroic,  than  the  rising  of  the  German 
people  to  the  challenge.  These  great  facts  are,  and  will  remain,  true 
concerning  the  causes  of  the  war,  whatever  may  be  its  progress  and  re- 
sults. I  am  not  speaking  of  that  which  has  been  obscure  or  ambiguous 
in  the  contradictions  and  recriminations  of  diplomatists  ;  but  of  that 
which  has  been  obvious  in  the  action  and  speech  of  a  sovereign  and  a 
nation.  It  is  perfectly  possible  to  separate  the  German  nation  in  this 
case  from  Herr  von  Bismarck  ;  and  if  Herr  von  Bismarck  is  convicted  of 
the  crime  of  seriously  entertaining  rapacious  negotiations  (which  in- 
volves, be  it  remembered,  his  further  conviction  of  the  folly  of  self-be- 
trayal) in  that  case  to  condemn  him,  without  foregoing  a  jot  of  the  ad- 
miration due  to  the  superb  attitude  of  threatened  Germany.  To  what 
extent  it  may  yet  be  possible  to  separate  Napoleon  III.  from  the  people 
among  whom  he  has  gagged  whatever  elements  he  has  not  been  able  to 
demoralize,  and  to  acquit  France  of  anything  worse  than  military  and 
territorial  jealousy,  must  remain  uncertain  for  the  present."  An  English 
Republican,  in  the  Pall  Mall  Gazette^  August  10,  1870,  p.  3,  col.  2. 


p..  119.  Bulwarks^  dc. — Compare  Hall,  under  the  xxx.  yere  of  K3'ng 
Henry  the  VIII.  "The  same  tyme  [March,  1538-9]  the  kyng  caused  all 
the  hauens  to  be  fortefied,  and  roade  to  Doner,  and  caused  Bulwarkes 
to  be  made  on  the  sea  coastes." — Chronicle^  p.  827,  ed.  1809.  And  on 
p.  828,  "  Also  he  sent  dyuers  of  his  nobles  and  counsaylours  to  view  and 
searche  all  the  Fortes  and  daungiers  on  the  coastes,  where  any  meete  or 
conuenient  landing  place  might  be  supposed,  as  well  on  the  borders  of 
Englande,  as  also  of  Wales.  And  in  alle  suche  doubtfull  places  his 
hyghnes  caused  dyuers  &  many  Bulwarkes  &  fortificacions  to  be  made." 

p.  119.  Castles  and  Blockhouses  built  by  Henry  VIII.  "The  most 
prouident  prince  that  euer  reigned  in  this  land,  for  the  fortification  there- 
of against  all  outward  enimies,  was  the  late  prince  of  famous  meniorie, 
king  Henrie  the  eight,  who,  beside  that  he  repared  most  of  such  as  were 
alreadie  standing,  builded  sundrie  out  of  the  ground.  For,  hauing  shaken 
off"  the  more  than  seruile  yoke  of  popish  tyrannic,  and  espieng  that  the 
emperour  was  offended  for  his  diucrce  from  queene  Catherine,  his  aunt, 
and  thereto  vnderstanding  that  the  French  king  had  coupled  the  Dol- 

330  NOTES  ON  boorde's  introduction, 

phin  his  sonne  with  the  popes  neece,  and  maried  his  daughter  to  the 
king  of  Scots,  .  .  he  determined  to  stand  vpon  his  owne  defense,  and 
therefore  with  no  small  sped,  and  like  charge,  he  builded  sundrie  blocke- 
houses,  castels,  and  platformes,  vpon  diuerse  frontiers  of  his  realme,  but 
chieflie  the  east  and  southeast  parts  of  England,  whereby  (no  doubt)  he 
did  verie  much  qualifie  the  conceiued  grudges  of  his  aduersaries,  and 
vtterlie  put  off  their  hastie  purpose  of  inuasion."  W.  Harrison^s  Descr. 
of  England,  in  Hollnshed'a  Chronicle^  p.  194,  col.  2,  ed.  1587. 

p.  120.  Caemai-von.  "  Wednesday  the  4.  of  August,  I  rode  8  miles 
from  Bangor  to  Camarvan,  where  I  thought  to  have  seen  a  Town  and  a 
Castle,  or  a  Castle  and  a  Towne  ;  but  I  saw  both  to  be  one,  and  one  to  be 
both  ;  for  indeed  a  man  can  hardly  divide  them  in  judgement  of  appre- 
hension ;  and  I  have  seen  many  gallant  Fabricks  and  Fortifications,  but 
for  compactness  and  compleatness  of  Caernarvon,  I  never  yet  saw  a 
parallel.  And  it  is  by  Art  and  Nature  so  sited  and  seated,  that  it  stands 
impregnable ;  &  if  it  be  well  mand,  victualled,  and  ammunitioned,  it 
is  invincible,  except  fraud  or  famine  do  assault,  or  conspire  against  it." 
(1653.  John  Taylor,  A  short  Relation  of  a  long  loumey,  p.  14.) 

p.  120.  The  Northern  tongue. — Sane  tota  lingua  Nordanimbrorum,  et 
niaxime  in  Eboraco,  ita  inconditum  stridet,  ut  nichil  nos  australes  intel- 
ligere  possimus.  Quod  propter  viciniam  barbararura  gentium,  et  propter 
remotionem  regum  quondam  Anglorum  modo  Normannorum  contigit, 
qui  magis  ad  austrum  quam  ad  aquilonem  diversati  noscuntur. — Willehni 
Malmesburiensis  monachi  Gesta  Pontificum  Anglorum,  lib.  iii.  p.  209,  ed. 
Hamilton,  1870. 

p.. 120.  Salt.  And  for  Salte,  there  is  great  pi  en  tie  made  at  the  Witches 
[places  whose  names  end  in  -wich']  in  Cheshire,  and  in  diners  other 
places  :  Besides  many  Salte  houses  standyng  vpon  the  coaste  of  Eng- 
lande  that, makes  Salte,  by  sething  of  salte  Sea  water. — \b%0,  Robert 
Ilitchcok's  Pollitique  Piatt,  sign.  e.  iii. 

p.  122.  Cornwall.  The  Water-Poet  gives  the  county  a  much  better 
character  a  hundred  years  later:  "Cornewall  is  the  Cornucopia,  the 
compleateand  repleate  Home  of  Abundance,  for  high  churlish  Hills,  and 
affable  courteous  people :  they  are  loving  to  requite  a  kindenesse, 
placable  to  remit  a  wrong,  and  hardy  to  retort  injuries:  the  Countrey 
hath  its  share  of  huge  stones,  mighty  Rocks,  noble,  free,  Gentlemen, 
bountiful  housekeepers,  strong  and  stout  men,  handsome  beautifull 
women  ;  and  (for  any  that  I  know)  there  is  not  one  Cornish  Cuckold  to 
be  found  in  the  whole  County  ;  In  briefe,  they  are  in  most  plentifull  man- 
ner happy  in  the  abundance  of  right  and  left  hand  blessings."  1649.  John 
Taylors  Wandering,  to  see  the  Wonders  of  the  West,  p.  10.  On  pages  17, 1 8, 
Taylor  gives  an  account  of  the  pilchard  fishing  at  Mevagesey  in 

p.  126.  The  Welsh  and  Cawse  boby  or  Roasted  Cheese. — The  78th 
Tale  in  "A  Hundred  Mery  Talys"  from  the  only  perfect  copy  known, 
printed  by  John  Rastell  in  1526,  ed.  Oesterley,  1866,  p.  131,  is 

"  LXXVIII.     Of  seynt  Peter  that  cryal  'cause  bole.' — I  fyndc  wryte« 


anionge  olde  gestys,  how  God  made  Saynte  Peter  porter  of  heuen  /  and 
that  God  of  his  goodnes,  soone  after  his  passyon,  suffred  many  men  to 
come  to  the  kyngdome  of  heuen  witli  small  deseruyng  /  at  whichetyme 
there  was  in  heuen  a  grete  company  of  Welehemen  /  whiche,  with 
theyre  krakynge  &  babelynge,  trobelyd  all  the  other.  Wherfore  God 
sayd  to  Saynt  Peter  that  he  was  wery  of  them  /  &  that  he  wolde  fayne 
haue  them  out  of  heuen.  To  whome  Saynt  Peter  sayde  '  Good  Lorde, 
I  warrant  you  that  shalbe  sliortly  done  / '  wherfore  Saynt  Peter  went 
out  of  heuew  gatys,  &  cryed  with  a  loude  voyce  '  Cause  bobe  '  /  that 
is  as  moche  to  say  as  '  rostyd  chese '  /  whiche  thynge  the  Welchmen 
heryng,  ran  out  of  heuyn  a  great  pace.  And  when  Saynt  Peter  sawe 
them  al  out,  he  sodenly  went  in  to  heuen,  and  lokkyd  the  dore,  and  so 
sparryd  all  the  Welchmen  out. 

"  IF  By  this  ye  may  se  that  it  is  no  wysdome  for  a  man  to  loue  or  to 
set  his  mynde  to  moche  vpon  ony  delycate  or  worldly  pleasure  wherby 
he  shall  lose  the  celestyall  &  eternall  loye." 

See  also  the  note  below,  on  p.  156. 

p.  127.  St  WinifrkVs  Well.  Taylor  the  Water- Poet  describes  this 
in  his  Short  Relation  of  a  long  loumey  in  1653,  p.  10-12.  "Saturdaj',  the 
last  of  July,  I  left  Flint,  and  went  three  miles  to  Holy-Well^  of  whicli 
place  I  must  speak  somewhat  materially  :  About  the  length  of  a  furlong, 
down  a  very  steep  Hill,  is  a  Well  (full  of  wonder  and  admiration  ;)  it 
comes  from  a  Spring  not  far  from  Radland  Castle ;  it  is,  and  hath  been, 
many  hundred  yeares  knowne  by  the  name  of  Holy -Well,  but  it  is  more 
commonly,  and  of  most  Antiquity,  called  Saint  Winifnds  Well  in 
memory  of  the  pious  and  chaste  Virgin  Winifrid,  who  was  there  be- 
headed for  refusing  to  yield  her  Chastity  to  the  furious  lust  of  a  Pagan 
Prince  :  in  that  very  place  where  her  bloud  was  shed,  this  Spring  sprang 
up  ;  from  it  doth  issjie  so  forceible  a  stream,  that  within  a  hundred  yards 
of  it,  it  drives  certain  Mils  ;  and  some  do  say  that  nine  Corn  Mils  and 
Fulling  Mils  are  driven  with  the  Stream  of  that  Spring:  It  hath  a  fair 
Ciiappell  erected  over  it  called  Saint  Winifrid's  Chappell,  which  is  now 
much  defaced  by  the  injury  of  these  late  Wars  ;  The  Well  is  compassed 
about  with  a  fine  Wall  of  Free  stone  ;  the  Wall  hath  eight  Angles  or 
Corners,  and  at  every  Angle  is  a  fair  Stone  Filler,  whereon  the  West  end 
of  the  Chappell  is  supported.  In  two  severall  places  of  the  Wall  there 
are  neat  stone  staires  to  go  into  the  water  that  comes  from  the  Well  ;  for 
it  is  to  be  noted  that  the  Well  it  selfe  doth  continually  work  and  bubble 
with  extream  violence,  like  a  boiling  Cauldron  or  Furnace ;  and  within 
the  Wall,  or  into  the  Well,  very  few  do  enter  :  The  Water  is  Christalline, 
sweet,  and  medicinable ;  it  is  frequented  daily  by  many  people  of  Rich 
and  Poore,  of  all  Diseases  ;  amongst  which,  great  store  of  folkes  are  cured, 
divers  are  eased,  but  none  made  the  worse.  The  Hill  descending  is 
plentifully  furnished  (on  both  sides  of  the  way)  with  Beggers  of  all  ages, 
sexes,  conditions,  sorts,  and  sizes ;  many  of  them  are  impotent,  but  all 
are  impudent,  and  richly  embrodered  all  over  with  such  Hexameter 
poudred  Ermins  (or  Vermin)  as  are  called  Lice  in  England." 

332  NOTES  ON  boorde's  introduction. 

p.  127-8.  Foolish  Customs  in  Wales.  Taylor  the  Water- Poet,  in  1G53 
notices  that  the  Welsh  were  free  from  the  Sabbatarian  superstition  of  one 
English  place.  "  Of  all  the  places  in  England  and  Wales  that  I  havd 
travelled  to,  this  village  of  Barnsley  [in  Gloucestershire]  doth  most  strictly 
observe  the  Lords  day,  or  Sunday,  for  little  children  are  not  suffered  to 
walke  or  play  :  and  two  Women,  who  had  beene  at  Church  both  before 
and  after  Noone,  did  but  walke  into  the  fields  for  their  recreation,  and 
they  were  put  to  their  choice,  either  to  pay  sixpence  apiece  (for  prophane 
walking,)  or  to  be  laid  one  houre  in  the  stocks  ;  and  the  pievish  willfull 
women  (though  they  were  able  enough  to  pay,)  to  save  their  money, 
and  jest  out  the  matter,  lay  both  by  the  heeles  merrily  one  houre. 

There  is  no  such  zeale  in  many  places  and  Parishes  in  Wales ;  for 
they  have  neither  Service,  Prayer,  Sermon,  Minister,  or  Preacher,  nor  any 
Church  door  opened  at  all,  so  that  people  do  exercise  and  edifie  in  the 
Church-Yard,  at  the  lawfull  and  laudable  Games  of  Trap,  Catt,  Stool-ballj 
Rocket  &c,  on  Sundayes." 

p.  128.  Prestes  shal  haue  no  concuhynes  (or  wives).  The  31st  of 
Henry  VIII,  chapter  14,  a.d.  1539,  enacted  "that  if  any  person  w/tich  is 
or  hath  byne  a  Preest,  before  this  present  parliament,  or  during  the  time 
of  cession  of  the  same,  hath  maryed,  and  hath  made  any  contract  of 
matrimony  with  any  woman,  or  that  any  man  or  woman  wAz'ch  before 
the  makinge  of  this  acte  advisedly  hath  vowed  chastitie  or  wydowhode 
before  this  present  parliament  or  during  the  cession  of  the  same,  hath 
maried  or  contracted  matrimony  with  any  person,  that  then  every  suche 
mariage  &  contract  of  matrimony  shalbe  utterlie  voide  and  of  none 
effecte  :  And  that  the  Ordynaries  within  whose  Dioces  or  Jurisdicc»on 
the  person  or  persons  so  maried  or  contracted  is  or  be  resident  or  abyd- 
ynge,  shall  from  tyme  to  tyme  make  8eparac^on  and  devorses  of  the 
saide  mariages  and  contracted. 

And  further  it  is  enacted  by  the  auctoritie  abovesaide,  that  if  any 
man  w^^ch  is  or  hathe  bene  Preest  as  is  aforesaide,  at  any  tyme  from 
and  after  the  saide  xij*'*  daye  of  July  next  comynge,  doe  carnally  kepe  or 
use  any  woman,  to  whom  he  is  or  hathe  bene  maried,  or  with  whome  he 
hathe  contracted  matrimony,  or  openly  be  conversaunt  [or]  kepe  com- 
panye  and  famyliaritie  withe  any  suche  woman,  to  the  evell  example  of 
other  persons,  everie  suche  carnall  use,  copulacion,  open  conversacion, 
kepinge  of  company  and  famyliarity,  be,  and  shalbe  demed  and  adjudged, 
felony,  aawell  against  the  man  as  the  woman  ;  and  that  everie  such 
person  soe  offendinge  shalbe  enquired  of,  tried,  punyshed,  suffer,  and 
forfeyt,  all  and  everie  thinge  and  thinges  as  other  felons  made  and  de- 
clared by  this  Acte,  and  as  in  case  of  felonye,  as  is  aforesaide." 

The  death-punishment  for  Felony  was  found  too  severe  ;  and  there- 
fore by  the  32  Henry  VIII,  chapter  10,  the  penalty  was  altered  to : 
"First  offence,  Forfeiture  of  all  Benefices  but  one,  &c.  Second  offence, 
Forfeiture  of  all  Benefices  land,  goods  &  chattels.  Third  offence,  Im- 
prisonment for  Life.  The  Penalty  on  Single  Women  oftending  was  ; 
First  offence,  Forfeiture  of  Goods.     Second  offence,  Forfeiture  of  Half 


the  Profits  of  her  Lands.  Third  oifence,  Forfeiture  of  all  Goods,  chattels, 
&  Profits  of  land,  and  Imprisonment  for  Life.  The  Penalty  on  Wives 
offending  was  Imprisonment  for  Life. 

p.  131.  Products  of  Ireland. — '  The  Libel  of  English  Policy,'  A.D. 
1436,  speaks  of  these,  and  the  countiy  itself.     The  products  are 

Hydes,  and  fish,  samon,  hake,  herynge, 

Irish  wollen,  lynyn  cloth,  faldynge^ 

And  marternus  gode,  bene  here  marchaundyse ; 

Hertys  hydes,  and  other  of  venerye, 

Skynnes  of  otere,  squerel  and  Irysh  [h]are, 

Of  shepe,  lambe,  and  fox  is  here  chaffare, 

ffelles  of  kydde  and  conyes  grete  plente.     (ii.  186.) 

Then,  as  to  the  country,  which  is  a  buttress  and  a  post  under  England, 
the  writer  says, 

Why  speke  I  thus  so  muche  of  Yrelonde  ? 
ffor  als  muche  as  I  can  understonde 
It  is  fertyle  for  thynge  that  there  do  growe 
And  multiply  en, — loke  who-so  lust  to  knowe  ;— - 
So  large,  so  gode,  and  so  coraodyouse, 
That  to  declare  is  straunge  and  merveylouse. 
ffor  of  sylvere  and  golde  there  is  the  oore 
Amonge  the  wylde  Yrishe,  though  they  be  pore  ; 
ffor  they  ar  rude,  and  can  thereone  no  skylle  ; 
So  that  if  we  had  there  pese  and  gode  wylle 
To  myne  and  fyne,  and  metalle  for  to  pure, 
In  wylde  Yrishe  myght  we  fynde  the  cure  ; 
As  in  London  seyth  a  juellere, 
Whych  brought  from  thens  gold  oore  to  us  here, 
Whereof  was  fyned  metalle  gode  and  clene. 
As  [to]  the  touche,  no  bettere  coude  be  sene. 

T.  Wright's  Political  Songs,  Rolls  Series,  ii.  186-7. 

And  welle  I  wote  that  frome  hens  to  Rome, 

And,  as  men  sey,  in  alle  Cristendome, 

Ys  no  grouude  ne  lond  to  Yreland  lyche, 

So  large,  so  gode,  so  pleiiteouse,  so  riche. 

That  to  this  worde  dominus  dothe  longe.     {ih.  ii.  188.) 

p.  131,  line  8.  And  good  square  dyce. — There  is  among  them  (the 
Wild  Irish)  a  brotherhood  of  Karrowes,  that  profer  to  play  at  chartes  all 
tTiQ  yere  long,  and  make  it  their  onely  occupation.  They  play  awaj*- 
mantle  and  all  to  the  bare  skin,  and  then  trusse  themselues  in  strawe 
or  in  leaues  ;  they  wayte  for  passengers  in  the  high  way,  invite  them 

'  He  rood  vp  on  a  Rouncy,  as  he  kouthe, 
In  a  gowne  oi  faldynye  to  the  knee. 
Chaucer  of  his  Shipman,  Cant.  Tales,  group  A.  §  1,  1.  391,. 

334  NOTES  ON  boorde's  introduction. 

to  game  upon  the  grene,  &.  aske  them  no  more  but  companions  to 
holde  them  spofte.  For  default  of  other  stuffe,  they  paune  theyr  glibs, 
the  nailes  of  their  fingers  and  toes,  their  dimiffaries,  which  they  leese  or 
redeeme  at  the  curtesie  of  the  wynner. — The  Description  of  Ireland,  by 
llichard  Stanyhurst  (chap.  8),  in  Holinshed,  ed.  1577. 

p.  131,  1.  8-7.  Aqua  Vitcd,  and  the  Diet  of  the  Wild  Irish. — "  Water 
cresses  (which  they  terme  shamrocks),  rowtes,  and  other  herbes,  they 
foede  upon  ;  otemeale  and  butter  they  cramme  together ;  they  drinke 
whey,  mylke,  and  biefe  brothe.  Fleshe  they  devour  without  bread,  and 
that  halfe  raw  :  the  rest  boyleth  in  their  stomackes  with  Aqua  vitae,  which 
they  swill  in  after  such  a  surfet  by  quartes  &  pottels  :  they  let  their 
cowes  bloud,  which,  growen  to  a  gelly,  they  bake,  and  ouerspred  with 
butter,  and  so  eate  in  lumpes.  No  meat  they  fancy  so  much  as  porke, 
and  the  fatter  the  better.  One  of  lohn  Oneales  household  demaunded  of 
his  fellow  whether  biefe  were  better  then  porke  :  *  that,'  quoth  the  other^ 
'is  as  intricate  a  question,  as  to  aske  whether  thou  art  better  then 
Oneale.'" — Stanyhurst^s  Description  of  Irelande,  chap.  8,  Holinshed,  ed. 

p.  131.  Natural  disposition  of  the  "  wyld  Irishe." — "The  people  are 
thus  enclined  :  religious,  frawke,  amorous,  irefull,  sufferable  of  infinite 
paynes,  very  glorious,  many  sorcerers,  excellent  horsemen,  delighted  with 
wars,  great  almsgiuers,  passing  in  hospitality.  The  lewder  sort,  both 
clearkes  and  lay  men,  are  sensuall,  &  ower  loose  in  liuyng.  The  same, 
beyng  vertuously  bred  up  or  reformed,  are  such  myrors  of  holynes  and 
austeritie,  that  other  nations  retaine  but  a  shadow  of  deuotion  in  com- 
parison of  them.  As  for  abstinence  and  fasting,  it  is  to  them  a  familiar 
kynd  of  chastisement." — Stanyhurst's  Description  of  Irelande,  chap.  8, 
Holinshed,  ed.  1577. 

p.  132.  The  Wild  Irish  lack  manners. — "  The  Irishe  man  standeth  so 
much  upon  hys  gentilitie,  that  he  termeth  any  one  of  the  English  sept, 
and  planted  in  Ireland,  Bohdeagh  Galteagh,  that  is,  'English  churle': 
but  if  he  be  an  Englishman  borne,  then  he  nameth  hym,  Bohdeagh 
Saxonnegh,  that  is,  'a  Saxon  churle':  so  that  both  are  churles,  and  he 
the  onely  gentleman  ;  and  therupon,  if  the  basest  pesant  of  them  name 
hymselfe  with  hys  superior,  he  will  be  sure  to  place  hiniselfe  first,  as  '  I 
and  Oneyle,  I  and  you,  I  and  he,  I  &  my  maister,'  wheras  the  curtesie  of 
the  Englishe  language  is  cleane  contrary." — Stanyhursfs  Descnption  of 
Irelande,  chap.  8,  Holinshed,  ed.  1577. 

p.  132.  The  English  Pale. — "  Before  I  attempt  the  unfoldyng  of  the 
maners  of  the  meere  Irish,  (wild  Irish)  I  thinke  it  expedient,  to  fore- 
warne  thee,  reader,  not  to  impute  any  barbarous  custome  that  shall  be 
here  layde  downe,  to  the  citizens,  townesmen,  and  the  inhabitants  of  tlie 
english  pale,  in  that  they  differ  little  or  nothyng  from  the  ancient 
customes  and  dispositions  of  their  progenitors,  the  English  and  Walsh- 
men,  beyng  therfore  as  mortally  behated  of  thQ  Irish,  as  those  that  are 
borne  in  England." — Stanyhurst'' 8  Descnption  of  Irelande,  chap.  8,  Holin- 


p.  133.  Ireland;  No  Adders,  c6c.,  there, 

"  'Tis  said  no  Serpent,  Adder,  Snake,  or  Toade, 
Can  live  in  Ireland,  or  hath  there  aboade." 

1642.  John  Taylor,  Mad  Fashions,  p.  4. 

p.  133.  Men  arid  women  lie  together  in  straw. — In  olde  tyme  they 
(the  Wild  Irish)  much  abused  the  honourable  state  of  marriage,  either 
in  contractes  unlawfull,  meetyng  the  degrees  of  prohibition,  or  in  di- 
uorcementes  at  pleasure,  or  in  retaynyng  concubines  or  harlots  for 
wyues  :  yea,  euen  at  this  day  where  the  clergy  is  fainte,  they  can  be 
content  to  marry  for  a  yeare  and  a  day  of  probation,  and  at  the  yeres 
ende,  or  any  tyme  after,  to  returne  hir  home  with  hir  marriage  goodes, 
or  as  much  in  valure,  upon  light  quarels,  if  the  gentlewomans  friendes 
be  unable  to  reuenge  the  injur3\  In  lyke  maner  may  she  forsake  hir 
husband. — The  Description  of  Ireland,  by  Richard  Stanyhurst  (chap.  8), 
in  Holinshed,  ed.  1577. 

p.  133.  Superstitions  of  the  Irish.  —  Stanyhurst  says,  "In  some 
corner  of  the  land  they  used  a  damnable  superstition,  leauyng  the 
right  armes  of  their  infantes  unchristened  (as  they  terme  it)  to  the 
intent  it  might  giue  a  more  ungracious  &  deadly  blowe. 
Others  write  that  gentlemens  children  were  baptized  in  mylke,  2°Calit*ant' 
and  the  infantes  of  poore  folke  in  water,  who  had  the  better, 
or  rather  the  on)}',  choyce.  Diuers  other  vayne  and  execrable  supersti- 
tions they  obserue,  that  for  a  complete  recitall  would  require  a  seueral 
volume.  Wherto  they  are  the  more  stifly  wedded,  because  such  single 
preachers  as  they  haue,  reproue  not  in  theyr  sermons  the  pieuishnesse 
and  fondnesse  of  these  friuolous  dreamers.  But  these  and  the  like 
enormities  haue  taken  so  deepe  roote  in  that  people,  as  commonly  a 
preacher  is  sooner  by  their  naughty  lyues  corrupted,  then  their  nauglity 

lyues  by  his  preaching  amended Againe,  the  very  English  of 

birth,  conuersant  with  the  sauage  sort  of  that  people,  become  degener- 
ate ;  &,  as  though  they  had  tasted  of  Circes  poysoned  cup,  are  quite 
altered.  Such  a  force  hath  education  to  make  or  n)arre." — The  De- 
scription of  Ireland^  by  Richard  Stanyhurst  (chap.  8),  in  Holinshed,  ed. 

p.  135.  Scotland. — The  Libel  of  1436  says  the  exports  of  Scotland 
are  skins,  hides,  and  wool,  which  pass  through  England  to  Flanders, — 
the  wool  being  sold  in  the  towns  of  Poperynge  and  Belle.  The  imports 
are  mercery,  haberdashery,  cartwheels  and  barrows. — T.  Wright's  Polit, 
Songs,  ii.  168. 

p.  136.  "  Scotlande  is  a  hai-yn  and  a  waste  countrey.^' — Certes  there  is 
no  region  in  the.  whole  world  so  barrew  &  unfruteful,  through  distaunce 
from  the  Sunne. — Description  of  Scotland,  chap.  13,  Holinshed,  ed.  1677. 

p.  137.  The  Scotch  '  he  hardy  mm.'' — Thereunto  we  finde  them  to  be 
couragious  and  hardy,  offering  themselues  often  unto  the  uttermost 
perils  with  great  assurance,  so  that  a  man  may  pronounce  nothing  to  be 
ower  harde  or  past  their  power  to  perfoxme. — Desciiption  of  Scotland, 
chap.  1,  Holinshed,  ed.  1577. 


p.  141.  Iceland  and  its  Stockfish, — -The  Libel  of  1436  says, 

Of  Yseland  to  wryte,  is  lytille  nede, 
Save  of  stokfische ;  yit  for  sothe,  in  dede, 
Out  of  Bristow,  and  costis  many  one, 
Men  have  practised  by  nedle  and  by  stone 
Thider-wardes  wj^thine  a  lytel  whylle, 
Wythine  xij.  yere,  and  wythoute  perille, 
Gone  and  comen — as  men  were  wonte  of  olde — 
Of  Scarborowgh  unto  the  costes  colde ; 
And  now  so  fele  shippes  thys  yere  there  were. 
That  moche  losse  for  unfraught  they  bare  ; 
Yselond  myght  not  make  hem  to  be  fraught 
Unto  the  hawys  ;  this  moche  harme  they  caught. 

T.  Wright's  Political  Songs,  ii.  191. 

p.  142.  Iceland  curs,  cmd  Icelanders  eating  tallow-candles. — "  Besides 
these  also  we  haue  sholts  or  curs  dailie  brought  out  of  Iseland,  and  much 
made  of  among  vs,  bicause  of  their  sawcinesse  and  quarrelling.  More- 
ouer  they  bite  verie  sore,  and  hue  candles  exceedinglie,  as  doo  the  men  and 
women  of  their  countrie :  but  I  may  saie  no  more  of  them,  bicause  they 
are  not  bred  with  vs.  Yet  this  will  I  make  report  of  by  the  waie,  for 
pastimes  sake,  that  when  a  great  man  of  those  parts  came  of  late  into 
one  of  our  ships  which  went  thither  for  fish,  to  see  the  forme  and  fashion 
of  the  same,  his  wife  apparrelled  in  fine  sables,  abiding  on  the  decke 
whilest  hir  husband  was  vnder  the  hatches  with  the  mariners,  espied  a 
pound  or  two  of  candles  hanging  at  the  mast,  and  being  loth  to  stand 
there  idle  alone,  she  fell  to,  and  eat  them  vp  euerie  one,  supposing  hir  selfe 
to  haue  beene  at  a  iollie  banket,  and  shewing  verie  plesant  gesture  when 
hir  husband  came  vp  againe  vnto  hir." — HanisorCs  Descr.,  Bk.  iii.  chap. 
7,  p.  231,  col.  2,  ed.  1586-7. 

"  My  lorde  is  not  at  lesure  : 

The  pawre  man  at  the  dur 

Standes  lyke  an  yslande  cur, 

And  Darre  not  ones  sture." 
Vox  PopuU  Vox  Dd,  A.D.  1547-8,  1.  473-5,  p.  137  of  my  Ballads  from 
Manuscripts,  vol.  i.  Ballad  Society,  1868,  p.  137,  where  this  note  from 
Nares  is  given,  "  Iceland  Dogs  :  shaggy,  sharp-eared,  white  dogs,  much 
imported  formerly  as  favourites  for  ladies  etc.  '  Pish  for  thee,  Iceland 
dog,  thou  prick-ear'd  cur  of  Iceland!'  Henry  V,  ii.  1." 

p.  142.  T%e  newefounde  land  named  Calico. — ?  Calicut,  a  kingdom  of 
India  on  the  coast  of  Malabar,  about  63  miles  long,  and  nearly  as  many 
broad.  Its  capital  is  also  named  Calicut,  and  was  the  first  place  where 
the  Portuguese  admiral  Vasco  de  Gama  landed  on  May  22,  1498,  and 
whence  he  returned  to  Portugal,  laden  with  the  first  spoils  of  tho 
eastern  world.  This  was  the  beginning  of  European  trade  with  India. 
Our  word  calico  is  taken  from  Calicut. — Oxford  Encyclopcsdia,  1828. 
p.  145.  Paschal. — Can  this  be  the  Pascal  or  Pa  chal,  Pierre,  de- 


scribed  in  the  Bibliographie  Universelle,  1823,  vol.  xxiii.  p.  44,  col.  2, 
as  a  litterateur  without  talent,  but  full  of  vanity  and  impudence,  who 
was  born  in  1522  at  Sauveterre  in  the  Bazadois,  of  a  noble  family,  and 
died  at  Toulouse  on  Feb.  16,  1565,  at  the  age  of  43  ?  He  got  praises  in 
plenty,  and  a  pension,  for  his  proposals  to  continue  Paulus  Jovius's  Eulo- 
giuras  of  Learned  Men,  and  to  write  a  History  of  France  ;  but  he  left  only 
6  leaves  of  the  latter  work  finisht  when  he  died,  though  he  had  before 
distributed  notes  with  '  P.  Paschali  liber  quartus  rerum  a  Francis  gestar- 
um  '  on  them. 

Pope  Pascal  II  died  on  January  11,  1118;  Pope  Pascal  III  was  for 
a  time  made  Anti-Pope  in  the  days  of  Alexander  III,  who  was  elected  on 
Sept.  7,  1159,  and  died  Aug.  30, 1181. 

p.  147.  The  Flemings^  Fish  and  Beer. — "the  Flemminges  .  .  .  with 
their  green e  fishe,  barreled  Cod  and  Heringes,  caryeth  out  of  Englande 
for  the  same  yearely,  both  golde,  and  siluer,  and  other  comodities  ;  and 
at  the  leaste  tenne  thousande  tunne  of  dubble  dubble  Beare,  and  hath 
also  all  kinde  of  Frenche  commodities,  continually  both  in  tyme  of  warres 
and  peace,  by  their  trade  onely  of  fishyng." — 1580,  Robert  Hitchcok's 
Pollitique  Platt^  sign.  f.  ii.  (The  book  shows  how  great  a  help  the 
development  of  the  Herring  Fishery  would  be  to  England.)  For  the 
"  Butter,"  see  the  note  on  p.  156. 

p.  147,  &c.  Flemings,  their  Beer-drinking,  Butter,  and  Products. — The 
Libel  of  1436  says  of  the  Prussians,  High-Dutchmen,  and  Easterlings, 

Oute  of  fflaundres 

. .  .  they  bringe  in  the  substaunce  of  the  beere 
That  they  drynken  fele  to  goode  chepe,  not  dere. 
Ye  have  herde  that  twoo  fflemynges  togedere 
Wol  undertake,  or  they  goo  ony  whethere, 
Or  they  rise  onys,  to  drinke  a  barrelle  fulle 
Of  goode  berkyne.^     So  sore  they  hale  and  pulle, 
Undre  the  horde  they  pissen,  as  they  sitte  : 
This  Cometh  of  covenant  of  a  worthy  witte. 
Wythoute  Calise  in  ther  buttere  the[y]  cakked ; 
Whan  they  flede  home,  and  when  they  leysere  lakked 
To  holde  here  sege,  they  wente  lyke  as  a  doo : 
Wei  was  that  fflemmynge  that  myght  trusse  and  goo  .  . . 
After  bere  and  bacon,  odre  gode  commodites  usene. 
Now  bere  and  bacon  bene  fro  Pruse  ibrought 
Into  fflaundres,  as  loved  and  fere  isoughte  ; 
Osmonde,^  coppre,  bow-stafifes,  stile,^  and  wex, 
Peltre-ware,  and  grey,  pych,  terre,  horde,  and  flex. 
And  Coleyne  threde,  fustiane,  and  canvase, 
Corde,  bokeram  :  of  olde  tyme  thus  it  wase. 
But  the  fflemmyngis,  amonge  these  thinges  dere, 
In  comen  lowen*  beste,  bacon  and  bere : 

*  barley  brew         *  a  kind  of  iron. — Halliwell,         ^  steel         *  love 
BOORDB.  22 

338  NOTES  ON  boorde's  introduction. 

Thus  arn  they  hogges  ;  and  drynkyn  wele  ataunt ; 
ffare  wel,  Flemynge !  hay,  harys,  hay,  avaunt ! 
Also  Pruse  men  make  here  aventure 
Of  plate  of  sylvere,  of  wegges^  gode  and  sure 
In  grete  plente,  whiche  they  bringe  and  bye 
Oute  of  londes  of  Bealme  and  Hungrye  ; 
Whiche  is  encrese  ful  grete  unto  thys  londe. 
And  thei  bene  laden,  I  understonde, 
Wyth  wollen  clothe,  alle  manere  of  coloures, 
By  dyers  craftes  ful  dyverse  that  ben  oures. 
And  they  aventure  ful  gretly  unto  the  Baye,^ 
fifor  salte,  that  is  nedefulle  wythoute  naye. 

T,  Wright's  Political  Songs,  ii.  169-171. 
Again,  at  p.  161  the  Spanish  imports  from  Flanders  are  said  to  be 
ffyne  clothe  of  Ipre,  that  named  is  better  than  oure-is, 
Cloothe  of  Curtryke,  fyne  cloothe  of  alle  coloures, 
Moche  ffustyane,  and  also  lynen  clothe. 
But,  ye  fflernmyngis,  yf  ye  be  not  wrothe. 
The  grete  substaunce  of  youre  cloothe,  at  the  fulle, 
Ye  wot  ye  make  hit  of  youre  Englissh  wolle. 
p.  149.  Dutchmen  ^quaf  tyl  they  ben  dronJc' 

"  'Tis  said  the  Dutchmen  taught  vs  drinke  and  swill ; 
I'm  sure  we  goe  beyond  them  in  that  skill ; 
I  wish  (as  we  exceed  them  in  what's  bad,) 
That  we  some  portion  of  their  goodnesse  had." 

1632.  Taylor  on  Thame  Isis,  p.  27. 
p.  150,  1.  5.  Antwerp  and  Barow. — If  this  warre  [with  the  Emperor 
in  1527]  was  displeasaunt  to  many  in  Englande  (as  you  have  hard), 
surely  it  was  as  much  or  more  displeasant  to  the  tounes  and  people  of 
Flaunders,  Brabant,  Hollande,  and  Zelande,  and  in  especiall  to  the  tounes 
Andvjarpe  and  Barrow,  where  the  Martes  wer  kept,  and  where  the  re- 
sorte  of  Englishmen  was  ;  for  thei  saied  that  their  Martes  were  vndoen 
if  the  Englishemen  came  not  there  ;  and  if  there  were  no  Marte,  their 
Shippes,  Hoyes,  and  Waggons  might  rest,  and  all  artificers,  Hostes,  and 
Brokers  might  slepe,  and  so  the  people  should  fal  into  miserie  and 
pouertie. — HalVs  Chronicle,  p.  746,  ed.  1809. 

p.  150.  Brabant,  the  Mart  of  all  nations. — The  Libel  of  1436  says, 
And  wee  to  martis  of  Braban  charged  bene 
Wyth  Englyssh  clothe,  fulle  gode  and  feyre  to  seyne. 
Wee  bene  ageyne  charged  wyth  mercerye, 
Haburdasshere  ware,  and  wyth  grocerye. 
To  whyche  martis — that  Englisshe  men  call  "  feyres  " — 
Iche  nacion  ofte  maketh  here  repayeres, 

'  wedges 
'  Into  the  Rochelle,  to  fetche  the  fumose  wine, 
Nere  into  Britonnse  bay  for  salt  so  fyne.  (ib.  p.  1G2.) 


Englysshe  and  Frensh,  Lumbardes,  Januayes, 
CJathalones,  theder  they  take  here  wayes, 
Scottes,  Spanyardes,  Iresshirien  there  abydes, 
Wythe  grete  plente  bringinge  of  salte  hydes. 

T.  Wright's  Political  Songs,  ii.  179. 
The  English  were   by  far  the  largest  buyers  at  the  Marts,  of  goods 
brought  thither  by  laud  as  well  as  sea  ;  and  among  the  articles  are, 
Yit  marchaundy  of  Braban  and  Selande, 
The  madre  and  woode  that  dyers  take  on  hande 
To  dyne  wyth  ;  garleke,  and  onyons, 
And  salt  fysshe  als,  for  husbond  and  comons. 
But  they  of  Holonde,  at  Caleyse  byene  oure  felles 
And  oure  woUes,  that  Englyshe  men  hem  selles.  (ib.  p.  180.) 
p.  151.  Antwerp  Church  and  its  Spire. — "  The  great  glory  of  Antwerp 
is  its  cathedral,  the  finest  building  in  the  Low  Countries  ;  it  is  said  to  be 
600  feet  long,  240  wide,  and  has  a  spire  of  stone  .  .  366  feet  (high)  ;  con- 
sequently it    is    lower   than   the   spire  of  Salisbury    cathedral,   if   the 
[generally  acknowledged]   height  of   this  spire  can   be  depended  on." 
Fenny  Cyclopcedia. 

p.  151.  Hanawar  or  JIanago,  or  Hainault,  is  called  Hennigavo  in  the 
map  of  Europe  in  XII  Landtaflen,  printed  at  Zurich  by  Christoffel 
Froschower,  M.D.LXII.,  and  is  placed  South  (instead  of  East)  of  Artois, 
and  north  of  Paris.  The  map  is  turned  and  lettered  with  its  North,  in- 
stead of  its  South  point,  towards  you.  'Lunden'  is  wholly  on  the  south 
of  the  Thames. 

p.  156.  Butter  and  Dutchmen. — A  tale  in  The  Sack-Full  of  Newes, 
ed.  1673,  sign.  B.,  ilhistrates  this  :  "  There  was  a  widow  in  London  that 
had  a  Dutchman  to  her  servant,  before  whom  she  set  a  rotten  Clieese 
&  butter  for  his  dinner:  and  he  eate  of  the  butter  because  he  liked  it, 
and  his  Mistresse  bad  him  eat  of  the  cheese.  '  No,  Mistresso,'  quod  he, 
*  the  butter  is  good  enough.'  She,  perceiving  he  would  eat  none  of 
the  bad  cheese,  said,  'Thou  knave,  thou  ait  not  to  dwell  with  honest 
folkes  ! '  'By  my  troth,  Mistresse,'  said  he,  '  had  I  taken  heed  ere  I 
came  hither,  I  had  never  come  here.'  '  Well,  knave,'  quod  she,  '  thou 
shalt  go  from  on  whore  to  another.'  'Then  will  I  go,' qwod  he, '  from 
you  to  your  sister ;'  and  so  departed." 

See  also  in  "  The  Figure  of  Nine,  Containing  these  Nine  Observa- 
tions, Wits,  Fits,  and  Fancies,  Jests,  Jibes,  and  Quiblets,  with  Mirth, 
Pastime,  and  Pleasure. 

The  Figure  of  Nine  to  you  I  here  present. 
Hoping  thereby  to  give  you  all  content," 
over  a  circular  device,  with  the  legend  Cor  unum  via  una.     "  Printed  for 
J.  Deacon,  and  C.  Dennisson,  at  their  Shops  at  the  Angel  in  Guiltspur- 
street,  and  at  the  Stationers  Arms  within  Aldgate."     A  in  eight. 

"  Nine  sorts  of  men  love  nine  sorts  of  dishes. — A  Dutchman  loves 
butter,  an  Englishman  Beefe,  a  Scot  loves  an  Oat-cake,  the  Welshman 

;.'  2  * 

340  NOTES  ON  boorde's  introduction. 

loves  Couse-bobby  [toasted  cheese],  an  Irishman  Onions,  a  Frenchman 
loves  Mutton,  the  Spaniard  tobacco,  the  Seaman  loves  Fish,  and  a 
Taylor  loves  cabbage."     sign.  A.  3,  back. 

p.  161.  holmes  (fustian),  a.d.  1474.  "Item, x.  elnes  of  blak  holmesa 
[printed  holmefs']  fustian  to  the  trumpatis  doublats,  iij.  s.  the  eln." — 
Dauney's  Extracts  from  Accounts  in  his  Ancient  Scotish  Melodies^  Edinb. 
1838  (Bannatyne  &  Maitland  Clubs). 

p.  163.  The  old  warriors  and  present  poverty  of  Denmark. — The 
Lihel^  A.D.  1436,  says, 

In  Denmarke  ware  fulle  noble  conquerours 

In  tyme  passed,  fulle  worthy  werriours, 

Whiche,  when  they  had  here  marchaundes  destroyde, 

To  poverte  they  felle, — thus  were  they  noyede  ; — 

And  so  they  stonde  at  myscheffe  at  this  daye  ; 

This  lerned  I  late,  welle  wryten,  this  no  naye. 

T.  Wright's  Polit.  Songs,  ii.  177. 

p.  169.  Bugles. — See  TopseH's  Histoid  of  Four-footed  Beasts :  "Of 
the  Vulgar  Bugil.  A  Bugil  is  called  in  Latine,  Buhalus,  and  Buffalus  ; 
in  French,  Beufle ;  in  Spanish  Bufano ;  in  German,  Buff  el,  .  .  This 
vulgar  Bugil  is  of  a  kinde  of  wilde  Oxen,  greater  and  taller  then  the 
ordinary  Oxen,  and  their  limbs  better  compact  together.  .  .  They  are 
very  fierce,  being  tamed  ;  but  that  is  corrected  by  putting  an  Iron  ring 
through  his  Nostrils,  whereinto  also  is  put  a  cord,  by  which  he  is  led  and 
ruled,  as  a  Horse  by  a  bridle ;  (for  which  cause,  in  Germany  they  call  a 
simple  man  over-ruled  by  the  advise  of  another  to  his  own  hurt, '  a  Bugle, 
led  with  a  ring  in  his  nose.'  His  feet  are  cloven,  and  with  the  formost 
he  will  dig  the  earth,  and  with  the  hindmost  fight  like  a  Horse,  setting 
on  his  blows  with  great  force,  and  redoubling  them  again  if  his  object 
remove  not.  His  voyce  is  like  the  voyce  of  an  Oxe  ;  when  he  is  chased 
he  runneth  forth  right,  seldom  winding  or  turning,  and  when  he  is 
angred,  he  runneth  into  the  water,  wherein  he  covereth  himself  all  over, 
except  his  mouth,  to  cool  the  heat  of  his  blood."  p.  45,  ed.  Rowland, 

p.  171.  A  gret  citie  called  Malla-vine. — And  Men  gon  thorghe  the 
Lond  of  this  Lord  [the  Kyng  of  Hungarye],  thorghe  a  Cytee  that  is 
clept  Cypron,  and  be  the  evglle  Town,  that  sytt  toward  the  ende  of 
Hungarye. — Mandeville's  Voiage  and  Travaile,  p.  7,  ed.  1839. 

p.  176.  Naples. — Thomas  speaks  thus  of  the  Neapolitans,  Hist.  Italye^ 
If.  114,  "  the  Neapolitanes  are  scarcelye  trusted  on  their  wordes.  Not  that 
I  thynke  they  deserue  lesse  credyte  than  other  men,  but  because  the 
wonted  general  ill  opinion  of  their  vnstedfastnesse  is  not  taken  oute  of 
men's  hertes.  Yet  is  theNeapolitane,  for  his  good  enterteinment,  reckened 
to  be  the  veraie  courtesie  of  the  worlde,  thoughe  most  men  repute  him 
to  be  a  great  flatterer,  and  ful  of  crafte. 

"  What  wol  you  more?  They  are  rych,  for  almost  euery  gentylman 
is  lorde  and  kynge  within  hyni  selfe  j  they  haue  veray  fayre  women, 


and  the  worlde  at  wyll ;  in  so  miiche  as  Naples  contendeth  wyth  Venice, 
whether  should  be  preferred  for  sumptuouse  dames.  Finallye,  the  court 
about  the  Vicere  was  wowt  to  be  verj'  princelye,  and  greater  than  that  of 
Myllayne  for  trayne  of  gentilmen  ;  but  now  it  is  somewhat  diminished." 

p.  178.  Italy :  *  the  people  he  homly  and  rude,' — Thomas  (leaf  3, 
back,  leaf  4)  praises  the  Italian  gentlemen  very  highly  :  "  so  honourable, 
so  courteise,  so  prudente,  and  so  graue  withall,  that  it  shoulde  seeme 
eche  one  of  thaim  to  haue  had  a  princelye  bringynge  vp.  To  his  superior, 
obediente  ;  to  his  equal),  humble  ;  and  to  his  inferiour,  gentle  and 
courteyse ;  amyable  to  a  straunger,  and  desyrous  with  curtesie  to  winne 
his  loue. 

"  I  graunte,  that  in  the  expense  or  loue  of  his  money  to  a  straunger, 
he  is  ware,  and  woull  be  at  no  more  cost  than  he  is  sure  eyther  to  saue 
by,  or  to  haue  thanke  for  :  wherein  I  rather  can  commende  him  than 
otherwyse.  But  this  is  out  of  doubte,  a  straunger  can  not  be  better  en- 
terteigned,  nor  moore  honourablie  entreated,  then  amongest  the  Italians." 
Thomas  also  praises  highly  the  Italian  universities  "  Padoa,  Bononia, 
Pauia,  Ferrara,  Pisa,  and  others";  none  of  which  Andrew  Boorde  says 
he  saw.  But  Thomas  says  the  condition  of  the  poor  is  very  bad  ;  they 
are  hardly  able  to  earn  bread. 

p.  178.  St  Peter's  fallen  to  the  ground. — Though  Rome  was  sackt 
in  1527  by  the  Emperor's  army  under  the  command  of  the  Duke  of 
Bourbon  (see  the  account  in  HalVs  Chronicle,  p.  726-7,  ed.  1809), 
yet  it  was  Julius  II  who  had  the  old  basilica  of  St  Peter's  pulled 
down,  in  order  to  provide  a  site  for  his  mausoleum,  which  Michael 
Angelo  had  designed.  On  April  18,  1506,  Julius  II  laid  the  foundation- 
stone  of  the  present  church.  Bramante  made  designs  for  it,  and  four 
great  piers  and  their  arches  were  completed  before  he  died  in  1514.  The 
work  stood  still  for  nearly  30  years  ;  Michael  Angelo  altered  the  design  ; 
and  his  Cathedral  was  nearly  finisht  in  1601,  when  Paul  V  and  the 
Cardinals  commissioned  Carlo  Maderno  to  lengthen  the  nave,  &c.  Urban 
VIII  dedicated  the  church  on  the  18th  of  November  1626,  a  hundred  and 
twenty  years  after  the  building  began.  Spalding's  Italy  and  the  Italian 
Islands,  iii.  154  :  see  a  plan  and  account  of  the  old  Basilica,  ib.  ii.  46-50. 

p.  178.  Rome. — See  W.  Thomas's  chapter  "  Of  the  present  astate  of 
Rome,"  leaf  37,  &c.,  of  his  Hist,  of  Italye,  ed.  1561.  Of  the  new  Ca- 
thedral of  St  Peter's,  he  says  : — "  But  aboue  all,  the  newe  buildyng,  if  it 
were  finished,  wolde  be  the  goodliest  thyng  of  this  worlde,  not  onelye 
for  the  antike  pillers  that  haue  ben  taken  out  of  the  antiquitees,  and  be- 
stowed there,  but  also  for  the  greatnesse  and  excellent  good  proporcion 
that  it  hathe.  Neuerthelesse  it  hath  been  so  many  yeres  adoing,  and  is 
yet  so  vnperfect,  that  most  men  stand  in  dout  whether  euer  it  shalbe 
finished  or  no." — 1549,  W.  Thomas's  Hist,  of  Italye,  leaf  40,  back,  ed. 

p.  181.  Venice. — Thomas,  in  his  History e  of  Italy e,  1549,  p.  74,  ed. 
1561,  says  of  Venice,  "  I  thynke  noplace  of  all  Europe,  hable  at  this  daye 
to  compare  with  that  citee  for  noumber  of  sumptuouse  houses,  speciallye  for 


theyr  frontes.  For  he  that  would  rowe  througli  the  Canale  grande,  and 
marke  wel  the  frontes  of  tlie  houses  on  bothe  sydes,  shall  see  theim  more 
lyke  the  doynges  of  prynces  then  priuate  men.  And  I  haue  been  with 
good  reason  persuaded,  that  in  Venice  be  aboue  .200.  palaices  able  to 
lodge  any  king." 

p.  182.  The  Merchandise  of  Venice  was,  according  to  the  Libel  of 
1436,  grocery,  wines,  monkeys,  knicknacks,  and  drugs  : 
The  grete  galees  of  Venees  and  fflorence 
Be  wel  ladene  wyth  thynges  of  complacence, — 
AUe  spicerye,  and  of  grocers  ware, 
"Wyth  swete  wynes,  alle  manere  of  chaflfare, 
Apes,  and  japes,  and  marmusettes  taylede, 
Nifles,  trifles,  that  litelle  have  availede, 
And  thynges  wyth  whiche  they  fetely  blere  oure  eye, 
Wyth  thynges  not  enduryng  that  we  bye  .  . 
And  .  .  for  infirmitees  ....  skamonye, 
Turbit,  euforbe,  correcte,  diagredie, 
Rubarde,  sene  ;  and  yet  they  bene  to  nedefulle. 

T.  Wright's  Political  Songs,  ii.  173. 
p.  183,   No  Lords  in   Venice. — -'''■  Democratia,  a  free  state  or  common 
wealth,  hauing  ho  Prince  or  superior  but  themselues  (as  Venice  is)  ex- 
cept those  officers  that  thetnselues  appoint."     Florio. 

p.  184,  note.  Italian  Wives,  and  their  Husbands''  Jealousy. — Thys 
vyce  is  of  property  to  the  Ytaliens,  to  shytte  vp  theyr  wyues  as  tlieyr 
treason r.  And,  on  my  fayth  (to  my  iudgemente)  to  lytle  purpose  ;  for 
the  mooste  part  of  women  be  of  thys  sorte,  that  moost  they  deeyre  that 
[which]  moost  too  them  is  denyed ;  and  whan  thou  woldest,  they  wyl 
nat  ;  and  whan  thou  woldest  nat,  they  wolde  ;  and  yf  they  haue  the 
brydle  at  libertye,  [the]  lesse  they  offende ;  so  that  it  is  as  easy  to  kepe 
a  woman  against  her  wyll,  as  a  flocke  of  flies  in  the  hete  of  the  sonne, 
tixcepte  she  be  of  her  selfe  chaste.  In  vayne  doth  the  husband  set 
kepers  ouer  her  ;  for  who  shal  kepe  those  kepers  ?  She  is  crafty  ;  and 
at  them  lightely  she  beginneth  ;  and  whan  she  taketh  a  fantasy,  she  is 
vnreasonable,  and  lyke  an  vnbrydeled  mule. — The  goodly  History  of  the 
moste  noble  and  beauty  ful  Ladye  Lucres  of  Scene  in  Tuskan^  &  of  her  louer 
Eurialus,  verye  pleasaunt  and  delectable  vnto  the  reder.  ^  Anno  Domini 
M.D.LX.  [col.]  Imprinted  at  London,  by  John  Kynge.  (sign. D.ii.)  This 
is  the  2nd  edition,  and  Mr  Henry  Huth  has  lent  me  the  copy  from  which 
I  extract.  The  book  is  in  Captain  Cox's  list.  Its  author,  ^n.  S.  Picco- 
loniini,  returns  to  the  husband-&-wife  question  on  leaves  F  iv,  v,  vi : 
"  And  on  the  morowe,  eyther  for  that  it  were  necessary  to  take  hede,  or  for 
someyl  suspecte,  Menelaus  [the  husband]  walled  vppe  the  wyndowe  [by 
which  Eurialus  had  got  in  to  Lucres].  I  thynke  as  our  Cytezens  [of 
Sienna]  be  suspectuous  and  full  of  coniectures;  so  dyd  hee  feare  the  cotti- 
modyte  of  the  place,  &  woulde  eschewe  the  occasion  ;  for  though  he 
knewe  noughte,  yet  wyste  hee  well  that  she  was  much  desyred,  and 
daylye  prouoked  by  great  requestes,  &  [he]  iudged  a  womans  thought 


vnstable,  whiche  hath  as  many  myndes  as  trees  hath  leues,  &  tJiai  theyr 
kyride  alway  is  desyrous  of  newe  thynges,  aud  seldom  loue  they  theyr 
husbands  whom  they  haue  obteyned.  Therefore  dyd  he  folowe  the  com- 
mon opynyon  of  maried  men,  too  auoyde  myshap,  thoughe  it  come  wy th 
good  lucke." 

The  food  and  ways  of  Italian  servants  about  1440  a.d.  are  shown  b}'^ 
a  passage  in  this  Lucres  &  Eurialus,  written  by  Pope  Pius  II  in  his  young 
days,  when  he  was  ^neas  Sylvius  Piccolomini  :  "  looke  that  oure  supper 
be  redy  !  We  must  be  meri  while  our  mayster^  is  furth  ;  our  maistres^ 
is  better  felowe  ;  shee  is  merye  &  liberal ;  he  is  angry,  full  of  noyse, 
couetous,  and  harde.  We  are  neuer  wel  when  he  is  at  home.  Se,  I  pray 
the,  what  lanke  belyes  we  haue  !  He  is  hungry  hym  selfe,  to  sterue  vs 
for  hunger ;  hee  wyll  not  suffer  one  moyste  peece  of  browne  breade  to 
be  loste  ;  but  the  fragme7ites  of  one  daye  he  kepeth  fyue  dayes  after,  & 
the  gobbets  of  salte  fysh  &  salt  eles  of  one  supper,  he  kepeth  vnto  another, 
and  marketh  the  cut  chese,  least  anye  of  it  shulde  be  stolen.  .  .  .  How 
muche  are  we  better  -with  our  maistres,  that  feedeth  vs  not  onlye  with 
veale  &  kidde,  but  with  hennes  and  byrdes,  &  plewtye  of  wyne  V  Go, 
Dromo,  and  make  the  kytchen  smoke  !  "  "  Mary  !  "  quod  Dromo,  "  that 
shall  be  my  charge  ;  &  soner  shall  I  laye  the  tables  thanne  rub  the 
horse !  I  brought  my  mayster  into  the  countree  to-daye,  that  the 
Deuyll  brake  hys  necke  !  and  neuer  spake  hee  woorde  vnto  me,  but 
badde  me,  whan  I  brought  home  my  horses,  to  tell  my  maystres  that  hee 
woulde  not  come  home  too  nyghte.  But  by  God,"  quod  he,  "  I  prayse 
the,  Zosias,  that  at  the  last  hast  founde  faute  at  my  maysters  condycions. 
I  had  forsaken  my  mayster,  yf  my  maystres  had  not  geuen  me  mi 
morowe  meles  as  she  hath.  Lette  vs  not  sleape  to-niglit,  Zosia ;  but 
lette  vs  eate  &  dryncke  tyll  it  bee  daye.  My  mayster  shall  not  winne  so 
muche  this  moneth,  as  we  shal  wast  at  one  supper." 

Gladlye  dyd  Eurialus  [Lucres's  lover,  hiding  in  the  hay  till  he  could 
get  to  her]  here  this,  and  marked  the  maners  of  seruants,  &  thought  he 
wasserued  a  lyke.  ed.  1560,  sign.  F  .iii.,  F  .iiii.  The  unique  copy  of 
the  first  edition  in  the  British  Museum  is  more  correctly  printed  than 
the  second,  but  has  lost  its  last  leaf,  with  the  last  verse  of  the  Envoy. 
This  has  now  been  supplied  by  nie  from  Mr  Huth's  copy  of  Kynge's 
edition.  The  story  of  the  novel  is  told  in  the  Forewords  to  my  edition 
of  Captain  Cox,  or  Laneham's  Letter  (Ballad  Society,  1871). 

p.  185.  The  Venetians'  timber,  <&c.,  in  readiness  for  war. — "  the  Arsenate 
in  myne  eye  excedeth  all  the  rest  :  For  there  they  haue  well  neere  two 
hundred  galeys  in  such  an  order,  that  vpon  a  very  smal  warnyng  they 
may  be  furnyshed  out  vnto  the  sea.  Besydes  that,  for  euery  daye  in  the 
yeare  (whan  they  would  goe  to  the  coste)  they  should  be  able  to  make 
a  newe  galey  ;  hauinge  such  a  staple  of  timber  (whyche  in  the  water 
wythin  Th'  arsenate  hathe  lyen  a  seasoninge,  some  .20,  yeare,  some  .40. 
some  an  .100.  and  some  I  wot  not  how  longe)  that  it  is  a  wonder  to  see." 
•  —Thomas's  Hist,  of  Italy e,  leaf  74,  bk.  Read  the  whole  chapter. 
'  orig.  maysters  '  or'ig.  maisters. 


p.  187.  Lombard's  craftiness. — "The  kyrige  this  tyme  [Henry  VIII 
in  1511-12]  was  nioclie  entysed  to  playe  at  tenues  and  at  dice  ;  which 
appetite,  certain  craftie  persons  about  him  perceauynge,  brought  iu 
Frencliemen  and  Lombardes  to  make  wagers  with  hym ;  &  so  he  lost 
much  njoney :  but  when  he  perceyued  their  craft,  he  exchuyd  their 
compaignie,  and  let  them  go." — HalVs  Chronicle^  p.  520,  ed.  1809. 

p.  188.  lene  or  Genoa^  and  the  Genoese. — See  Thomas's  interesting  de- 
scription of  Genoa,  on  leaves  160  back,  to  163,  of  his  Historye  of  Italye. 
He  was  immensely  struck  by  the  beauty  of  their  women,  and  the  freedom 
they  had. 

"  Of  theyr  trade  and  customes. — All  the  Genowaies  in  maner  are  mer- 
chant men,  and  very  great  trauailers  of  strange  countreis.  For  I  haue 
been  reasonably  persuaded  that  there  be  .5.  or  .6.  thousand  of  them  con- 
tinually abroade,  either  merchauntes  or  factours  :  so  that  they  haue  few 
places  of  the  worlde  vnsought,  where  anye  gaine  is  to  be  had.  For  the 
merchaundise  that  they  bring  home  hath  spedy  dispatche,  by  reason 
theyr  citee  is  as  a  keye  vnto  all  the  trade  of  Lumbardy,  and  to  a  great 
part  of  Italic. 

They  at  home  make  such  a  noumber  of  silkes  and  veluettes  as  are 
hable  to  serue  many  countreys  :  whyche  is  the  chiefe  merchaundise  that 
they  sende  forthe.  In  deede  they  are  commonly  noted  to  be  great 

^  One  thing  I  am  sure  of,  that  if  Guide  were  nowe  aliue,  there  be  in 
Genoa  that  could  teache  him  a  dousen  poinctes  De  Arte  Amandi.  For 
if  Semiramis  were  euer  celebrated  amongest  the  Assirians,  Venus 
amongest  the  Greckes,  Circes  among  the  Italians,  sure  there  be  dames  in 
Genoa  that  deserue  to  be  celebrated  &  chronycled  ft)r  their  excellente 
practise  in  loue.  And  trulye  the  Genowayes  them  selfes  deserue  that 
their  wyfes  should  be  praised  ;  because  I  saw  in  no  place  where  women 
haue  so  muche  lybertee.  For  it  is  lawfull  there  openly  to  taike  of  loue,  with 
what  wife  so  euer  she  bee.  Insomuch  that  I  haue  scene  yonge  men  of 
reputacyon,  standyng  in  the  strete,  talke  of  loue  with  yong  mistresses 
beyng  in  theyr  wyndowes  aboue ;  and  openlye  reherse  verses  that  they 
had  made,  one  to  the  other.  And  in  the  churches,  specially  at  euensong, 
they  make  none  other  prayers.  So  that  he  that  is  not  a  loner  there,  is 
meete  for  none  honest  companye.  Many  men  esteme  this  as  a  reproche 
to  the  Genowaies ;  but  they  vse  it  as  a  policie  ;  thinkyng  that  their 
wifcs,  throughe  this  libertee  of  open  speache,  are  ridde  of  the  rage  that 
niuketh  other  women  to  trauaile  so  much  in  secret. 

^  In  dede,  the  women  there  are  exceding  faire,  and  best  appariled, 
to  my  fantasie,  of  all  other.  For  thoughe  their  vppermost  garments  be 
but  plaine  clothe,  by  reason  of  a  law,  yet  vnderneth  they  weare  the 
finest  silkes  that  may  be  had,  and  are  so  finely  hosed  and  shoed,  as  I 
neuor  sawe  the  like,  open  faced,  and  for  the  moste  parte  bare  headed, 
with  the  heare  so  finely  trussed  and  curled,  that  it  passeth  rehearsall. 
So  that,  in  myne  opinion,  the  supreame  court  of  loue  is  no  where  to  be 
sought,  out  of  Genoa"  (leaves  161  bk,  and  162). 


p.  188.  The  Genoese,  their  trading  and  products. — The  Libel  of  143G  says, 
The  Janueys  comyne  in  sondre  wyses 
Into  this  londe,  wyth  dy  verse  marchaundyses, 
In  grete  karrekkis  arrayde,  wythouten  lake, 
Wyth  clothes  of  golde,  silke,  and  pepir  blake 
They  bringe  wyth  hem,  and  of  wood  grete  plente, 
Wolle,  oyle,  wood  aschen,  by  wesshelle  [=vessels]  in  the  see 
Coton,  roche-alum,  and  gode  golde  of  Jene. 
And  they  be  charged  wyth  wolle  ageyne,  I  wene, 
And  wollen  clothe  of  owres,  of  colours  alle. 

T.  Wright's  Political  Songs,  ii.  172. 
p.  188.  The  trade  of  Italy  with  England,  of  which  Hall  speaks,  under 
1531  A.D.,  "  Merchaunt  straungers,  and  in  especiall,  Italians,  Spanyardes, 
&  Portyngales,  daily  brought  Oade,  Oyle,  Sylke,  Clothes  of  Golde,  Veluet, 
&  other  Merchaundyse  into  this  Realme,  and  therefore  receiued  ready 
money"  {Halts  Chronicle,  t^.  781,  ed.  1809),  was  doubtless  carried  on 
by  the  Genoese,  Lombards,  Venetians,  and  Neapolitans,  whose  mer- 
chandisings  are  noticed  by  Boorde. 

p.  190.  French  fashions. — "  With  them  [the  French  Ambassadors  in 
1518]  came  a  great  nuwbre  of  rascal,  &  pedlers,  &  luellers,  and  brought 
ouer  hattes  and  cappes,  and  diuerse  merchaundise,  vucustomed,  all 
vnder  the  coloure  of  the  trussery  of  the  Ambassadours.  . .  .  The  youwg 
galantes  of  Frauwce  had  coates  garded  with  one  colour,  cut  in  .x.  or 
.xii.  partes,  very  richely  to  beholde,  .  .  The  last  day  of  September,  the 
French  Ambassadors  toke  their  barge,  &  came  to  Grenewiche.  The 
Admyrall  [Lord  Boneuet]  was  in  a  goune  of  cloth  of  siluer,  raysed, 
furred  with  ryche  Sables,  &  al  his  company  almost  were  in  a  new 
fassiow  garment  called  a  Shemew,  which  was  in  effect  a  goune,  cut  in  the 
middle." — HalFs  Chronicle,  p.  593-4,  ed.  1809.  The  old  chronicler  didn't 
think  much  of  the  last  of  French  soldiers : 

"surely  the  nature  of  the  Frenchmen  is,  not  to  labor  long  in  fight- 
yng,  and  muche  more  braggeth  then  fighteth." — Hairs  Chronicle,  p. 
124,  at  foot,  ed.  1809. 

p.  196,  1.  8-15.  Portuguese  products  and  merchandise. — ^The  Lihcl^ 
A.D.  1436,  says, 

The  marchaundy  also  of  Portyngale 

To  dyverse  londes  tome  into  sale  .  .  . 

Here  londe  hathe  oyle,  wyne  osey,  wex,  and  grayne, 

ffygues,  reysyns,  hony,  and  cordeweyne. 

Dates  and  salt,  hydes,  and  suche  marchaundy. 

T.  Wright's  Polit.  Songs,  ii.  162-3. 
p.  196,1.10.  Portugal  poor. — a.d.  1524.  "the  Emperor  answered: 
'The  very  pouertie  of  your  countrey  of  Portyngale  is  suche,  that  of 
your  selfes  you  be  not  able  to  Hue  ;  wherfore  of  necessitie  you  were 
driuen  to  seke  liuyng  ;  for,  landes  of  princes  you  were  not  able  to  pur- 
chase, and  lande  of  lordes  you  were  not  able  to  conquere.     Wherfore 

346  NOTES  ON  boorde's  introduction. 

on  the  sea  you  were  compelled  to  seke  that  which  was  not  found.'" — 
HaWs  Chronicle,  p.  677,  ed.  1809. 

p.  197.  The  fashion  of  the  Spainlerdes. — "  after  whome  came  in 
.vi.  ladyes  appareled  in  garnientes  of  Crymosyn  Satyn,  embroudered 
and  trauessed  with  cloth  of  gold,  cut  in  Pomegranettes  and  yokes, 
strynged  after  the  facion  of  Spaygne.'^ — Halts  Chronicle^  p.  516,  ed. 

p.  198.   The  Products  of  Spain  are  stated  in  the  Libel  of  1436  to  be 

.  .  .  fygues,  raysyns,  wyne  bastarde,  and  dates ; 
And  lycorys,  Syvyle  oyle,  and  grayne, 
Whyte  Castelle  sope,  and  wax,  is  not  in  vayne ; 
Iren,  woUe,  wadmole  ;  gotefel,  kydefel,  also, — 
ffor  poynt-makers  fulle  nedefuUe  be  the  two  ; — 
Saffron,  quiksilver  (wlieche  arne  Spaynes  marchandy) 
Is  into  fflaundres  shypped  fulle  craftyle. 
Unto  Bruges,  as  to  here  staple  fayre, 
The  haven  of  Sluse  here  havene  for  here  repayre, 
Wheche  is  cleped  Swyn  ;  thaire  shyppes  gydynge 
Where  many  wessell  and  fayre  arne  abydynge. 

T.  Wright's  Political  Songs,  ii.  160. 

p.  202.  The  poverty  of  Navarre  {&  Spain). — "  The  English  souldiers, 
what  for  sickenes,  and  what  for  miserie  of  the  countrey,  euer  desired  to 
returne  into  England  .  .  .  saiyng,  that  thei  would  not  abide  and  die  of 
the  flixe  in  suche  a  wretched  country." — HalVs  Chronicle,  p.  532,  ed.  1809. 
Navarre  was  won  by  the  Spaniards  under  the  Duke  of  Alva,  in  the  4th 
year  of  Henry  the  8th,  A.D.  (22  April,  1512  to  21  April,  1513).  See 
HalUs  Chronicle,  p.  530,  ed.  1809. 

p.  203.  Hanging  long  on  the  Gallows. — This  must  have  been  done 
also  in  some  cases  in  England  :  "  the  harlot,  Wolfes  wyfe  ...  at  the 
last,  she  and  her  husband,  as  they  deserued,  were  apprehended,  ar- 
raigned, &  hanged  at  the  foresayd  turnyng  tree  [a  place  on  the  Thames], 
where  she  hanged  still,  and  was  not  cut  doune,  vntil  suche  tyme  as  it  was 
knowen  that  beastly  and  filthy  wretches  had  moste  shamefully  abused 
Ifer,  beyng  dead." — HalCs  Chronicle,  p.  815,  ed.  1809. 

p.  205-6.  The  Pilgrims  to  St  James  of  Compostella. — Contrast  the 
reality  with  the  Court  notion  of  "  pilgrims  from  St  James  "  in  February, 
1510-11:  "Then  came  nexte  the  Marques  Dorset  and  syr  Thomas 
BuUeyn,  like  two  jnlgrims  from  sainct  lames,  in  taberdes  of  blacke 
Veluet,  with  palmers  hattes  on  their  helmettes,  wyth  long  Jacobs  staues 
in  their  handes,  their  horse  trappers  of  blacke  Veluet,  their  taberdes, 
hattes,  &  trappers,  set  with  scaloppe  schelles  of  fyne  golde,  and  strippes 
of  blacke  Veluet,  euery  strip  set  with  a  scalop  shell ;  their  seruau72tes 
all  in  blacke  Satyn,  with  scalop  shelles  of  gold  in  their  breastcs." — 
HaWs  Chronicle,  p.  518,  ed.  1809. 

p.  207.  Britanny''s  products  ;  and  its  hatred  of  England.  The  Libel, 
A.D.  1436,  says, 


Commodite  therof  tliere  is  and  was, 

Salt  and  wynes,  creste  clothe,  and  canvasse  .... 

And  of  this  Bretayn,  who-so  trevvth[e]  levys, 

Are  the  grettest  rovers  and  the  grettest  thevys 

That  have  bene  in  the  see  many  oone  yere  : 

That  oure  marchauntes  have  bowglit  full  dere ; 

ffor  the}'^  have  take  notable  gode  of  oures 

On  thys  seyde  see,  these  false  coloured  pelours, 

Called  of  Seynt  Malouse,  and  elles  where, 

Wheche  to  there  duke  none  obeysaunce  woll  bere. 

Wyth  suche  colours  we  have  bene  hindred  sore, 

And  fayned  pease  is  called  no  werre  herefore. 

Thus  they  have  bene  in  dy verse  costes  nianye 

Of  oure  England,  mo  than  reherse  can  I ; 

In  Northfolke  coostes,  and  othere  places  aboute, 

And  robbed,  and  brente,  and  slayne,  by  many  a  routte; 

And  they  have  also  ransonned  toune  by  toune, 

That  into  the  regnes  of  host  ^  have  ronne  here  soune. 

T,  Wnyht's  Polit.  Songs,  ii.  164. 

p.  207,  line  1.  Bayonne  once  English. — It  was  lost  in  the  29th  year 
of  Henry  VI  (1  Sept.  1450  to  31  Aug.  1451).  Hall  says  in  his  Chronicle, 
p.  224,  ed.  1809,  "When  the  cities  and  tounes  of  Gascoyne  wer  set  in 
good  ordre,  the  Erie  of  Duinoys  and  Foys,  with  greate  preparacion  of 
vitaill,  municion  and  men,  came  before  the  citie  of  Bayon,  where,  with 
mynes  and  battery  thei  so  dismaied  the  fearful  inhabitantes,  that  neither 
the  capitain  nor  the  souldiors  could  kepe  them  from  yeldyng  :  so  by  force 
they  deliuered  the  toune  ;  and  their  capitain,  as  a  prisoner,  oflFred  a  great 
some  of  money  for  the  safegard  of  their  lifes  and  goodes." 

p.  209.  Boulogne. — "  Althoughe  this  peace  [of  1546  a.d.]  pleased  both 
the  Englj'sh  and  the  French  nacions,  yet  surely  both  mistrusted  the  con- 
tinuaunce  of  the  same,  considering  the  old  Prouerbe,  '  that  the  iye  seeth, 
the  harte  rueth  ; '  for  the  Fre?ich  men  styll  longed  for  BuUeyn,  and  the 
Englyshmen  minded  not  to  geue  it  ouer." — Hall's  Chronicle,  p.  867,  ed. 

p.  218.  Jezvry  or  JucUsa. — See,  under  "  Asie,"  the  chapter  "  Of  Jewry, 
and  of  the  life,  maners,  and  Lawes  of  the  Jewes  in  the  Fardle  of  Facions, 
conteining  the  aunciente  maners,  customes,  and  Lawes  of  the  peoples 
enhabiting  the  two  partes  of  the  earth  called  Aflfrike  and  Asie.  Printed 
at  London,  by  Ihon  Kingstone  and  Henry  Sutton.  1555,  sign.  Ii.  back." 
*  Palestina,  whiohe  also  is  named  Judea,  beinge  a  seueralle  province  of 
Siria,  lieth  betwixte  Arabia  Petrea  and  the  countrie  Ccelosiria.  So  bor- 
dering vpon  the  Egiptian  sea  on  the  west,  and  vpon  the  floude  Jordan  on 
the  Easte,  that  the  one  with  his  wanes  wassheth  his  clieues,  and  the 
other  sometime  with  his  streame  ouerfloweth  his  banckes. 

(sign.  I  vii.  back.)  '  The  lande  of  Siria  (whereof  we  haue  named 

'  of  the  best.     MS.  Cotton.  Vitel.  E.  x. 

348  NOTES  ON  boorde's  dyetary. 

Jewrie  a  parte)  is  at  this  daie  enhabited  of  the  Grekes  called  Griphones, 
of  the  Jacobites,  Nestorians,  Saracenes,  and  of  two  christian  nacions 
the  Sirians  and  Marouines.  .  .  .  The  Sarracenes,  whiche  dwelle  aboute 
Jeruaalewi  (a  people  valeaunt  in  warre)  delighte  niuche  in  housbandrie 

p.  219,  60,  144,  Venice,  <fcc.,  and  Englishmen  abroad. — In  the  Gentle- 
man's Magazine  for  October,  1812,  reprinted  in  Fosbroke's  British  Mo- 
nachisni,  ch.  vii,  p.  337,  ed.  1843,  are  some  extracts  from  a  MS  Diary  of  a 
Pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem  made  bj'  a  Sir  Richard  Torkington  in  1517.  He 
started  on  March  20, 1517,  from  Rye  in  Sussex,  and  got  back  to  Dover  on 
April  17,  1518  :  "  We  war  owt  of  England  in  ower  sayd  pylgrymage  the 
space  of  an  hollyer,  v.  wekys,  and  iij.  dayes."  "  We  com  [29  April,  1517] 
to  the  goodly  and  ffamose  Cite  of  Venys.  Ther  I  was  well  at  ese,  ffor 
ther  was  no  thyng  that  I  desired  to  have,  but  I  had  it  shortly.  At 
Venyse,  at  the  fyrst  howse  that  I  cam  to  except  oon,  the  good  man  of 
the  howse  seyd  he  knew  me,  by  my  face,  that  I  was  an  englyshman. 
And  he  spake  to  me  good  englyssh.  thanne  I  was  jo[yo]us  and  glade, 
ffor  I  saw  never  englyssh  man  ffrom  the  tyme  I  departed  owt  of  Parysto 
the  tyme  I  cam  to  Venys.  which  ys  vij,  or  viij.C.  myles." 

p.  220.  Joppa. — "At  Jaffe  begynnyth  the  holy  londe  ;  and  to  every 
pylgryme,  at  the  ffyrst  foote  that  he  sett  on  the  londe,  ther  ys  grauntyd 
plenary  remission  De  pena  et  a  culpa.  In  JafF,  Seynt  Petir  reysid  from 
Deth,  Tabitam.  the  sarvaunt  of  the  Appostolis.  And  fast  by  ys  the 
place  where  Seynt  Petir  usyd  to  ffysh.  And  our  Savior  Crist  callyd  hym, 
and  seyd  sequere  me." — Sir  Richard  Torkington*s  Diary,  1517  ;  in  Fos- 
broke's British  Monachism,  p.  338,  col.  1,  ed.  1843. 


p.  225.  Sir  R.  Drewry. — In  Hall's  account  of  the  Insurrection  in 
Suffolk,  A.D.  1525,  he  says  "  the  people  railed  openly  on  the  Duke  of 
Suffolke,  and  sir  Robert  Drurie,  and  threatened  them  with  death." — 
Chronicle,  p.  699,  ed.  1809. 

p.  232.  Compare  "  The  boke  for  to  lerne  a  man  to  be  wyse  in  buyld- 
ing  of  his  house  for  the  helth  of  [his]  body,  and  to  holde  quyetnes  for 
the  helth  of  his  soule  and  body  &c."  [Coloph.]  Imprynted  by  me 
Robert  Wyer,  dwellynge  at  the  sygne  of  St.  lohn  Euangelyst,  &c.  8vo, 
16  leaves.     Brit.  Museum.     (Hazlitt's  Handbook,  p.  366,  col.  2.) 

p.  236.  Let  notherflaxe  nor  hempe  be  watered. — "  Here  and  there  was 
an  artificial  flat-bottomed  pool  of  water,  formed  by  danmiing  up  one  of 
the  many  rivulets  which  ran  from  their  sources  in  the  distant  hills  to 
empty  themselves  into  the  adjacent  Rhine.  At  the  bottom  of  each  pool 
were  bundles  of  flax  undergoing  the  first  process  preparatory  to  their 
ultimate  conversion  into  linen  fabrics.  The  odour  of  the  decomposed  or 
decomposing  flax  was  the  reverse  of  agreeable.  Indeed,  the  prevalence 
of  bad  smells  was  the  chief  drawback  to  the  enjoyment  of  the  prospect." 

NOTES  ON  boorde's  dyetary,  349 

Daily  News,  Sept.  13,  1870 ;  letter  from  Achern,  Sept.  6,  describing  the 
country  from  Achern  to  Auenheim,  a  small  village,  close  to  the  right 
bank  of  the  Rhine,  near  Strasburg,  which  was  then  besieged  by  a  German 
army.  . 

p.  239.  Dovekouse. — ^The  Norfolk  and  Suffolk  rebels  under  Kett  in 
1549  say  in  their  list  of  Grievances:  "We  p[r]ay  that  noman  vnder 
the  degre  of  a  knyght  or  esquyer,  kepe  a  dowe  house,  except  it  hath  byn 
of  an  ould  auwchyent  costome."  .Was  this  because  the  doves  eat  the 
poorer  men's  grain,  as  the  rich  men's  pheasants  and  partridges — and 
worse,  hares  and  rabbits, — now  do  ?  See  my  Ballads  from  Manuscripts, 
i.  149. 

p.  241.  See  the  '  Proverbys  of  Howsolde-kepyng '  in  my  ed.  of 
Political,  Religious,  and  Love  Poems,  for  the  Society,  1866,  p.  29. 

p.  243.  Instructing  the  Ignorant. — Teaching  them  a  Robin-Hood 
ballad  or  the  Primer,  perhaps,  after  Robert  Crowley's  exhortation  to  un- 
learned curates  in  his  Voyce  of  the  last  Trumpet,  1550.  (E.  E.  T.  Soc. 

p.  244.  Epilencia,  &c.  were  generally  called  Epilepsia,  Analepsia, 
and  Catalejpsia.     See  Boorde's  Breuiary,  ch.  122,  Fol.  xlvi. 

p.  250.  Boarded  Chambers. — Wooden  floors  were  not  common  in 
Boorde's  days.  One  of  his  remedies  for  a  stitch  in  the  side  is  "  take  vp 
the  earth  within  a  dore,  that  is  well  troden,  and  pare  it  vp  with  a  spade, 
after  [=  a  piece  like]  a  cake;  and  cast  Vineger  on  it,  and  tost  it  against 
thefyer ;  and  in  a  lynnen  clothe  laye  it  bote  to  the  syde." — Breuiary,  Pt. 
II,  The  Extrauagantes,  Fol.  xi,  back.  See  too  the  well-known  quotation 
from  Erasmus  on  the  filthy  clay  floors  of  England,  in  the  Bahees  Book, 
Forewords,  p.  Ixvi. 

p.  252.  Water. — Eau  &  pain,  c'est  la  viande  du  chien  :  Prov.  Bread 
and  water  is  diet  for  dogs.   Cotgrave. 

p.  253.  Standing  Water. — L^eau  qui  dort  est  pire  que  celle  qui  court : 
Pro.  So  is  a  sleepie  humor  worse  then  a  giddie.  //  n'y  a  pire  eau  que 
la  quoye :  Prov.  The  stillest  waters  (and  humors)  are  euer  the  worst. 

p.  254.  Wyne  .  .  must  be  .  .  fayre  .  .  and  redolent,  &c. — The  com- 
piler of  what  Mr  Dyce,  in  his  Skelton's  Works,  vol.  i.  p.  xxx,  calls  '  that 
tissue  of  extravagant  figments  which  was  put  together  for  the  amuse- 
ment of  the  vulgar,  and  entitled  the  Merie  Tales  of  Skelton'  (T.  Colwell), 
probably  had  Boorde's  opinion  on  wine  before  him  when  he  wrote  "  all 
wines  must  be  strong,  and  fayre,  and  well  coloured  ;  it  must  have  a 
redolent  sauoure ;  it  must  be  colde,  and  simnkclynge  in  the  peece  or  in 
the  glassed — Tale  xv.  Skelton's  Works,  vol.  i.  p.  Ixxiii. 

p.  260.  London  bakers'  trickery. — a.d.  1522.  In  this  yere  the  bakers 
of  London  came  and  told  the  Mayro  that  come  would  be  dere  ;  wherupon 
he  and  the  aldermen  made  prouision  for  xv.C.  quarters ;  &  when  it 
was  come,  they  [the  bakers]  would  bye  none,  and  made  the  common 
people  beleue  that  it  was  musty,  because  they  would  vtter  their  owne, 
80  that  the  lord  Cardynal  was  faine  to  proue  it,  and  found  the  bakers 

350  NOTES  ON  boorde's  dyetary. 

false,  and  commaunded  them  to  bye  it. — HalVa  Chronicle^  p.  650,  ed. 

p.  273.  The  Jews  love  not  pork. — "  Swines  flesche  thei  eate  none,  for 
that  thei  holde  opinion  that  this  kynde  of  beaste,  of  it  selfe  beinge  dis- 
posed to  be  skoruie,  might  be  occasion  againe  to  enfecte  them  of  newe." 
— Tlie  Fardle  of  Facions,  1555.     T.  iv,  not  signed. 

p.  273.  Adder's  flesh  eaten,  and  called  ''^fysshe  of  the  mountayn^ 

Now  followetli  the  preparing  of  Serpents  :  Take  a  mountain  Serpent, 
that  liath  a  black  back,  and  a  white  belly,  and  cut  off  his  tail,  even  hard 
to  the  place  where  he  sendeth  forth  his  excrements,  and  take  away  his 
head  with  the  breadth  of  four  fingers  ;  then  take  the  residue  and  squeese 
out  the  bloud  into  some  vessel,  keeping  it  in  a  glass  carefully  ;  then 
fley  him  as  you  do  an  Eele,  beginning  from  the  upper  and  grosser  part, 
and  hang  the  skin  upon  a  stick,  and  dry  it ;  then  divide  it  in  the  middle, 
and  reserve  all  diligently.  You  must  wash  the  flesh  and  put  it  in  a 
pot,  boyling  it  in  two  parts  of  Wine ;  and,  being  well  and  throughly 
l)oyled,  you  must  season  the  broth  with  good  Spices,  and  Aromatical 
and  Cordial  powders  ;   and  so  eat  it. 

But  if  you  have  a  minde  to  rost  it,  it  must  be  so  rosted,  as  it  may 
not  be  burnt,  and  yet  that  it  may  be  brought  into  powder ;  and  the 
powder  thereof  nmst  be  eaten  together  with  other  meat,  because  of  the 
loathing,  and  dreadful  name,  and  conceit  of  a  Serpent:  for  being  thus 
burned,  it  preserveth  a  man  from  all  fear  of  any  future  Lepry,  and  expcl- 
leth  that  which  is  present.  It  keepeth  youth,  causing  a  good  colour 
above  all  other  Medicines  in  the  world  ;  it  cleareth  the  eye-sight,  gardeth 
surely  from  gray  hairs,  and  keepeth  from  the  Falling-sickness.  It 
])urgeth  the  head  from  all  infirmity  ;  and  being  eaten  (as  before  is  said), 
it  expelleth  scabbiness,  and  the  like  infirmities,  with  a  great  number  of 
other  diseases.  But  yet,  such  a  kinde  of  Serpent  as  before  we  have 
described,  and  not  any  other,  being  also  eaten,  freeth  one  from  deafness. 
— TopseVs  History  of  Four-footed  Beasts  and  Serpents,  ed.  J.  Rowland, 
M.D.,  1658,  p.  616. 

Mandeville  says  that  in  the  land  of  Mancy,  that  is,  in  Ynde  the 
more,  and  which  is  also  called  '  Albanye,  because  that  the  folk  ben 
whyte,' "  there  is  gret  plentee  of  Neddres,  of  w.hom  men  maken  grete 
Festes,  and  eten  hem  at  grete  sollempnytees.  And  he  that  niakethe 
there  a  Feste, — be  it  nevere  so  costifous, — and  he  have  no  Neddres,  he 
hathe  no  thanke  for  his  travaylle." — Voiage  and  Travaile,  p.  208,  ed. 

p.  275.  Great  Men  hunting. — See,  in  1575,  G.  Gascoigne.  Noble  Art 
of  Venerie.    Works,  vol.  ii.  p.  305,  ed.  1870. 

"The  Venson  not  forgot,  moste  meete  for  Princes  dyshe : 
All  these  v/ith  more  could  I  rehearse,  as  much  as  wit  could  wyshe. 
But  let  these  few  suffice,  it  is  a  Noble  sport 
I'o  recreate  the  mindes  of  Men  in  good  and  godly  sort. 
A  sport  for  Noble  peeres,  a  sport  for  gentle  bloods, 
The  paitie  I  Icauc  for  seruants  such  as  beate  the  bushic  woods, 

NOTES  ON  boorde's  dyetary.  351 

To  make  their  masters  sport.      Theyi  let  the  Lords  reioyce^ 
Let  gentlemen  beholde  the  glee,  and  take  thereof  the  choyce. 
For  my  part  (being  one)  I  must  needes  say  my  minde, 
That  Hunting  was  ordeyned  first  for  Men  of  Noble  Kinde. 
And  vnto  them,  therefore,  I  recommend  the  same, 
As  exercise  that  best  becommes  their  worthy  noble  name." 
p.  279.   Garlic  is   good  for  '  longe  whyte   wormes   in  the    mawe, 
stomake,  and  guttes,'  says  Boorde :  "  If  any  man  wyll  take  a  Plowe- 
mannes  medicine,  and  the  beste  medicine  for  these  wormes,  and  al  other 
wormes  in  mannes  body,  let  hym  eate  Gerlyke''     Breuiary,  fol.  Ixxiii, 
oh.  212. 

p.  279.  Garlic. — Tharmie  this  [=thus,  in  1512  a.d.]  lyngeryng  [in 
Navarre],  euer  desirous  to  be  at  the  busines  that  thei  came  for,  their 
victaile  was  muche  part  Garlike;  and  the  Englishemen  did  eate  of  the 
Garlike  with  all  meates,  and  dranke  bote  wynes  in  the  bote  wether,  and 
did  eate  all  the  bote  frutes  that  thei  could  gette,  whiche  caused  their 
bloudde  so  to  boyle  in  their  belies,  that  there  fell  sicke  three  thousande 
of  the  flixe  ;  and  thereof  died  .xviii.  hundred  men. — Halts  Chronicle^ 
p.  629,  ed.  1809. 

p.  289.  Sweating  Sickness. — After  this  great  triumphe  [Henry  VIII's 
jousts  in  June,  1517]  the  king  appointed  his  gestes  for  his  pastyme  this 
Sommer  ;  but  sodeinly  there  came  a  plague  of  sickenes,  called  the  Swet- 
yng  sickenes,  that  turned  all  his  purpose.  This  malady  was  so  cruell  that 
it  killed  some  within  three  houres,  some  within  twoo  houres,  some,  mery 
at  diner  and  dedde  at  supper.  Many  died  in  the  kynges  Courte,  the 
Lorde  Clinton,  the  Lorde  Grey  of  Wilton,  and  many  knightes,  Gentle- 
men and  officiers.  For  this  plague,  Mighelmas  terme  was  adiourned  ; 
and  because  that  this  malady  continued  from  July  to  the  middes  of 
December,  the  kyng  kept  hymself  euer  with  a  small  compaignie,  and 
kept  no  solempne  Christmas,  willyng  to  haue  no  resort,  for  feare  of  in- 
feccion  ;  but  muche  lamented  the  nomber  of  his  people,  for  in  some  one 
toune  halfe  the  people  died,  and  in  some  other  toune  the  thirde  parte, 
the  Sweate  was  so  feruent  and  infeccious. — Halts  Chronicle,  p.  592,  ed. 
1809.  See  the  history  of  this  plague  in  Chambers's  Book  of  Days,  under 
April  16  ;  also  in  my  Ballads  from  Manuscripts,  Part  II,  1871. 

2  3 



122/9  means  page  122,  line  9  ;  133  means  page  133. 

Abarde,  120,  ?in  Cornwall. 

a  base,  238,  lower  down,  beyond. 

ABC,  20,  alphabet. 

abiected,  258,  285,  thrown  away. 

ablatyd,  284,  285,  thrown  away. 

Abraham,  233. 

abstercyue,  263,  abstersive,  285. 

abstinence  the  best  medicine,  251. 

abstraction,  101,  what  you  draw 

Acayra,  172,  Achaia. 

acca,  ava,  agon;  children's  cries, 

acetose,  confection  of,  102. 
Acobrynge,  197,  Alcoutrin'? 

Aeon,  219,  Aix-la-Chapelle,  Aa- 

acuate,  244,  sharpen. 

Adam  :  who  shaved  him  ?  314. 

adders,  none  in  Ireland,  133 ; 
eaten  in  Lonihardy,  187 ;  eaten  in 
Rome,  and  called  *  fish  of  the 
mountain,*  273,  350. 

Adrian,  Pope,  24,  78. 

adulterating  bakers,  260-1. 

adultery  of  wives,  Boorde's  re- 
medy for,  68. 

affodyl,  102,  daffodilly  1 

afyngered,    122/9,    a    hungered, 

agarycke,  288 ;  pilles  of,  99. 
agedly,  300. 
Agnus  castus,  100. 

ague,  21,  325  ;  how  to  treat,  291 ; 
butter  is  bad  for,  266. 

Agur,  the  son  of  Jakeh,  67. 

air,  the  need  of  good,  235,  238. 

al,  122/1,  ale. 

alaye,  254,  temper. 

alchermes,  103. 

alchytes,  299. 

ale,  256  ;  awfully  bad  in  Corn- 
wall, 122,  123;  and  in  Scotland, 
136  ;  John  Taylor  on,  326. 

ale-brewers  and  ale-wives,  bad, 
to  be  punisht,  260. 

ale-brews,  264;  ale-brue,  97. 

ale  pockes  in  the  face,  95. 

ale,  posset,  256. 

alexanders,  278,  the  herb  Great 

Alicant  wine,  75,  255,  327. 

aliens,  Boorde  dislikes  them,  60. 

alkemy,  161,  163,  tin. 



alkengi,  the  confection  of,  79. 
all  out,  drink,  151/6,  324. 
all-to-nowght,    62,    good-for-no- 
allygate,  245,  allege. 
Almanac    and     Prognostication^ 

supposed  to  be  A.  Boorde's,  26-7. 
Almayne,    Low,    155-8;    High, 

159-162 ;  maidens  of,  don't  drink 

wine,  254. 
Almen,  53,  Germany, 
almond-butter,  267. 
almond-milk,  263. 
almonds,  285. 
aloes,  290. 

Alygaunt,  255,  75,  Alicant  wine, 
amber  de  grece,  93. 
Amsterdam,  149. 
amytted,  25   admitted, 
an,  246,  if. 

anacardine,  confection  of,  95. 
analencia,  244,  a  kind  of  epilepsy] 

See  Boorde's  Breuyary,  fol.  xlvi. 
Ancress  at  St  Albans  is  infested 

by  a  spirit,  78. 
Andalase,  196,  Andalusia. 
Angeou  (Anjou),  white  wine  of, 

anise-seed,  284. 
Antwerp     described,    151  ;     its 

church  and  spire,  339. 
Anwarpe,  219,  Antwerp,  338. 
apples,  284. 

appoplesia,  244,  apoplexy, 
appostata,  62,  apostate, 
approbat,  273,  approve, 
approbat,  adj.,  282,  approved, 
aqua    vitae,    258,     351  ;     Irish, 

131/8  ;  334. 
Aquitaine,  191 ;  described,   193, 

Aral^y,  20,  Arabic. 


archane,  21,  secret,  hidden. 

Argentyne,  156. 

Aristotle,  91. 

armipotentt,  53,  powerful  in  arms. 

Arragon  described,  195,  53. 

Arran,  Earl  of,  named  Hamilton, 

Arras  cloth  made  in  Brabant, 
151/2 ;  in  Liege,  155. 

artichokes,  280. 

artoures,  101 ;  artures,  91/7,  ar- 

Artuse,  176,  river  Arethusa,  in 

Arundel,  120. 

Arundel,  Sir  John,  55. 

aryfye,  247,  burn  and  dry  up. 

ascarides,  81,  279,  little  long 
worms  in  the  auus. 

Ascot,  110. 

Asia,  Boorde  never  in  it,  145. 

aspers,  216,  Turkish  silver  coins. 

asthma,  Boorde's  cure  for,  99. 

asthmatic  men,  a  diet  for,  297. 

Astronamye,  the  Pryncyphs  of, 

by  Andrew  Boorde,  16,  22-23. 
astronomers    or    astrologers,   the 

gammon  of,  325. 
astronomy,    importance    of    the 

study,  25. 
avarice,  86. 

Aueroyes  quoted,  272,  274. 
Augsburg,  161. 
aungels,   121,  gold   coins  worth 

from  6*.  M.  to  10*. 
auripigment,  102. 
Avycen  quoted,  91,  258,274,  282. 
auydous,  252,  avidous,  greedy. 

backehowse,  239,  bakehouse. 

bacon,  good  for  carters,  bad  for 
I      the  stone,  273. 



"bagantyns,  189,  Italian  brass 
coins  ;  bagatino^  a  little  coine  in 
Italic.     Florio. 

baked  pears,  291. 

baken,  284,  baked. 

bakers,  rascally,  260,  349. 

Bale,  Bp,  on  A.  Boorde,  33. 

ballot  in  Venice,  184-5. 

banocke,  283,  a  kind  of  walnut. 

Barbarossa,  55,  213. 

Barbary  sleeves,  106. 

Barber,  Barnarde,  305,  307. 

Barberousse,  213,   55,  Heyradin 

Barcelona,  55. 
Bargen  in  Hainault,  151,  Bergen. 

barges,  the  fair  little  ones  in 
Venice,  183  ;  *  Gondola,  a  little 
boat  or  whirry  vsed  no  where  but 
about  and  in  Venice.'  1611,  Florio. 

barley,  259. 

barley  malt  is  the  best  for  ale, 

Barnes  in  the  Defence  of  the 
Berde,  305—316  ;  date  of,  19-20. 

Barow,  150,  338. 

Barsalone,  195,  Barcelona. 

Barnsley  in  Gloucestershire ;  Sab- 
batarian superstition  in,  332. 

Barslond,  160,  the  Tyrol. 

Bartholomew  of  Montagnave,  291. 

Base-Almayne,  148,  the  !N'ether- 
lands ;  described,  155-7. 

Bastard  wine,  75,  255. 

Bath,  waters  at,  120. 

Batmanson,  Prior,  47,  48,  57,  58. 

Batow,  150/5. 

Bayonne,  206-7,  347. 

bean-butter,  268. 

bean-potage,  263. 

beans,  284 ;  and  peas,  259 ;  and 
stockfish,  Danish  lood,  163/5. 

Beards,  Boorde's  lost  treatise  on, 
307,  309,  26 ;  Barnes's  answer  to 
it,  305—316. 

beards,  Harrison  on,  16,  note. 

bears,  white  ones  in  Norway, 

beasts,  reasonable  ;  men  and  wo- 
men are,  91,  93. 

bedauer,  122/16,  21,  ?  father  or 

bedtime,  what  to  do  at,  246. 

beef  good  for  Englishmen,  271. 

beer,  256. 

beets,  white,  280. 

bekyng,  185,  207,  pointing,  pok- 
Bell,  Humfrey,  74. 

Belvedere,    a    fort    in    Windsor 

Forest,  110. 
benche-whystler,  245-6. 
bengauyn,  290,  ?gum  Benjamin. 

Berdes  (beards),  Boorde's  Trea- 
tyse  vpon,  26,  308. 

Bergevenny,  Lord,  frees  his  vil- 
lein Andrew  Borde,  41-2. 

Berwick,  120,  136. 

beryd  flesshe,  277,  meat-pie. 

beshromp,  207/8,  hate  ? 

Bindley,  Mr,  227,  note. 

Bion  (Bayonne)  described,  207-8. 

birds,  small,  270. 

Biscay  described,  199,  200;  53. 

Bishop  must  be  30  years  old,  44. 

Bishops  should  examine  and 
license  Mid  wives,  84. 

Bishops-Waltham  in  Hampshire, 
52,  53,  60 ;  eight  miles  from  Win- 
chester, 145. 

blackbird,  271. 

blanched  almonds,  282. 

blaynes,  284,  blains,  sores  :  cp. 

bleareyed  mare,  273. 



blockhouses    in    England,    119, 

blood  not  good  to  eat,  276. 
boar,  the  brawn  of,  274. 
boar's  grease,  97;  102, 
Board  Hill  in  Sussex,  38-9. 
boarded  chamber,  250,  349. 
boasters,    the   Scotch   are    great 

ones,  137. 
Eoece,    Hector,  on    Scotchmen's 

degenerate  ways,  259-60,  note, 
boggery  (buggery)  in  Eome,  77. 
Bohemia    and    the    Bohemians, 

boiled  meat,  289  ;  is  digestible, 

boiling  meat  in  a  skin,  132. 
Boleyn,  Anne,  her  badge  on  the 

dining-room  ceiling  of  Great  Fos- 
ters, 7. 
Boleyn,  Bolyn,  209,  Boulogne. 

bollynge,  293,  drinking  with  a 

Bolton,  Prior  of  St  Bartholomews, 
Smithfield,  makes  a  fool  of  him- 
self, 325. 

bongler,  21,  bungler. 

Bonn,  red  Rhenish  wine  grown 
about,  75. 

Boord's  Hill,  23. 

BooRDB,  Andrew ;  his  Works 
(list,  p.  9),  10—26,  64 ;  his  Life 
(table  of  facts  of,  10),  86—105  ; 
his  Letters,  1,  45  ;  II,  53  ;  111, 
55;  IV,  57;  V,  58;  YI,  59;  his 
Will,  73 ;  his  opinions  and  prac- 
tice, from  his  Breuyary,  74 — 104  ; 
his  Introduction,  111—222, 317 ;  his 
purpose  in  it,  144-6;  his  Byetary,  223 
— 304,  319  ;  his  motives  in  writing, 
20-1 ;  places  visited  by  him,  63  ; 
supposed  portraits  of  him,  74 ;  he 
hates  water,  but  likes  ale  and  wine, 
75  ;  dislikes  whirlwinds,  75  ;  trusts 
in  God's  will,  which  is  his,  75-6 ; 
fears  that  devils  may  enter  into 
him,  76  ;  is  shocked  at  the  vices  of 

Rome,  77-8  ;  has  cachexia^  79  ;  has 
the  stone,  80;  gets  a  nit  or  fly 
down  his  throat,  81 ;  his  urine,  81; 
has  seen  worms  come  out  of  men, 
81 ;  complains  of  Englishmen's 
neglect  of  Fasting,  82,  Swearing 
and  Heresies,  82-3 ;  Laziness  of 
young  people,  83,  want  of  training 
for  Midwives,  84,  Cobblers  being 
Doctors,  84-5,  the  Mutabihty  of 
men's  minds,  85,  the  Lust  and 
Avarice  of  men,  85-6;  alludes  to 
the  bad  food  of  the  poor,  86-7, 
and  early  marriages,  87;  thinks 
Lying  the  worst  disease  of  the 
Tongue,  88 ;  praises  Mirth,  88-9  ; 
treats  of  a  man's  Spirits,  88-9,  of 
the  Heart,  89,  of  rain  and  Ad- 
versity, 89,  Intemperance,  Drunk- 
enness, 90,  Man  and  Woman 
(which  be  reasonable  Beastes),  91, 
Marriage,  91,  the  words  of  late- 
sj)eaking  Children,  91,  the  King's 
Evil,  91-3,  men's  Five  Wits,  93, 
Wounds,  94,  Obliviousness,  94, 
Dreams,  and  man's  Face,  95 ;  his 
Medical  Treatment  of  Itch,  9(), 
Tertian  Fever,  96,  Scurf,  96,  curded 
Milk  in  Women's  Breasts,  96, 
pregnant  Women's  unnatural  Ap- 
petite, 98,  Ulcer  in  the  Nose,  98, 
Asthma,  99,  Palsy,  99,  Excoria- 
tions,  99,  Fatness,  100,  Priapisnius 
or  involuntary  Standing  of  a  Man's 
Yard,  100,  Web  in  the  Eye,  100, 
rupture  of  the  Gut-Caul,  a  Sauce- 
flewme  Face,  101-2  ;  his  opinion 
on  the  Soul  of  Man,  102,  on  Free- 
will, 103  ;  his  Exhortation  to  his 
Readers,  103;  his  Preamble  or 
advice  to  Sick  and  Wounded  men, 
104 ;  his  character,  105 ;  was  es- 
teemed by  his  contemporaries  and 
successors,  105-6  ;  sham  portraits 
of  him,  108,  143,  305;  he  loves 
venison,  274;  doesn't  like  pork, 
272 ;  his  powder  for  the  Pestilence, 

Boorde,   Sir    Stephen,   39;    Ste- 
phen, 43. 

boots  rubd  with  grease,  99. 
borage,  253,  278,  280,  289. 

■'.  • 



Borde,  Andrew  (son  of  JohnBorde), 

Lord  Bergavenny's  villein,  41-3. 
Borde,  Dr  Richard,  43,  65. 
Border,  the  Scotch,  136. 
hornet,  276,  hurnt. 

Bostowe,  120,  ?  Bristol.  §  .154. 
In  eadem  valle  est  vicus  celeberri- 
mus,  Bristou  nomine,  in  quo  est 
portus  navium  ab  Hibernia  et  Nor- 
regia  et  ceteris  transmarinis  terris 
venientium  receptaculum.  a.  d. 
1125-40.  William  of  Malmeshury 
's  Gesta  Fontijicum  Anglorum,  bk  iv, 
p.  292,  ed.  Hamilton,  1870.  See 
also  "  The  Childe  of  Bristowe,"  a 
poem  by  Lydgate,  in  the  Camden 
Miscellany,  vol.  iv,  and  Hazlitt's 
Early  Pop.  Poetry,  i.  110. 

Boulogne,  Henry  VIII's  conquest 
of,  18,  209,  347. 

Boune,  219,  Bonn. 

hovy,  167,  a  heast  in  Bohemia. 

Bowker,  Agnes,  78. 

howling-alley  to  he  near  every 
mansion,  239. 

Bowyer,  Magdalen;  Dr  J.  Storie's 
wench,  69. 

hoys  marrying,  87. 

Brahant  and  the  Brahanders,  150, 

Bradshaw,  H.,  11,  note  2;  324. 
"brains  had  to  eat,  276. 
hran  of  hones,  94. 
hrande,  258,  bran, 
brawn,  274. 

hread,  a  pen'orth  of,  lasted  Boorde 

a  week,  51. 
hread  strengthens  the  heart,  89. 

hread,  the  kinds  and  properties 
of,  258-262. 

Breuyary  of  Health  by  Andrew 
Boorde,  20-22 ;  the  name  explain- 
ed, 21 ;  extracts  from,  74  —104  ; 
references  to,  291,  299,  &c.,  &c. 

Brewer,  Prof.  J.  J.  S.,  43. 

hrewhouse,  place  for  the,  239. 

hrewsters,  had ;  the  Scotch  pun- 
ishment for,  261, 
Bridlington,  120. 
Bright-Hemston,  120,  Brighton. 

Brindisi,  the  cathedral  of  ISTaples, 

Britany,  207;  its  products,  and 

its  hatred  of  England,  346. 
hronte,  296,  hurnt. 
broths,  264. 
hrount,  245,  long  spell. 

brown  paper ;  wipe  your  pimply 

face  with,  102. 
bruled,  277,  hroiled. 
Brune,  Nicholas,  74. 
Brussels,  151. 
bruttell,  266,  hrittle. 
bryched,  94,  last  line,  1  come  to 

bryched,  95,  breeched, 
buck  and  doe,  274,  fallow  deer, 
bugle,  167,  340,  a  kind  of  ox. 
bugloss,  278,  280,  253. 
building,  the  things  needed  for, 

bulwarks  put  up  hy  Henry  VIII, 

119,  329. 
Bune,  156,  219,  Bonn, 
hur  roots,  102. 

Burdiouse,  206,  207,  Bordeaux. 
Burdyose,  53,  Bordeaux. 
Burges,  147,  219,  Bruges. 
Burgos  in  Spain,  199. 
Burgundy,  191. 
burial-customs,    ahsurd,    in    Cas- 

tille,  &c.,  200,  and  in  Wales,  128. 
burnet,  289,  burnt. 
Burse,  or  Bourse,  of  Antwerp,  151. 

Butte,   Dr,   phisicion   to   Henry 
VIII,  49.  226. 



butter,  265. 

Butter,  eaten  in  Flaunders,  147/ 
4  ;  barrelled,  salt,  and  bad,  in  Hol- 
land, 149/5,  14 ;  salt,  in  the 
Netherlands,  156/11 ;  339. 

butterish,  or  unctuous,  265. 

*  Buttermouth  Fleming,'  147/3. 
buttery,  the  ghost  of  the,  75. 
buttery,   &c.,  to  be  kept  clean, 

237 ;  place  for  it,  238. 
butts,   a  pair   to   be  near  every 
mansion,  239. 

*  By  a  bancke  as  I  lay,*  a  ballad, 

71,  note. 

Byborge,  163,  Wiborg  in  Den- 

byles,  284,  boils. 

byokes,  179,  baiocchi;  It.  BaiScco, 
a  mite  or  such  like  coine.  Florio. 
Bajocco,  a  Roman  copper  coin 
worth  about  a  halfpenny.  Baretti. 

Byon,  53,  206,  207,  Bayonne. 

byttoure,  270,  bittern. 

cachexia,  79,  327. 
Caernarvon,  120,  330. 
Cagliari  in  Sardinia,  55. 

cakes,  9  for  a  penny  in  Aquitaine, 

Calabria,  175-6. 

Calais,  120 ;  described,  147  ;  209. 
calculus,  80,  the  stone. 
Caldy,  216,  Chaldee. 
Calvary,  Mount  of,  220. 
Calyco,  142/7,  Calicut?,  336. 
caliditie,  100,  102,  heat, 
calles,  91,  cauls. 

Cambridge,  120  ;  Boorde's  letter 
from,  to  Cromwell,  62 ;  Boorde's 
books  in  the  University  Library, 
11,  12,  16. 

Camden  Society's  Council  of 
1870,  admire  Mr  J.  P.  Collier's 
editing,  71,  note. 

camel,  Mahomet's,  215-16. 
camomyll,  99,  camomile, 
camphor,  oil  of,  100. 
Can,  208,  Caen. 
Candia,  172,  182,  219. 

candle-ends  eaten  in  Iceland,  141/ 

4;  142,336. 
candles,  264. 

canelles,  236,  295,  channels, 

cankers  in  the  face,  95. 

Canterbury,  147. 

Cantica  Canticorum,  quoted,  238. 

capers,  285. 

capon  the  best  fowl,  270. 

Caprycke,  255,  wine  from  Capri. 

carcinoma,  72,  prison-sickness. 

Cardinals,  Spanish,  204  ;  Italian 

ones'  pages,  17. 
cardyng,  293,  playing  cards. 
Care  we,  Sir  Wymonde,  64-5. 
Carlisle,  120. 
carrots,  279. 
carters,  bacon  good  for,  273. 

Carthusian  Order;  the  strictness 
of  it,  46  ;  A.  Boorde  couldn't  abide 
its  'rugorosite,'  47. 

caryn,  236,  carrion. 

Castel  Angelo  in  Rome,  77. 

Castile,  53,  195,  198;  described, 

castors,  141,  beavers,  in  Norway. 

castory,  298. 

castynge  of  a  pys-potte,  311,  look- 
ing at  the  urine  in  one. 

cat,  game  of,  mentioned,  332. 

catalencia,  244,  349,  catalepsy. 

Catalonia,  56  ;  described,  194-5. 

caudle  or  cullis  for  a  dying  man, 

caudles,  264. 



cauterise,  101. 

caves,  Icelanders  lie  in,  142. 

cawse     boby,     126,    330,    340, 

roasted  cheese, 
cedar-trees,  218. 
Celestynes  in  Rome,  77. 
cellar,  place  for  the,  238. 
centory,  288,  centaury. 

ceruyces,  283,  services,  a  big  kind 

of  pear, 
cbaifyng,  290,  warming, 
cham,  122/1,  am. 
chamber  of  estate,  238. 
chapels  at  Rome  defiled,  77. 
charcoal,  291. 
Charneco  wine,  255,  note. 
Charterhouse,  the  Head,  55,  the 

Grande  Chartreux. 
Charterhouse  in  London,  Boorde 

in  it,  42,  43,  45,  47,  49,  51,  52 ;  in 

Rome,  n. 
chartes  (cards),  the  Irish  play  at, 

Chaucer's  Reeves  Tale,  33 ;   his 

Somonour's  sawcefteem  face,  101-2. 
che,  122/1,  I. 
cheese-maggots  eaten  in  Germany, 

cheese,  the  five  kinds,  and   the 

quaUties  of,  266-7. 
cherries,  283. 
Chester,  my  Lord  of,    57,   1  the 

chesteynes,  285,  chestnuts. 
Chichester,  120. 
chicken,  270. 
chicory,  280. 

chierurgy,  20,  21,  surgery, 
chilblains,  86. 
chimneys,  don't  piss  in  them,  237. 

chip  the  top-crust  oif  your  bread, 

choleric  men,  245 ;   a  diet  for, 

Christ   and    his    Apostles   wore 

beards,  314/131. 
Christ  bids  men  watch,  245. 

Christ,  the   pillar   that   he   was 

bound  to,  76. 
Christie-Miller,  Mr  S.,  19,  106-7, 

churchmen's  courtesans  in  Italy, 

chybboUes,  294. 
chyl,  122/14,  will. 
Ciclades,  172,  the  Cyclades. 
cider  made  of  pears  or  apples,  256. 
cinnamon,  287,  292. 
cipres,  218,  cypress. 
Ciracus,  176,  Syracuse, 
claret  wine,  255. 
Clemers  gylders,  140,  153. 
Cleveland,  142-3. 
Clipron,  a  noble  city  in  Hungary, 

clock :  the  Italians  count  to  24 

o'clock,  178-9. 
clockyng  in  ones  bely,  86. 
cloves,  286. 

clowtyd  (clotted)  cream,  267. 
coactyd,  53,  compelled, 
cobblers,  &c.,  turn  doctors,  85. 
cochee,  pills  of,  99. 
Cocke    Lorelles   bote,  a  fool  of, 

306  ;  take  an  oar  in,  313/101. 
cockrellys,    270,    young    cocks 

stewed,  296. 
cockrel's  stones  good  to  eat,  277. 
cock's  flesh,  270. 
cognacion,  233,  kindred. 
Cokermouth,  120. 
Cokersend,  123. 
cokes  come,  185,  cock's  comb. 



colesses,  264,  cullisses,  broths. 

colic,  broths  bad  for,  264;  beer 
bad  for,  256 ;  mead  bad  for,  257. 

Collie  weston,  106 1 

Collier,  J.  P.,  quoted,  30 ;  his 
daring  invention,  71 ;  his  coolness, 
72,  note ;  his  inaccuracy,  326  ;  has 
mist  two  Boorde  entries  in  the 
Stationers'  Register  A,  14. 

colloppes  and  egges  bad  for  the 
stone,  273. 

Collyn  Clowte^s  treatyse  answer- 
ynge  the  boke  of  Berdes,  305 — 

colmouse  (the  bird),  270. 

Colyn,  (Cologne,  219),  the  noble 
city,  75,  156  ;  the  thread  of, 

comb  your  head  often,  300. 

comfettes,  284,  comfits. 

common,  301,  chatter. 

compacke,     91,     compact,     con- 
company,  honest,  89.    See  mirth. 

Coinplaynt  of  Scotland,  1548-9  ; 
its  opinion  of  Englishmen,  59, 
note  3. 

Compostella,  Boorde' s  pilgrimage 

to,  51,  199,  204,  346. 
conies,  275,  grown-up  rabbits. 

connexed,   102,   103,    bound  to- 
Constantinople  described,  172. 
constupat,  292,  constipated. 

consumption;  woman's  and  goat's 
milk  are  good  for,  267 ;  a  diet  for, 

Cony[ng]sby,Wm,  gives  A.  Boorde 
2  tenements  in  Lynn,  73. 

cook,  a  good  one  is  half  a  physi- 
cian, 277. 

Cooper,  W.  Durrant,  his  **  un- 
published correspondence "  of 
Boorde,  45. 

Copland,  old  Robert,  15,  16.  (See 
my  Forewords  to  GylofBreyntford^s 
Testament,  &c.,  1871.) 

Coplande,  Wm;  his  editions  of 
Boorde's  Introduction,  14 — 19  ;  he 
printed  first  at  the  Rose-Garland, 
second  at  the  Three  Cranes,  third 
at  Lothbury,  18. 

corans,     282,     dried     currants ; 

raisins  of  Corinth. 
Cordaline    Friars   at   Jerusalem, 

cordyallys,  296,  cordials. 
Corfu,  182. 

corn  shouldn't  be  exported  from 

England,  118. 
Cornelis   of    Chelmeresford,    17, 

Cornish   men  described,   122-4; 

language,  samples  of,  123-4. 
Cornwall,  120,  330. 
coroborate,  285,  strengthen. 
Corpus  Christi  day,  219. 
Corser,  Mr,  11,  27. 
costine,  oil  of,  95. 
cotydyal,  226,  col.  2;  241,  daily. 

Coualence,  219,  Coblentz  {Con- 

couetyse,  86,  covetousness. 

coun,  122/17,  grant. 

Course,  75,  255,  Corsican. 

courtesans  in  Venice,  183.  Cor- 
tegidna,  a  curtezane,  a  strumpet, 
quasi  Cortese  dno,  a  curteous  tale ! 

cow-flesh,  271. 

Cox,  Captain,  32. 

coyte,  258,  water  and  yeast. 

crab-lice,  87. 

crache,  97,  scratch. 

crackling  not  to  be  eaten,  274. 

cracknelles,  80,  261. 

crake,  137,  brag :  the  Scotch  do  it. 



cramp-rings,  the  hallowing  of,  92. 

crane,  270. 

cream,  267. 

croaking  in  one's  belly,  86. 

crocherds,  157,  Dutch  coins  worth 
about  ^</,  ?  kreutzers,  161. 

Cromwell,  Thomas,  loses  Boorde's 
Handbook  of  Europe,  24,  145 ; 
Boorde's  5  letters  to  him,  53,  55, 
58,  59,  62  ;  his  kindness  to  Boorde, 
52;  is  made  a  brother  of  the 
Charterhouse,  57. 

Cross,  Holy,  said  to  be  at  Con- 
stantinople, 173  ;  cross  to  be  held 
before  a  dying  man,  302. 

crowns  and  half-crowns,  121 ; 
Scotch  crown  of  4*.  8c?.  is  called  a 
Pound,  137  ;  Dutch  crown  4*.  Sd., 
157 ;  French,  191. 

crusts  are  unwholesome,  261. 

Cuckfield  (Cookfield),  Sussex,  39. 

Cuckold,  a  town  in  Yorkshire,  61. 

cucurbiti,  81,  worms. 

cucurbitini,  279,  square  worms. 

cunables,  208,  cradle. 

cupboard,  lean  against  it  when 
you  sleep  in  the  day,  246. 

cupshote,  309  ;  cupshoten,  156/2, 

curding  of  milk  in  women's 
breasts,  97. 

cur-dogs  in  Lombard y,  187. 

cursados,  197,  crusados,  PortU' 
guese  gold  coins  worth  5,y.  a  piece. 
Sp.  Cruzddo,  m.  a  peece  of  money 
so  called,  in  Portingall,  of  the 
value  of  a  French  crowne.  Minsheu, 

cycory,  253,  chicory. 


196,  Seville. 

dagswaynes,  139,  rough  coverlets 
(see  Harrison's  Bescr.  of  England^. 
dairy,  239. 
Dalmacye,  172,  Dalmatia. 

damsons,  eat  6  or  7  before  dinner, 

dandruffe,  95,  dandriff. 

Dansk  why  ten,  163,  Danish  tin 

and  brass  coins. 
Dartmouth,  120. 
dates,  285. 

daundelyon,  253,  dandelion, 
deathbed  service,  302. 
debt,  the  evils  of,  242. 

decepered,  103,  deciphered?,  se- 
degges,  81,  worms  in  a  man's  feet, 
demoniack,  298. 

denares,  179,  Italian  pence: 
Bendfi,  pence,  money,  coine. 

Denmark  and  the  Danes,  162-3, 

Devil,    swearers   are    possest    of 

him,  83. 
devilish  disposition  of  Scotchmen, 


devils  in  a  German  lady,  76. 

Devil's  nails  unpared,  117/30  (a 

Deynshire,  129,  Devonshire. 

Diascorides,  283. 

diaserys,  100. 

Dibdin  oxi  Boorde's  Introduction^ 

dice,    Irish,    131/8;    the    strong 

and  weak  man  at,  245. 
diet,  a  general  one,  for  all  people, 

dinner,  sit  only  an  hour  at,  252 ; 

bad  English  customs  at,  252. 
dishes,  eat  only  of  two  or  three, 

248,  252. 
'dispensyd   with   the   relygyon,' 

44-5,  57,  58. 
disquietness,  89. 
Ditchling  in  Sussex,  41-2. 



Dobie's  Hist,  of  St  Giles'  and  St 
George's,  Bloomsbury,  quoted,  65, 

doble,  double,  191,  a  French  coin 
worth  2  brass  pence. 

doctor  and  cook  must  work  to- 
gether. 277-8. 

Doge  or  Duke  of  Venice,  183-5. 

dogs,  wounds  from,  94. 

Dolphemy,  191,  Dauphiny. 

done  theyr  kynde,  277,  copulated. 

dormitary,  95  ? 

dorow,  122/19,  through. 

dove's-dung  in  a  plaister,  97. 

dovehouse,  239,  349. 

Dover,  120,  147,  219. 

dragagant,  97,  gum  Tragacanth. 

dragges,  87/8,  drugs. 

drawghtes,  236,  drains] 

dreams,  Eoorde  on,  95. 

Drewiy,  Sir  Eobert,  225,  348. 

drink :  when  the  drink  is  in,  the 
wit  is  out,  94. 

drinks,  don't  mix  your,  248. 

dronkenshyppe,  284,  drunkenness, 

dropsy,  a  diet  for  the,  299. 

drunkards,  great,  are  Flemings, 
147,  337  ;  Hollanders,  149  ;  Low- 
Germans,  156. 

drunkards  quarrel,  94. 

drunkenness,  90. 

dry  your  house  before  you  live  in 

it,  239. 
dryn,  122/4,  therein. 
Dublin,  132. 

ducat,  171,  199,  a  coin  coined  by 
any  Duke  :  'Ducati,  duckets, 
crownes.'     Florio. 

duckemet,  253,  duckmeat,  small 

green  water- weed, 
duck-flesh,  270. 

ducks  and  mallards  not  liked  in 

Bohemia,  167. 
ducks'  eggs,  265. 

Duke  of  Venice,  183-5  :  'Doge 
a  Duke  of  Venice  or  Genoua.' 

dulcet  pears,  256,  sweet  pears. 

dunghills  not  to  be  near  a  house, 

236,  239. 
dup,  122/7,  do  up,  fasten  up. 
During,  155,  219,  Duren. 

Durrant  Coop6r,  W.,  quoted,  47, 

54,  59,  73. 
dust  bad  for  asthma,  297. 
Dutchman :  beer 's  a  natural  drink 

for  one,  256. 
Dutchmen  eat  butter  all  day,  265 ; 

how  they  drink,  149,  338. 
dyasulfur,  99. 
dycke,  122/3,  thick. 

D[yer],  E.,  his  list  of  story-books, 

&c.,  30. 
dyery,  239,  dairy. 

Dyeiary  of  Health,  editions  of, 
11—14;  print  of,  223—304;  de- 
scribed by  Boorde,  227,  col.  2, 299: 
sketch  of  it,  319—323,  with  Mr 
Ju.  Leigh's  opinion  on  it,  p.  320. 

dylygentler,  243^  diligentlier. 

dym  myls  dale,  260  ? 

dyn,  122/3,  thin. 

dyng,  122/7,  thing. 

dyscommodyous,  234,  inconveni- 
ent, evil, 
dystayned,  312,  stained, 
dysturbacyon,  310,  disturbance, 
dysyng,  293,  playing  with  dice. 

earthen  floors,  349. 
east  wind  is  good,  238. 
easy  boots  for  gowt,  293. 
edge-tools,  lunatics  not  to  have, 



Edinburgh,  136. 

educacion,  271,  bringing-up,  feed- 
ing from  one's  youth,  259 ;  what 
you've  been  brought  up  to. 

Edynborow,  61,  Edinburgh. 

egestion,  248,  out-puttings,  ex- 

eggs,  the  kinds  and  qualities  of, 

Egypt  and  the  Egyptians,  217. 

Eladas,  172,  part  of  Greece,  or 
Turkey  in  Europe. 

elbow-room  wanted  for  a  man  in 
the  country,  233. 

elder,  288. 

Ellis,  F.  S.,  12. 

Ellis,  Sir  Hy. ,  first  printed  Boorde's 
letters,  45 ;  quoted,  56. 

Emperor  Charles  Y,  of  Austria, 
53,  55,  56,  130/4,  151/6,  154/13, 

endewtkynge,  153,  a  brass  coin 
in  Brabant.  A  deut  {Hard,  farthing) 
is  a  small  Dutch  copper  coin ; 
8  of  them  to  a  stiver,  and  400  to  a 
Dollar  banco  (4^.  ^d.).  Weilmeyr'st 
AUgemeines  Numismatisches  Lexicon. 
Salzburg,  1817,  i.  113. 

endive,  280. 

England,  no  region  like  it,  118, 
144 ;  languages  in,  120 ;  wonders 
in,  120;  money  of,  121;  oueht 
never  to  be  conquered,  164 ;  odible 
swearing  in,  243,  324 ;  Seven  Evils 
in,  of  which  Boorde  complains, 
82-6 ;  keeps  her  swine  filthy,  273. 

England,  beer  becoming  much 
used  in,  256. 

England,  pestilence  in,  262  ; 
potage  much  used  in,  262 ;  more 
sorts  of  wine  in,  tlian  anywhere 
else,  75 ;  better  supplied  with  fish 
than  any  other  country,  268  ;  deer 
loved  more  in,  than  anywhere  else, 

English  beer  liked  by  Dutchmen, 
148/4 ;  by  Brabunders,  150/4,  10. 

English  language,Boorde's  opinion 
of,  122. 

Englishman's  talk  with  the  Latin 
man,  210. 

Englishmen,  Boorde's  character  of 
them,  116-8 ;  few  of  them  live 
abroad,  60,  144 ;  water  is  bad  for 
them,  252 ;  ale  natural  to  them, 
256;  beef  good  for  them,  271; 
they  keep  their  beards  clean,  309  ; 
few  dwell  abroad,  60;  venison  is 
good  for,  274. 

Englishwomen,  119. 

enulacampana,  99,  278,  elecam- 
pane, scabwort,  or  horseheal. 

ephialtes,  the  nightmare,  78. 

epilencia,  244,  349,  epilepsy. 

epilentycke,  294,  epileptic. 

Epirs,  172,  Epirus. 

epulacyon,  250,  feasting,  stuffing. 

eructuacyons,  247,  265,  belching. 

Esdras,  78. 

eupatory,  289. 

Evil  Mayday,  60,  note  1. 

evil  spirits,  Boorde  on,  75-6. 

Evyndale,  Lord,  namyd  Stuerd, 

euyt,  133,  eft,  none  in  Ireland. 

ewes'  milk,  267. 

eximyous,  21,  excellent. 

Exmouth,  120. 

exonerate,  248,  293,  unload,  ease 
of  excrements. 

Extravagantes,  The,  by  Boorde, 

extynct,  280,  extinguish. 

eye,  the :  ills  that  follow  if  it  is 
not  satisfied,  235. 

eyes,  plunge  'em  in  cold  water 
every  morning,  300. 

face  of  man,  Boorde  on  it,  95. 
faldyng,  333,  coarse  stuif. 



falling   sickness,    88,    127,    244, 

epilepsy,  &c. ;  a  diet  for  it,  294-5. 
fardynges,  121,  farthings, 
fasting,  neglect  of,  in  England, 

fat  not  so  good  as  lean,  276. 
fatness  or  fogeyness,  Boorde's  cure 

for,  100. 
feather-beds  in  Julich,  155/2 ;  lie 

on  one,  247. 
fear  breeds  the  palsy,  297. 
feet,  keep  'em  dry,  and  wash  'em 

sometimes,  300. 
fennel,  99,  278. 
fennel-seed,  278,  281,  284. 

feryall  dayes,  243,  festivals,  holi- 
fever,  butter  bad  for,  266. 
fever,  how  to  treat,  291. 
fever,  causon  and  tertian,  97. 
fever  lurden,  83,  laziness. 

fifteen   substances   that   Man   is 

made  of,  91, 
figs,  282,  212. 
filberts,  283. 

fire,  have  one  in  your  bedroom, 

fish,  268-9 ;  the  Scotch  boil  it 
best,  136. 

fish  in  Cornwall,  122/13,  123; 
in  Friesland,  139  ;  in  Norway,  141 ; 
in  Iceland,  142;  the  cooking  of, 
277 ;  heads  and  fatness  of,  bad, 
276 ;  bad  for  epilepsy,  294. 

fish  and  flesh  not  to  be  eaten  to- 
gether, 269. 
fish  of  the  mountain,  273,  adders, 
fishpool  in  a  garden,  239. 
five  wits,  93. 

Flanders  and  the  Flemings,  147-8. 
flauour,  248,  air. 
flax,  the  steeping  of,  236,  348. 

fleed,  274,  flayed,  skinned. 

Fleet  prison,  Boorde  in,  70,  73. 

Fleet  prisoners,  Boorde's  bequest 
to,  73. 

fleg,  122/8,  jolly? 

Fleming,  Abraham,  308,  note. 

Flemings,  the,  148. 

Flemish  broodmares  sold  to  Eng- 
land, 147/7 ;  Flemish  fish  and  beer, 

flemytycke,  245,  phlegmatic. 

flesh-shambles  of  Antwerp,  151. 

fleubothomye,  287,  blood-letting. 

fleumaticke  men,  a  diet  for,  288. 

flies,  stinging,  in  Sicily,  176. 

flockes,  247,  bits  of  coarse  wool. 

Florence,  187 

Floshing,  Flushing,  149. 

fools  part  drunkards,  94. 

for,  290/7,  for  fear  of,  to  prevent. 

forepart   better  to   eat  than  the 

hindpart  of  animals,  276. 
foul-evil,  the,  136/14. 

fountain  in  every  town  abroad, 

fox,  the  more  he's  curst  the  better 

he  fares,  166/4. 
fox,  boil   one,  for  a  bath  for  a 

palsied  man,  99. 
fox,  the  stink  of  one  is  good  for 

the  palsy,  99,  298. 
fracted,  93,  94  at  foot,  broken. 
France,  53. 

France  and  the  French,  190. 
frankincense,  290. 
frantic,  298. 
frayle,  212,  basket, 
free-will,  Boorde  on,  103. 

Frenchmen  have  no  fancy  for 
Englishmen,  191 ;  eat  butter  after 
meat,  265 ;  their  fashions,  345  ; 
last  of  their  soldiers,  345. 



freshwater  fish,  268-9. 
fried  meat,  277. 
Friesland,  139. 

frogs,  guts  and  all,  eaten  in  Lom- 

bardy,  187. 
fruits,  ch.  xxi.,  p.  282-6. 
fumitory,  288 ;  syrup  of,  95. 

fustian,  Genoese,  189  ;  Ulm,  161 ; 
white,  used  for  covering  quilts, 

fynger,  122/15,  hunger. 

fyrmente  made  of  wheat  and 
milk,  263. 

fysnomy,  76,  physiognomy,  like- 
ness, picture  of  a  face. 

fystle,  92,  93,  95,  boiU 

fystuled,  94 1  festered. 

Galateo,  Delia  Casa's,  done  into 
Englisli  in  1576  a.d.  ;  quoted,  324. 

Galen,  quoted,  235,  251,  272; 
cut  of,  232. 

Galen's  Terapentike,  85. 

gales,  185,  galleys. 

galles,  94,  galls. 

gallows,  corpses  hanging  long  on 
the,  203,  346. 

galy,  halfpenny,  187.  *  Galley- 
Men,  certain  Genoese  Merchants, 
formerly  so  call'd,  because  they 
usually  arriv'd  in  Galleys,  landed 
tlieir  Goods  at  a  Place  in  Thames- 
street,  nam'd  Galley -key,  and  traded 
with  their  own  small  Silver  Coin 
call'd  Galley-haJf-pence.*  Kersey's 
Phillips  :  p.  105  of  my  Ballads 
from  MSS,  vol.  i. 

galyngale,  89,  a  spice. 

games  of  trap,  cat,  &c.,  332. 

garden  of  sweet  herbs,  239. 

gargarices,  79,  98. 

garlic,  279,  351. 

Garnynham,  225,  Sir  John  Jerne- 
gau  or  Jerningham. 

Gascony,    53  ;    described,    207  ; 

wine,  255. 
Gawnt,  147,  Ghent, 
geese-eggs,  265. 
geese   pluckt   yearly   in    Julich, 

Gelder,  153/2,  the  chief  town  of 

Guelder]  and. 
Gelderlond     and     the    Gelders, 

gelders  arerys,  153/7,  gilders  worth 

23  stivers,  or  3*.  each, 
gemmis,  electuary  of,  103. 

Genoa  and  the  Genoese,  188-9  ; 
their  beautiful  women,  and  what 
freedom  they  have,  344  ;  their 
trade  and  products,  344-5. 

George,  Dane  (or  Dominus),  48. 

German  lady  possest  with  devils, 

Germany,  the  splendid  uprising  of, 

against  Louis  Napoleon,  110,  328. 
Gersey,  120,  Guernsey. 

Geslyng,    219,     Geisslingen     in 

Gestynge  in  Germany,  161. 
gete,  80,  jet. 
giants'  heads  that  wag  their  jaws, 

on  organs,  207. 
Gibbs,  H.  Hucks,  12,  109. 

gilders,  153,  &c.,  gold  coins  first 
made  in  Gelder,  of  various  names 
and  values. 

ginger,  286. 

Glasco,  59,  Glasgow. 

Glasgow,  136. 

goatskin   gloves   to  be  worn   in 

summer,  249. 
goatskins   used  for   wine-bottles, 

goats'  milk,  296. 
gold  found  in  Hungary,  171. 
gomble,  266,  jumble. 



goose-flesh,  270. 

goose-pudding,  199. 

gos,  gosse,  122/7,  14,  &c.,  gossip, 

goshawks,  149. 

Gotam,  Merrie  Tales  of  tJie  Mad- 
men of,  27 — 30. 

Gotham,  or  Nottingham,  325. 

Gowghe,  John,  his  date,  12. 

gowt,  how  to  treat,  293. 

grains,    hrewers',    after  brewing, 

Grandpoole,  in    the   suburbs   of 

Oxford,  69. 
Granople,  191,  Grenoble, 
grapes,  283,  212. 

Grauelyng  in  Flanders,  147,  219, 

graynes,  286,  cardamons. 

Great  Fosters,  a  Tudor  mansion 

near  Egham,  7. 
great  men  like  killing  deer,  275, 

Greece,  172-3,  Turkey  in  Europe. 

Greek,   modern,  a   specimen   of, 

173-4;  wine,  255. 
groats  and  half-groats,  121. 
gromel  seeds,  80,  327. 
grouelynge,  247,  face  downwards, 
ground,  don't  lie  on  the,  298. 
gruel  made  with  oatmeal,  263. 
Grunnyghen,  140,  Groningen. 
giyfe,  247, 1  misprint  for  'oryfice.' 
Gulyk,  154/1,  9,  Julich, or  Juliers. 
gum  Arabic,  97. 
gurgulacyons,  267,  grumblings  (in 

the  belly), 
gurgytacyon,  250,  251,  swilling, 
gut-caul  broken,  101. 

gylders,  140,  153,  gilders,  gold 

Gynes  in  Flanders,  147,  Guisnes. 

Gyppyng  in  Germany,  161,  219, 
?  Eppingen  in  Baden. 

halarde,  161,  a  German  coin,  ?  ^d. 

or  56?. 
Halkett,    James,     Colonel     and 

Baron,  5. 
hall  of  a  house,  place  for  the,  238. 
halowynge,  295,  halooing. 
Hammes  in  Flanders,  147. 

Hanago,  or  Hanawar,  151,  Hain- 

ault,  339. 
Handbook  J  or  Itinerary  of  Europe, 

Boorde's,  24. 
handling  or  touching  women,  or 

others'  goods,  85-6. 
Handwarp,  151,  Antwerp, 
hanged  beef,  271. 
Hardy,  Sir  T.  Duffus,  43. 
hare :  dogs,  not  men,  should  eat 

it,  275. 
harlot,  wounds  come  through  one, 

harped  groats  in  Ireland,  133. 

Harrison  on  A.  Boorde,  106  ;  on 
Englishman's  fantastic  dress,  105-6. 
Harrow  on  the  Hill,  325. 
hart  and  hind,  274. 

harts   eat   adders   to   get   young 

again,  273. 
harts-tongue  fern,  289. 
harvest,  cider  drunk  at,  257. 
Harwich,  120. 
Hastings,  120. 
hastynes,  297,  hastiness, 
hauer  cakes,  136,  259,  oat  cakes. 

hawks  ill  Norway,  141 ;  in  Hol- 
land, 149. 
haws,  the  water  of,  80,  253. 

Hay  {History  of   Chichester)  on 
Boorde,  40-1,  note. 



Hayden,    a    town    in    Scotland, 

Hayward's  Heath  Station,  38. 
hazle-nuts,  283. 

Hazlitt,  W.  C,  11,12,117,307; 

on  A.  Boorde,  31. 
headache,  a  diet  for  it,  295. 
lieart,  Boorde  on  the,  89. 
Hebrecyon,  287,  Hebrew  writer. 

Hebrew,    modern    and    ancient, 

talks  in,  221. 
Hellespont,  names  of  the,  172. 
Hellogabalus,  308,  Heliogabalus. 
liemp,  the  steeping  of,  236,  348. 
hempseed  caudles,  264. 
hen,  270. 
Henry    VI    crowned    in    Paris, 

Henry   YIII    fortifies    England, 

119  ;  won  Boulogne,  209. 
Henry  VIII,  the  universities  for 

him,  55. 
herbs,  ch.  xx,  280-2. 
herensew,  270,  heronshaw,  heron, 
heresies  in  England,  83. 
High    and    Low    Germans,    the 

difference  between,  100. 
HindiuordSj  3 17. 
Hippocrates,  250. 
hobby,  131/6,  Irish  pony. 
Holland,  148-9. 
holmes,  161,    340,  fustian  made 

at  Ulm. 
Holmsdale,  Sussex,  38,  39. 
holy  days  to  be  kept,  243. 
Holy-Well,  near  Flint,  331. 
honey  eaten  in  Poland,  168-9. 
honey -sops,  264. 
Hooper,  W.  H.,  19,  107,  109. 
hops,  256,  wild,  288. 
Horde,  Dr,  53,  54. 

horehound,  100. 

home  squlyone,  153  ;  a  gold  coin 
worth  12  stivers,  or  19  ^d. 

horripilacio,  75. 

horse-bread,  259. 

Horsfield's  Hist,  of  Lewes  quoted, 

house  of  easement,  236,  privy  (to 
be  far  from  the  house). 

house  or  mansion  :  how  to  choose 
its  site,  233-7  ;  how  to  build  and 
arrange  it,  237-9  ;  how  to  provision 
and  manage  it,  240-4. 

houses,  miserable,  in  the  Scotch 
borders,  136. 

Howghton,  Prior,  47,  52,  54,  58, 

Hudson,  Edward,  Boorde's  be- 
quest to,  73,  74. 

Hull,  120. 

humecte,  244,  moisten. 

Hungary,  170-1. 

hurtes,  267,  283  ;  whortleberries. 

Huth,  Mr  Henry,  342. 

hydrophobia,  Boorde  on,  74. 

Hygh  Almen,  swine  kept  clean  in, 

Hynton,  Prior,  47,  53. 
Hyue,  207,  a  large  heath  in  Bay- 

laffe,  219,  348,  Joppa. 
lanuayes,   188,  lanues,  213,  Ge- 
Iber,  195,  the  river  Ebro. 

Iceland  and  the  Icelanders  as 
brute  as  a  beast,  141 ;  stockfish  of, 
336;  candle-eating  in,  336;  curs 
of,  336. 

idleness,  the  deadly  dormouse, 
83,  note  ;  Henry  VIII  on,  234 ; 
Boorde  on,  83-4. 

idropise,  299,  idropyses,  251, 



iebet,  203,  gibbet, 
lene,  188,  Genoa. 

ignorant,  the  j  instruct  them,  243, 

ilia,  the  gut ;  iliaCf  the  disease  of 

it,  292. 
iliac,  mead  bad  for  the,  257. 
imbecyllyte,  245,  want  of  strength. 
impetigo,  82,  327. 
implementes,  240,  furniture  and 

incipient,  205,  unwise. 
Incubus,  78. 

incypyently,  60,  unwisely, 
incypyentt,  56. 

indyfiferently,     300,    moderately 

infection,  290. 

inferced,  251,  '?stuft, — hom farce, 
and  not  *  enforce.' 

inflatyue,  293,  puffing,  blowing- 

inscipient,  25,  unwise,  foolish. 

intemperance,  90. 

interludes,  players  in,  wear  long 
garbs,  207. 

Jntrodudion  of  Knowledge,  111, 
112.  Wm  Copland's  first  or  Rose- 
Garland  edition,  14-18;  his  second 
or  Lothbury  edition,  in  1562  or  -3, 
and  its  changes  from  the  first,  18- 
19  ;  its  pictures  or  woodcuts,  15, 
107-8 ;  print  of  it,  111—222 ;  ac- 
count of  it,  317-19. 

iochymdalders,  1 40,  Frisian  silver 
coins.  '  Iochymdalders  are  also  Bo- 
hemian coins  of  about  the  value  of 
4*.  4a?.,  the  earliest  dollars  coined, 
struck  bv  the  Counts  of  Schlick 
in  the  beginning  of  the  16th 
century.  loachim  Thai  is  the  name 
of  the  valley  where  the  silver  was 

ipocras,  258. 
iposarca,  299. 

Ireland  and  the  Irish,  131-6,  335; 

products  of  Ireland,  333. 
Irish,  the  wild,  334-5. 
isope,  99,  hyssop. 

Italian  servants,  their  food  and 

ways  ab.  1440  A-D.,  343. 
Italian  wives,  and  their  husbands' 

jealousy,  342. 
Italians'  opinion  of  England,  119. 
Italy,  53. 

Italy  and  the  Italians,  178-9, 340, 

itch,  Boorde's  treatment  of,  96. 
lues,  218,  Jews, 
lury,  218,  Jewry,  Judaea. 

jack,  160/8,  loose  slopi 

jacket,  how  to  line  one  in  winter, 

Jeremiah  on  the  North,  238. 
Jerningham,  Sir  John,  225. 
Jersey,  120.